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This Book "Priestley's Navigable Rivers and Canals" by Joseph Priestley was previously published in April 1831. NOTE: Oringinally called "Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways, of Great Britain". For more information see About this Book
|Index Page||Link to Previous Page 601|
The Stratford-upon-Avon Canal Company not to erect wharfs, &c. on the intended cut, without leave of the Warwick and Birmingham Canal Company; but Thomas Fetherston may erect such wharfs, &c. on his land at Lapworth, without such permission; and Mr. Fetherston, or the occupier of his wharfs, are to pay for the carriage of coal, coke, iron, ironstone and other goods and things (except limestone) on this canal, 1½d. per ton per mile; and for limestone ½d. per ton per mile only.
Lords of manors and owners of land may erect wharfs on this navigation, and on their refusing, the company may do it, and all coal, merchandize and other things which shall be sold and shipped from such wharfs, between the place where the intended cut joins the Warwick and Birmingham Canal and Preston Mill (over and above two hundred tons in each year) shall pay the tonnage rate of 11½d. per ton to the proprietors of the Warwick and Birmingham Canal, whether it passes on their canal or not.
In 1809 another act was obtained, entitled, 'An Act to amend and enlarge the Powers of the several Acts relating to the Stratford-upon-Avon Canal Navigation;' which, after stating that the money raised was not sufficient for the purposes of the undertaking, empowers the company to raise a further sum of £90,000, either amongst themselves or by creation of new shares, the number of such new shares not to exceed three thousand, and to be of £30 or £40 value, as the company may deem expedient; or the above sum may be raised by mortgage of the tolls; and should this amount prove insufficient, they may raise an additional sum of £30,000 in either of the ways above stated, but the number of new shares created for raising this £30,000 not to exceed seven hundred and fifty.
The act of 1815, entitled, 'An Act to amend several Acts of his present Majesty, for making the Stratford-upon-Avon Canal Navigation,' authorizes the company of proprietors to make reservoirs at Earl's Wood, and (with consent of the owners of land) to divert streams and use the flood-waters which overflow the lands at Earl's Wood.
In 1817 the company obtained another act, entitled, 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Stratford-upon-Avon Canal Navigation to raise Money, to discharge their Debts, and to
'complete the said Canal;' which states that the company had raised a great portion of the sums authorized by former acts, but it had been insufficient for the completion of the undertaking, and it empowers them to raise an additional sum of £20,000 amongst themselves, to enable them to pay off their debt and complete the work; and by the last act of parliament relating to this canal, passed in 1821, and entitled, 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Stratford-upon-Avon Canal Navigation, to subscribe a further Sum of Money, for the Purposes of the said Navigation,' they are empowered to raise an additional sum of £21,882 amongst themselves, to enable them to complete the navigation.
Upon this work there is a tunnel of three hundred and twenty yards in length, near Milepole Hill, and several small aqueduct bridges; from Stratford to Copmass Hill, one mile and a half, is level; thence to Wilmcote, one mile, is a rise of 86 feet; thence to Preston Mill, six miles, is level; thence to Preston Green, one mile and three quarters, is a rise of 76 feet; thence to Lapworth Hall, one mile, is level; thence to Hockley Heath, two miles and a quarter, is a rise of 147 feet ; and thence to the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, ten miles, is level; making a distance of twenty-three miles and a half, with a rise of 309 feet. The Tamworth Branch is level and connects with the summit pound; the first two miles and a half of the Temple Grafton Branch is level, but there is a rise of 20 feet in the next mile and a half.
This work forms a link in the great chain of inland canal communication, and passing through a country abounding with coal and limestone, affords, by its connection with other canals, the means of their transit, as well as other commodities, to all parts of the country.
2 George IV. Cap. 63, Royal Assent 28th May, 1821.
6 George IV. Cap. 168, Royal Assent 22nd June, 1825.
THIS railway commences at the Stratford-upon-Avon Canal, in Old Stratford, Warwickshire, and passes in a southerly direction,
along the side of the turnpike-road leading from Stratford to Oxford, by Halford Bridge, Clifford Chambers, Atherstone, Alderminster, Lower Ealington Park, Whitchurch, Armscott, Tredington, Darlingscote, Stretton-on-the-Fosse and Lemington, to Moreton-in-Marsh, in Gloucestershire, with a collateral branch from Stretton-on-the-Fosse, by Ditchford to Shipston-upon-Stour, in Worcestershire.
