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This Book "Priestley's Navigable Rivers and Canals" by Joseph Priestley was previously published in April 1831. NOTE: Oringinally called "Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways, of Great Britain".
For more information see About this Book

Index Page Link to Previous Page 621

page 622

the river and using the towing-path, which was formerly free to them; and that such large sums are demanded by the owners and occupiers of land through which the towing-path passes, for horses that are used for haling vessels, as greatly to injure the trade on the river; for remedy of which, the act appoints commissioners for the counties of Middlesex, Surrey, Berks, Bucks, Oxon, Gloucester and Wilts, with powers to ascertain and settle such rates and tolls to be paid by the owners of barges and other vessels for the use of the towing-path, either by men or horses, and to the occupiers of all locks, weirs, &c. as they shall consider fair and reasonable, regard being had to the tonnage of the vessels; to the rates settled by the act of the 7th of King William III. and to the expense incurred in the erection of such locks, weirs, &c. provided, however, that they shall not alter the amount of any tolls or rates which shall be proved to have been taken for the preceding thirty-five years or more.

The commissioners are also empowered to fix the rate of carriage to be taken by the owners of barges, &c. and to cleanse and scour any part of the rver they may think necessary; to defray the expense of which they may impose a rate to be paid by all barges, &c. passing any place so cleansed and scoured.

The act passed in 1751, entitled, 'An Act for the better carrying on and regulating the Navigation of the Rivers Thames and Isis, from the city of London, westward, to the town of Cricklade, in the county of Wilts,' appoints as commissioners for the counties of Middlesex, Surrey, Berks, Bucks, Oxon, Gloucester and Wilts, all persons living in such counties who shall be rated to the land-tax for an estate of £100 a year in value, giving them the same powers and authority which were given to the commissioners by the act of 1730, from which we have extracted; which act, as well as the 7th of King William the Third, is hereby repealed.

The next act of parliament respecting this navigation which we consider it necessary to refer to, is that passed in 1771, entitled, 'An Act for improving and completing the Navigation of the Rivers Thames and Isis, from the city of London, to the town of Cricklade, in the county of Wilts;' which states that the act of 1751 (named above) not having vested sufficient powers in the commissioners therein appointed, for preventing abuses and exac-

page 623

tions by the owners of the towing-paths, and of the locks, weirs, &c. and for raising the necessary sums for cleansing and scouring such parts of the river as may require it; and in order to remedy which, the act appoints as commissioners all persons having landed property of the value of £100 per annum, in any of the counties through which the river passes, with the addition of many public functionaries, including the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of London, the Heads of Colleges at Oxford, &c. with powers to fix the rates to be paid by barges or other vessels passing through any lock, provided that such rate be not less than any now taken under authority of any preceding act of parliament, or more than four-pence per ton at any one lock; and also the rate of carriage of all sorts of goods to be taken by the owners of such barges or other vessels.

The act divides the navigation into six districts; the first district from the city of London to Staines Bridge; the second from Staines Bridge to Boulter's Lock; the third from Boulter's Lock to Maple Durham; the fourth from Maple Durham to Shillingford; the fifth from Shillingford to Oxford; and the sixth from Oxford to Cricklade.

The commissioners are authorized to borrow the sum of £50,000 by mortgage of the tolls and rates which they may collect, or by granting annuities; in the latter case the annuity not to exceed £10 per cent, per annum.

The act of 1774, entitled, 'An Act more effectually to improve and complete the Navigation qf the River Thames, westward of London Bridge, within the liberties of the city of London, and to prevent any Vessel or Barge from being moored in Taplow Mill Stream, in the county of Bucks,' repeals that portion of the last act which gives the commissioners therein appointed control over the first district of the river, between the city of London and Staines Bridge, and vests in the corporation of London, as conservators of the Thames, the same powers which had been previously given to such commissioners, and empowers the corporation to expend the sum of £10,000 in improving the navigation of that part of the river westward of London Bridge, within the jurisdiction of the city of London, for which they are not to receive any tolls from persons navigating the river.

page 624

In 1777 another act was passed, entitled, 'An Act for enabling the Mayor, Aldermen, and Commons of the city of London, to purchase the present Tolls and Duties payable for navigating upon the River Thames, westward of London Bridge, within the liberties of the city of London, and for laying a small Toll in lieu thereof, for the Purpose of more effectually completing the said Navigation; and for other Purposes;' which states that the Mayor, &c. of London, in pursuance of the powers granted to them by the last recited act, had expended the sum of £10,000 in improving the navigation of the river between London and Staines Bridge; that they find, to complete such improvements, an additional sum of nearly £8,000 will be required, which they are willing to expend thereon, provided they are authorized to purchase the old tolls and duties now collected on that part of the river in their jurisdiction, and to collect in lieu thereof a small tonnage rate. The act then empowers the Lord Mayor, &c. to purchase such old tolls and rates, which are then to cease, and in lieu thereof they may take the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Barges and Vessels navigated on the said River, westward of London Bridge, to Strand on the Green, or Brentford ½d per Ton.
To Isleworth or Richmond 1d ditto.
To Twickenham or Teddington 1½d ditto.
To Kingston or Hampton Wick 2d ditto.
To Ditton, Hampton Court, Moulsey or Hampton 2½d ditto.
To Sunbury, Walton, Hawford, Shepperton or Weybridge 3d ditto.
To Chertsey or Laleham 3½d ditto.
To Staines and Upwards 4d ditto.

Vessels under Three Tons and all Pleasure Boats are exempted from these Rates.

The corporation are authorized to borrow £15,000 on mortgage, and assign the tolls as security; or by annuity at the following rate. On the lives of persons from the age of forty-five to sixty years, eight per cent. per annum; and on sixty years and upwards, ten per cent, per annum. All writings authorized by this act to be exempted from stamp duty.

The act of 1788, entitled, 'An Act to explain, amend and enlarge the Powers of so much of Two Acts, passed in the Eleventh and Fifteenth Years of the Reign of his present Majesty, for improving and completing the Navigation of the Rivers Thames and Isis, from the city of London, to the town

page 625

of Cricklade, in the county of Wilts, as relates to the Navigation of the said Rivers from the Boundary of the Jurisdiction of the city of London, near Staines, in the county of Middlesex, to the said town of Cricklade,' states that the commissioners had raised the sum of £38,900, part of £50,000 authorized by former acts to be raised, which they had expended in improving the navigation of the river, and empowers them to borrow an additional sum of £25,000 for the same purposes.

The tolls and rates collected by them to be exempted from all taxes; and all manure, dung, compost and tillage for land on the line to be free from all rates or dues.

The act of 1794, entitled, 'An Act for better regulating and governing the Watermen, Wherrymen, and Lightermen, upon the River of Thames, between Gravesend and Windsor,' authorizes the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of the city of London to regulate the fares to be taken by watermen, &c. on the river between Gravesend and Windsor; and to make rules and regulations for their guidance, which are to be approved by one or more of the judges.

By the act of 1810, entitled, 'An Act for amending, altering and enlarging the Powers of Two Acts, passed in the Fourteenth and Seventeenth Years of his present Majesty, in relation to the Navigation of the River Thames, westward of London Bridge, within the liberties of the city of London; and for the further Improvement of the said Navigation,' the Corporation of London are empowered to erect four pound locks, each of which to be 150 feet in length and 20 feet in width in the chamber thereof, with three pair of gates in each lock, and to be at the following places; one near Chertsey Bridge; another near Shepperton; another near Sunbury; and the other near Teddington. The act also authorizes the corporation to borrow a further sum of £40,000 to carry on the work, by mortgage of the tolls, or by annuities; in the last case, the rate to be paid on lives from forty-five to sixty, is ten per cent, per annum; and on those above sixty, twelve per cent, per annum.

It also repeals the tolls formerly granted, and in lieu thereof empowers the collection of the following tonnage rates.

page 626

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Barges and other Vessels navigated on the River, Westward of London Bridge, to Strand on the Green, Kew or Brentford 1d per Ton.
To Isleworth or Richmond 1½d ditto.
To Twickenham, Ham or Teddington 2½d ditto.
To Kingston or Hampton Wick 3d ditto.
To Seething Wells, Ditton, Hampton Court, Moulsey or Hampton 4d ditto.
To Sunbury, Walton, Hawford, Shepperton or Weybridge 4½d ditto.
To Chertsey or Laleham 5½d ditto.
To Staines and Upwards 6d ditto.

And for passing any of the Locks directed by this Act to be made, an additional Rate of Two-pence per Ton.

Floats or Rafts of Timber to pay the same Rate per Ton as Vessels.

The act passed in 1812, entitled, 'An Act for altering, amending and enlarging the Powers of Three Acts of his present Majesty, for improving the Navigation of the River Thames, westward of London Bridge, within the liberties of the city of London; and for further improving the said Navigation,' authorizes the company to erect another pound lock at East Moulsey; and also to borrow a further sum of £75,000 on such security and in such manner as is directed by the last act of parliament for raising £40,000. The act repeals the tolls granted by the preceding one, and in lieu thereof empowers them to collect the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Barges and other Vessels navigated on the River, Westward of London Bridge, to Strand on the Green, Kew or Brentford 1½d per Ton.
To Isleworth or Richmond 2½d ditto.
To Twickenham, Ham or Teddington 3½d ditto.
To Kingston or Hampton Wick 3d ditto.
To Seething Wells, Ditton, Hampton Court, Moulsey or Hampton 4d ditto.
To Sunbury, Walton, Shepperton or Weybridge 4½d ditto.
To Chertsey or Laleham 5½d ditto.
To Staines and Upwards 6d ditto.

Another act passed in 1812, entitled, 'An Act to authorize the Commissioners for improving and completing the Navigation of the Rivers Thames and Isis, from the Jurisdiction of the city of London, near Staines, in the county of Middtesex, to the town of Cricklade, in the county of Wilts, to make a navigable Canal out of the River Thames, near Milson's Point, in the parish of Egham, in the county of Surrey, to communicate with the said River, at or near Bell Weir, in the said parish of Egham; and to erect Pound Locks in such Cut, with necessary Weirs and other Works on the said Navigation,' empowers the commissioners to raise the additional sum of £25,000 by mortgage of the tolls, and to make the cut described in the title of the act.

page 627

The act of 1814, entitled, 'An Act for altering, amending and enlarging the Powers of Four Acts of his present Majesty, for improving the Navigation of the River Thames, westward of London Bridge, within the liberties of the city of London; and for further improving the said Navigation,' authorizes the Corporation of London to make a new pound lock at Penton Hook, in the parish of Staines, and to take on every barge or vessel or raft or float of timber passing such new lock, an additional rate of 4d. per ton. The act also empowers them to raise a further and additional sum of £70,000 in the same manner as prescribed by former acts for raising other sums; and to establish a sinking fund for paying off their debt, for which purpose they are to appropriate £1,000 from the tolls within three months fromn the passing of this act, and every subsequent year a sum of £500; which sums are to be employed, from time to time, as they are received, in paying off portions of the debt, or to be invested in government securities until they shall be sufficient in amount to pay off the whole of the debt. The tolls to be exempt from all rates and taxes.

The act of 1824, entitled, 'An Act to enable the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the city of London to raise a Sum of Money, at a reduced Rate of Interest, to pay off the Monies now charged on the Tolls and Duties payable by virtue of Four Acts of the Reign of his late Majesty King George the Third,for improving the Navigation of the River Thames, westward of London Bridge, within the liberties of the city of London,' states that an offer had been made to the Corporation of the city of London of an advance of a sum of money, on the credit of the tolls and rates of the river, at an interest of four per cent, per annum; and as they are now paying five per cent, the act empowers them to raise the sum of £170,000 at four per cent. by mortgage of the tolls, which sum is to be appropriated to the payment of the existing debt; the present creditors who may be willing to reduce their rate of interest to four per cent, to remain creditors at such reduced interest.

In 1827 an act of parliament was passed, entitled, 'An Act for the better Regulation of the Watermen and Lightermen on the River Thames, between Yantlet Creek and Windsor,' which incorporates the company of watermen, &c. by the name of

page 628

"The Master, Wardens and Commonalty of Watermen and Lightermen of the River Thames ;" and among other regulations, provides that every member of the company should have a licence for his boat, expressing the number of persons he is allowed to carry in it, which number, with his name, shall be painted on the boat; an omission of which subjects the offender to a penalty of 20s. and carrying more than the number expressed in the licence, to a penalty of 40s. The court of Aldermen of the city of London to fix the fares to be taken by the members of this company, which list is to be approved by his Majesty's Privy Council; and the penalty for any person taking more than the legal fare is 40s.

We shall here only notice the act of parliament of 1829, entitled, 'An Act for the Sale of the City Canal, and for other Purposes relating thereto,' for the opportunity of remarking, that this canal was cut by government across the Isle of Dogs, to save the circuitous navigation round that island; and that agreeably to the purport of this act it was sold to the West India Dock Company, as will be found stated under the article of "Isle of Dogs Canal."

Since the execution of the Thames and Severn Canal, which communicates with the River Thames at Lechlade, that very bad part of the river between Lechlade and Cricklade has been abandoned, and it is now navigated to Lechlade only; indeed, at this time, from Oxford to Lechlade is but an indifferent navigation. The distance of the last-mentioned town from London, by the river, is one hundred and forty-six miles and a half, and the distances between the towns on the line as follow :-
.MILES.
From London to Staines Bridge . . . .37½
Thence to . . . Windsor8
. . . . . . . . Maidenhead7
. . . . . . . . Marlow8
. . . . . . . . Henley9
. . . . . . . . Reading 9
. . . . . . . . Wallingford18
. . . . . . . . Abingdon14
. . . . . . . . Oxford8
. . . . . . . . Lechlade__28
.146½

page 629

The total fall from Lechlade to low-water-mark is 258 feet, which upon average is near 21½ inches per mile.

As an account of the receipts and disbursements of the commissioners of the Thames Navigation in the year 1829, was printed during the last session by order of the House of Commons, we take this opportunity of presenting our readers with a copy.

RECEIVED.

. £.s.d.
Tolls Collected at Pound Locks 11,834 62
Sundries ____143__8__0
. £11,977 142

DISBURSED.

Interest to Bond Holders 4,200 00
Ditto on Loan from Treasurer 10000
Ditto on Exchequer Loan 33800
One Year's Instalment on Ditto 65000
Salaries to Clerks, Surveyors and Receiver 1,27000
Rents 209160
Purchases 190110
Surveys and Committees 28905
Ballasting 13064
Repairs 3,3781410
Sundries; viz. Stamps, Printing, Stationery, Lines, Nets, &c ____17313_5
. £10,930 20

NEW WORKS, &c.

Boulter's Cut and Pound Lock Ferry Houses __1,304_2_3
. £12,23443
GEORGE SCOBELL, CHAIRMAN,
EDWARD LAW,
EDWARD MICKLEM,
H. WALTER,
JOHN ROLLS,
THOMAS RAYMOND BARKER,
EDWARD GARDINER
}
}
}
} COMMISSIONERS
}
}
}
WILLIAM PAYN.

The immense trade of that part of this river which comes within the design of our work, arises principally from having London situated upon its banks, to which great emporium it conveys the produce, not only of the counties through which its winding course proceeds, but of many other parts of the kingdom with which it is connected by other rivers and canals; and on the other hand, it distributes the East and West India and Continental produce, indeed, of nearly all the world; to which may be added, the numerous branches of home manufactures required by the country throughout the whole line of its communication.

page 630

THAMES AND MEDWAY CANAL.

39 & 40 Geo. III. C. 23, R. A. 16th May, 1800.

44 Geo. III. C. 46, R. A. 5th June, 1804.

50 Geo. III. C. 76, R. A. 18th May, 1810.

58 Geo. III. C. 18, R. A. 17th Mar. 1818.

5 Geo. IV. C. 119, R. A. 17th June, 1824.

THE first step towards the execution of this work took place in 1799, when Mr. R. Dodd was consulted as to the possibility of obviating the necessity of the then circuitous passage round the Nore, from Gravesend to the Medway, at Strood. He accordingly proposed a line nine miles and two chains in length, viz, an open canal six miles, seven furlongs and two chains, and a tunnel two miles and one furlong, whereby a circuit of no less than forty-seven miles was to be avoided. The plan was approved of, although the estimate was far too low, and an act obtained in 1800, under the title of 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the River Thames, near to the town of Gravesend in the county of Kent, to the River Medway, at a Place called Nicholson's Ship Yard, in the parish of Frindsbury, in the said county; and also a certain collateral Cut from Whitewall, in the said parish, to the said River Medway.' By this act the proprietors were incorporated as "The Company of the Thames and Medway Canal," with the usual powers for completing the works; for defraying the cost of which they were empowered to raise £40,000, in shares of £100 each; and in case the said sum should prove insufficient, they may raise, in addition, £20,000 on mortgage of the works or by creation of new shares. It is also provided, that tide locks and entrance basins shall be made at each point of termination in this canal

Under authority of the above act the work commenced, and proceeded till that part extending from Gravesend to Denton was completed, when it was deemed advisable to make a deviation and other alterations from the original line, which required a new act. This was obtained in 1804, and is entitled, 'An Act for enabling time Company of Proprietors of the Thames and Medway Canal to vary the Line of the said Canal, and to raise a Sum of Money for completing the said Canal and the Works thereunto belonging; and for altering and enlarging the Powers of an Act made in the

page 631

'Thirty-ninth and Fortieth of his present Majesty, for making the said Canal and a collateral Cut thereto.' The deviation here alluded to was laid down in 1803 by Mr. Ralph Walker, who proposed a line nine miles and one chain in length, on a level throughout, and avoiding the necessity of a tunnel, which was proposed in the former act. His estimate for this deviation was £98,147, 10s.

By this act the company had power to undertake the deviation, and to provide for the expenditure on the same by raising an additional sum for the purpose of completing the work according to the new scheme.

The line, however, did not yet appear to satisfy the undertakers of the project, for in 1810 we find them obtaining a further 'Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the Thames and Medway Canal to vary the Line of the said Canal; and for altering and enlarging the Powers of Two Acts, passed in the Fortieth and Forty-fourth of his present Majesty, for making the said Canal and a collateral Cut thereto.'

In prosecuting the work the company exhausted their resources, and the next act was passed in 1818, under the title of 'An Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the Thames and Medway Canal to raise a further Sum of Money, for completing the said Canal and the Works thereto belonging, and for altering, enlarging, and rendering more effectual, the Powers for making the said Canal and Works.' By this act the company are empowered to raise a further sum of £100,000 in half shares of £50 each, or by granting bonds of £100 each, bearing interest at £5 per cent. to their clerk or treasurer, who are authorized from time to time to sell the same with the sanction of the said company; these bonds being secured on the property vested in the said company.

By the prior acts, the company had authority to demand the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Goods, Wares and Merchaisdize landed from any Boat, Barge or other Vessel, having entered any Basin or Pen of Water, or put into any other Boat, Barge or Vessel 2d per Ton.
For every Vessel, Boat or Barge, entering any Basin or Pen of Water, but not passing along the whole Line 4d ditto.

page 632

These rates, however, were not considered sufficient, and they were accordingly, by this act, empowered to demand the following in lieu of the former

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Goods, Wares, &c. landed from any Vessel, Boat or Barge, and having entered any Basin or Pen of Water, or put into any other Vessel 1s 6d per Ton.
For all Vessels entering any Basin or Pen of Water, but not passing along all the Line 1s 0d ditto.

But if the Vessel so paying shall within Forty-eight Hours proceed on the whole Line, then the Rate paid for entering the Basin shall be deducted from the Charge made on that Account.

These rates may be lowered and raised again, as needful.

In 1824 a further extension of the company's powers was obtained by an act, entitled, 'An Act for enabling the Thames and Medway Canal Company to raise a further Sum of Money to discharge their Debts, and to complete the said Canal and the Works thereunto belonging; and for altering, enlarging, and rendering more effectual the Powers for making the said Canal and Works.' By this act the company have the power of raising £50,000 by bonds of £1,000 each, bearing £5 per cent, interest, or by promissory notes or bonds under the common seal; and in case the said £50,000 shall not discharge the whole of their debts, they may in like manner raise an additional sum of £25,000, and any part of the sums directed to be raised by the former acts, may be raised by any of the means directed in the present act.

This canal commences in Gravesend Reach, nearly opposite to Tilbury Fort, and at this point, according to the provisions of the act, it has a basin and wharfs, From the wharfs it runs in nearly a straight line from west to east through Gravesend Marshes, a distance of about three miles; then making a detour to the south, it proceeds to join the River Medway nearly opposite Chatham, where a basin is made for the accommodation of vessels using this canal.

This canal, though of so short a length, is one of paramount importance, as to saving distance; an idea of the cost of executing it may be formed from the sums granted for that purpose by the various acts above quoted; and the utility of the work may be estimated from its situation and connection with the populous places on the line; the rates, however, do not appear to have given satisfaction, and the work is consequently not much used.

page 633

THAMES AND SEVERN CANAL.

23 Geo. III. C. 38, R. A. 17th April, 1783.

31 Geo. III. C. 67, R. A. 13th May, 1791.

36 Geo. III. C. 34, R. A. 7th March, 1796.

49 Geo. III. C. 112, R. A. 27th May, 1809.

53 Geo. III. C. 182, R. A. 2nd July, 1813.

THIS canal was first projected by Mr. R. Whitworth, in 1782, and after obtaining the sanction of parliament, was afterwards executed by him. It commences in the Stroudwater Canal, at Wallbridge, near Stroud, and thence taking an easterly direction, it runs by Stroud, Chalford and Sapperton; here it is conveyed through the celebrated Tarlton or Sapperton Tunnel, which is the largest in the kingdom; then passing the head of the River Thames or Isis it reaches Siddington St. Mary, at which place a branch about a mile in length runs from it to the town of Cirencester; thence to South Cerney and Latton, where it is joined by a branch of the Wilts and Berks Canal, originally called the North Wilts Canal; then passing Cricklade and Kempsford, it terminates by locking down into the Thames and Isis Navigation at Lechlade.

The act of parliament, under authority of which this undertaking was commenced, is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the River Thames, or Isis, at or near Lechlade, to join and communicate with the Stroudwater Canal at Wallbridge, near the town of Stroud; and also a collateral Cut from the said Canal at or near Siddington, to or near the town of Cirencester, in the counties of Gloucester and Wilts.' It incorporates a number of persons, who were subscribers to the undertaking, amongst whom are the Earl of Radnor, Lord Dudley and Ward, Sir Edward Littleton, Bart. and Sir Herbert Mackworth, Bart. by the name of" The Company of Proprietors of the Thames and Severn Canal Navigation," and empowers them to raise amongst themselves, for the purposes of the act, the sum of £130,000, in thirteen hundred shares of £100 each, and, if necessary, a further sum of £60,000, by mortgage of the tolls and rates, and directs that five per cent, per annum shall be paid on the sum so raised during the progress of the work. The act also authorizes the company to take the following tonnage rates.

page 634

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Coal passing between the Stroud Canal and Sapperton Tunnel 1s 3d per Ton.
Between the West End of Sapperton Tunnel and Cirencester 1s 0d ditto.
Between the Cirencester Branch at Siddington and Lechlade 2s 0d ditto.
For all Iron, Salt, Ores, Salt Rock, Lime-stone, Chalk, Crates of Pottery, Crates of Black Glass, Timber, Flint, Brick, Stone, Clay, Copper, Brass, Tin, Tin Plates, Lead, Spelter, Pot Metal, Window Glass and Plate Glass 0s 2d ditto, per Mile.
For all other Goods and Merchandize whatever 0s 3d ditto. ditto.

And in proportion for any greater or less Distance or Quantity.

Any Goods remaining on any Wharf longer than Twenty-four Hours, to pay such Rate as may be agreed upon with the Parties, and in case of Dispute, to be settled by the Commissioners appointed under the Act.

The act provides that certain rates shall be taken by the company of proprietors of the Stroudwater Navigation, on goods passing from their canal into the Thames and Severn Canal, which rates will be found in our article on the Stroudwater Navigation; and it also directs that on goods passing from, the said Stroudwater Navigation into this canal, the company shall take the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Coal carried from the River Severn through the Stroudwater Navigation, and going on this Canal no further than One Hundred and Fifty Yards above the High Road crossing this Canal at Brimscombe 1s 3d per Ton.

For Coal going more than One Hundred and Fifty Yards above the said Road, the usual Tonnage Rates taken on the Canal.
All other Goods, Wares and Merchandize passing in like Manner from the Stroudwater Navigation, and no further on this Canal than One Hundred and Fifty Yards above the High Road at Brimscombe 1s 0d ditto.

And passing more than One Hundred and Fifty Yards above the said Road the usual Tonnage Rates.

If this Company reduce their Tonnage Rates on Coal to One Penny per Ton per Mile, the Stroudwater Navigation to reduce theirs also to that Sum, on all Coal carried from their Canal to this, and to more than One Hundred and Fifty Yards above the Road at Brimseombe, and all Materials for making or repairing either of these Canals, to pass free on each of them.

Vessels of less than Six Tons to pay a Lock Due of Sixpence at each Lock, for Waste of Water, and in addition to pay for Six Tons of Lading.

In 1791 the company obtained another act of parliament, entitled, 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Thames and Severn Canal Navigation, to borrow a further Sum of Money to complete the said Navigation,' which empowered them th borrow an additional sum of £60,000, by mortgage of the tolls and rates.

page 635

The act passed in 1796, entitled, 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Thames and Severn Canal Navigation, to raise a certain Sum of Money, for discharging some Arrears of Interest, and other Debts relating thereto, and to maintain and support the said Navigation,' empowers the company of proprietors to raise a further sum of £65,000, by the creation of thirteen hundred half shares of £50 each; and provides that those proprietors of old shares who may wish to take some of the new shares, shall be allowed to subscribe the sum of £37, 10s. now due for interest on each original share, as part of the purchase money for a half share, paying the difference of £12, 10s. in money.

Another act passed in 1809, entitled, 'An Act for altering, amending and enlarging the Powers of several Acts, for making and maintaining the Thames and Severn Canal Navigation,' empowers the company to raise a further sum of £200,000, by any of the means prescribed by the former acts of parliament, or by the creation of new shares, in which case the old proprietors are to have the option of taking the same number of new shares as they hold of the original ones, before they are otherwise disposed of.

The last act of parliament relating to this canal was passed in 1813, and is entitled, 'An Act for altering and amending an Act made in the Twenty-third Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, for making and maintaining the Thames and Severn Canal Navigation.' It authorizes the company of proprietors to make a dock or basin on their canal at a place called Weymoor Bridge, in the parish of Latton, in Wiltshire, where the North Wilts is proposed to join the Thames and Severn Canal, and empowers them to contribute, as shareholders, the sum of £5,000 towards making the North Wilts Canal.

Goods remaining on any wharf in the basin more than six hours, to pay such rates as may be agreed on.

The length of this canal is thirty miles and seven chains; from the Stroudwater Canal to Sapperton, a distance of seven miles and three-eighths, with a rise of 243 feet, by twenty-eight locks; from thence the summit pound continues through the tunnel, which is two miles and three-eighths in length to

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near Coates, and level; thence to the Thames and Isis Navigation, twenty miles and three-eighths, with a fall of 134 feet by fourteen locks. The first four miles of this canal from Stroud is of the same width and depth as the Stroudwater Navigation, and calculated for the Severn Boats; the remainder of the line is 42 feet wide at top, 30 at bottom, and 5 feet deep, and the locks admit boats of 80 feet in length and 12 feet wide.

The famous tunnel at Sapperton, which was constructed by Mr. R. Whitworth, the engineer employed on this canal, is two miles and three-eighths in length; the arch is 15 feet wide in the clear, and 250 feet beneath the highest point of the hill, which is of hard rock, some of it so solid as to need no arch of masonry to support it; the other parts are arched above and have inverted arches in the bottom. It was first passed on the 20th April, 1789, and on the 19th November following the first vessel passed from the Severn into the Thames.

On the 19th July, 1778, during the execution of this work, his late Majesty King George the Third went to view the tunnel, with which he expressed himself much astonished, and on the construction of which he bestowed the highest praise.

The advantages of forming a communication between the Rivers Thames and Severn, have been always so apparent, that as long ago as the reign of Charles the Second, a bill was introduced into parliament for making the connection by means of the River Avon. It was not however acted upon. At the time the first act was obtained for effecting the junction of these rivers, by means of this canal, the project held out as fair prospects of success and pecuniary advantage to the promoters as any undertaking of the kind in the kingdom.

By connecting London with Bristol, Gloucester and Worcester, and other towns on the banks of the Severn, a safe and easy course to London is opened for not only the trade of Gloucestershire and Worcestershire, but also that of Herefordshire, Monmouthshire and South Wales; to which might be added the trade of the towns on the Thames, which receive their supplies of coal from the mines connected with the Severn. These prospects have not, however, been realized to the extent that was expected, owing, in a great measure, to the inefficient state of the navigation of the upper

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part of the River Thames, and to the construction of other canals in the neighbourhood, more especially the Kennet and Avon, which affords a much shorter route from Bristol to London.

THANET CANAL.

13 George III. Cap. 47, Royal Assent 10th May, 1773.

THIS canal is the property of the Earl of Thanet, at whose expense it was constructed. It runs from the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, in a direction nearly north, and about one-third of a mile in length, to a little above Skipton Castle.

The act is entitled, 'An Act to enable the Right Honourable Sackville, Earl of Thanet, to make a navigable Cut or Canal from a Place called the Spring, lying near Skipton Castle, in the county of York, to join and to communicate with the navigable Canal from Leeds to Liverpool, in a Close called Hebble End Close, in the township of Skipton, in the said county of York.'

The whole line through which the canal passes is Lord Thanet's property, with the exception of one close which belongs to the Free Grammar School at Skipton.

Its object is the conveyance of limestone from the quarries about a mile above the castle, to which, railways are laid, which limestone is used at the foundries in the neighbourhood of Bradford, and for making and repairing both turnpike and other roads to a considerable extent beyond Leeds and Wakefield; besides which, it is burnt into lime for agricultural and building purposes.

TONE RIVER OR TONE AND PARRETT NAVIGATION.

10 & 11 William III. Cap. 8, Royal Assent 24th March, 1699.

6 Anne, Cap. 9, Royal Assent 11th March, 1707.

44 George III. Cap. 83, Royal Assent 14th July, 1804.

THIS navigation, which is about twenty-seven miles in length, commences in the Grand Western Canal at Taunton, and runs in a direction nearly north, by a bending course, passing Bridgewater,

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to the tideway in Bridgewater Bay at Start Point, in the Bristol Channel; being, however, joined in its course, at Borough Chapel, by the Parrett River.

It was executed under authority of an act passed in 1699, entitled, 'An Act for making and keeping the River Tone navigable from Bridgewater to Taunton, in the county of Somerset,' and of another in 1707, entitled, 'An Act for the more effectual making and keeping the River Tone navigable from Bridgewater to Taunton, in the county of Somerset;' and in 1804 a third act was passed, entitled, 'An Act for explaining and amending Two Acts, passed in the Tenth and Eleventh Years of the Reign of King William the Third and the Sixth of Queen Anne, for making and keeping navigable the River Tone, from Bridgewater to Taunton, in the county of Somerset.' These acts appointed certain persons conservators of this river, who were to collect tonnage rates thereon, part of which were to be applied to time maintenance of the navigation, and the remainder for the benefit of the poor of Taunton, and the parishes of Taunton St. Mary Magdalene and Taunton St. James.

In 1811 a number of persons became a company and obtained an act of parliament, authorizing them to make a canal from near Bristol to Taunton; and as it was supposed that this canal would materially injure the interests derived from the River Tone, the company are directed by the act of parliament to purchase those interests, and to maintain the River Tone out of the tolls arising therefrom, as will be found noticed under the article, "Bridgewater and Taunton Canal," in this work.

TRENT RIVER.

10 & 11 Wm. III. C. 20, R. A. 4th May, 1699.

10 Geo. III. C. 57, R. A. 16th Mar. 1770.

13 Geo. III. C. 86, R. A. 24th Dec. 1772.

23 Geo. III. C. 41, R. A. 6th May, 1793.

23 Geo. III. C. 48, R. A. 24th June, 1793.

34 Geo. III. C. 95, R. A. 9th May, 1794.

THIS river rises in the most northern extremity of Staffordshire, near a place called Thursfield, from whence it runs southerly to Handford Bridge, being in its course joined by several other branches; proceeding through the grounds of the Marquis of Stafford, at Trentham, (where it forms a fine sheet of water) it

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runs by Stone, and continues in a south-easterly direction by Great Heywood, Wolseley Park, Hagley Park and Rugeley, to Cattor Hall; then, bending north-easterly, it runs by Drakelow Park to Burton-upon-Trent, where it becomes navigable, and is there joined by a short branch from the Trent and Mersey Canal; continuing its course north-easterly by Newton Park to near Swarkestone, where the Derby Canal locks down into it, it proceeds by Donnington Park to Wilden Ferry, there uniting with the Trent and Mersey Canal; thence running easterly a short distance, it is joined by the River Soar or Loughborough Navigation, and on the opposite side by the Erewash Canal; bending a little northerly by Thrumpton and Clifton Halls, where the Beeston Cut, which communicates with the Nottingham Canal, joins it on the north side, it runs down to Nottingham, there receiving the Grantham Canal; proceeding north-easterly it passes East Bridgeford, Stoke Hall, Newark and Marnham Hall, to Torksey Lock, at which place the Foss Dyke Navigation, extending to Lincoln, communicates with it.; thence taking a northerly course by Burton Hall, Lea Hall and Gainsborough, it proceeds to West Stockwith, where the Chesterfield Canal locks into it, and where it is also joined by the River Idle; continuing its northerly course by Owston to Keadby Lock, taking the Stainforth and Keadby Canal in its way, it proceeds to the junction with the River Ouse, at a place called Trentfalls, opposite to Flaxfleet, and from the union of these rivers, to the sea, forms the Humber.

The first act of parliament relating to the navigation of the River Trent, was passed in 1699, and is entitled, 'An Act for making and keeping the River Trent, in the counties of Leicester, Derby and Stafford, navigable.' This act vested the tolls to be taken under its authority in the Earl of Uxbridge, or his lessees, and empowered him or them to take the following

TONNAGE RATE.

For all Goods carried on any Part of the Navigation 3d per Ton.

It appears that the lessees of the Earl took little pains to improve the navigation, for so many shoals continued to exist, as rendered the river impassable in dry seasons.

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In 1770 a second act was passed, entitled, 'An Act for the better regulating the Navigation of the River Trent from Wilden Ferry, otherwise Cavendish Bridge, in the county of Derby, to Gainsborough, in the county of Lincoln,' which, after stating that great irregularities and continual trespasses on the lands adjoining the river, were committed by the boatmen, provides, that in future all barges or other vessels going upon the river from Wilden Ferry to Gainsborough, should be numbered, and have the name and residence of the owner marked thereon, under a penalty of five pounds.

Another act of parliament respecting this river, which was passed in 1772, and entitled, 'An Act for improving and completing the Navigation of that Branch of the River Trent, which runs by the town of Newark-upon-Trent, from a Place called The Upper Weir, in the parish of Averham, in the county of Nottingham, to a Place called The Crankleys, in the parish of South Muskham, in the said county,' appoints commissioners for improving and completing the navigation of that branch of the River Trent which runs from The Upper Weir, passing the town of Newark to The Crankleys; the other branch of the river at that point passing by Averham, Kelham and South Muskham, is to unite with that to be made navigable by this act at The Crankleys.

The act provides that the barges on this branch shall be haled by men only, and that the commissioners may take the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Coal, Stone, Timber and all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize, which shall be carried on this Branch of the Trent, and landed on any Part of the said Branch 4d per Ton.
For ditto carried on this Branch but not landed thereon 2d ditto.

EXEMPTIONS.

Hay and Corn, (not sold but being carried to be laid up in the Yards, &c. of the Owner) Materials for repairing Roads, (not being Turnpike) and Manure for Lands through which the Navigation passes, provided the Things, exempted as above pass through any Lock, at such Times as the Water is flowing over the Waste Weir.

These tolls to be free from all taxes; and all mortgages, transfers and other writings connected with this navigation to be exempt from stamp duty.

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The commissioners are empowered to borrow such sum of money as may be necessary for the completion of the work, by mortgage of the tolls, &c.

The next act of parliament, passed in 1783, and entitled, 'An Act for empowering Persons navigating Vessels upon the River Trent, between a Place called Wilden Ferry, in tile counties of Derby and Leicester, or one of them, and the town of Burton-upon-Trent, in the county of Stafford, to hale the same with Horses,' repeals that part of a former act which provides that the barges, &c. on this navigation shall be haled by men only, and allows horses to he used.

This act was followed by another in the same year, entitled, 'An Act for improving the Navigation of the River Trent, from a Place called Wilden Ferry, in the counties of Derby and Leicester, or one of them, to Gainsborough, in the county of Lincoln; and for empowering Persons navigating Vessels thereon, to hale the same with Horses;' which appointed commissioners to carry the purposes of the act into execution, and who are authorized to take the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Goods from Shardlaw to Gainsborough 1s 2d per Ton.
For ditto from Nottingham to Gainsborough 0s 10d ditto.

The act also repeals that portion of a former act which limited the haling of barges and other vessels to men only.

The last act of parliament relating to the navigation of this river was passed in 1794, and is entitled, 'An Act to alter and amend an Act of the Twenty-third Year of his present Majesty, for improving the Navigation of the River Trent, and for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the said River, in the parish of Beeston, to join the Nottingham Canal, in the parish of Lenton, in the county of Nottingham; and also certain Cuts on the Side of the said River.'

The canal cut under the authority of this act of parliament, commences in the parish of Beeston, and running northerly joins the Nottingham Canal, in the parish of Lenton.

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