The act of parliament under sanction of which this undertaking was carried into execution, was passed in 1821, and is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway or Tramroad from Stratford-upon-Avon, in the county of Warwick, to Moreton-in-Marsh, in the county of Gloucester, with a Branch to Shipston-upon-Stour, in the county of Worcester.' By this act a company of persons, amongst whom were Lord Dudley and Ward and Lord Redesdale, were incorporated by the name of "The Stratford and Moreton Railway Company," with powers to raise amongst themselves, for the purposes of the act, the sum of £33,500, in shares of £50 each, and, if necessary, a further sum of £7,000, either amongst themselves, by creation of new shares or by mortgage of the tolls and rates, and to collect the following
|For all Coal, Coke, Culm, Stone, Cinders, Chalk, Marl, Sand, Lime, Clay, Ashes, Peat, Lime-stone, Iron-stone, Building-stone, Pitching and Paving-stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slates, Timber, Lead in Pigs or Sheets, Bar-iron, Waggon-tire, and all Gross and Unmanufactured Articles and Building Materials||3d per Ton, per Mile.|
|For all other Goods, Wares, Merchandize or Things whatsoever||6d ditto. ditto.|
Fractions of a Quarter of a Ton and of a Mile to be considered as Quarters.
Owners of land adjoining the railway may lay collateral branches on their lands to communicate with this railway; and may also erect wharfs or warehouses on their land, and on their refusing to do so when thereto required by the company of proprietors, the act authorizes the company to make such erections, and empowers them and such lords of manors or owners of land who shall have erected wharfs, &c. to collect the following wharfage and warehousing rates.
The Column marked thus (*) are the Rates to be taken for Forty-eight Hours.
The Column marked thus (+) ditto, the next Ten Days.
The Column marked thus (±) ditto, every subsequent Day.
|DESCRIPTION OF GOODS||(*)||(+)||(±)|
|For all Coals, Culm, Lime, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, Iron-stone, Lead-ore or any other Ores, Timber, Stone, Brick, Tiles, Slates, Gravel or other Things, per Ton||0s 1d||0s 1d||0s 1d|
|For every Package not exceeding Fifty-six Pounds Weight||0s 3d||.||.|
|For ditto above Fifty-six Pounds and not exceeding Five Hundred Pounds Weight||0s 6d||.||.|
|For all Coals, Culm, Lime, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, Iron-stone, Lead-ore or any other Ores, Timber, Stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slates, Gravel or other Things||1s 0d||1s 0d||0s 3d|
The act directs that the whole sum necessary for making this railway shall be subscribed before the work is commenced, and that it shall be completed in five years.
The management of the company's affairs to be conducted by a committee of five persons, who are to be under the control of the general assemblies of proprietors.
An estimate of the expense of laying down this railway, made in 1821, by Mr. Thomas Baylls, was £33,456, 16s. 8d.
In 1825 a second act of parliament was passed relating to this railway, entitled, 'An Act to amend an Act passed in the First and Second Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, entitled, An Act for making and maintaining a Railway or Tramroad from Stratford-upon-Avon, in the county of Warwick, to Moreton-in-Marsh, in the county of Gloucester, with a Branch to Shipston-upon-Stour, in the county of Worcester; and for making further Provisions touching the same.'
This act makes some alteration in the line of the branch to Shipston-upon-Stour, and states, that to carry on the work the company had borrowed the sum of £11,300 of different persons, proprietors of shares, and that £36,000 more would be wanted to complete the undertaking, and that Thomas Dudley, Esq. of Shutt End, near Dudley, had agreed to advance them £15,000 as a loan, provided he had a mortgage of the tolls and rates made to him as a security; and that £6,000 more would be raised by the proprietors amongst themselves. The act then authorizes the
company to assign the tolls and rates to those proprietors who had advanced the £11,300, as security to them; and to Thomas Dudley, Esq. as a security for the £15,000 to be advanced by him; and although the persons who lent the £11,300 have a prior claim on the tolls and rates to Mr. Dudley, yet in order to induce him to advance the said sum of £15,000, a majority of them, being four-fifths in value, by an agreement dated the 22nd September, 1824, executed by them, agreed that any mortgage of the tolls made to Thomas Dudley, should have priority over any claims which they had or might have on them; and this agreement is confirmed by the act of parlialnent, which declares that Mr. Dudley shall have preference in payment both of his principal sum and interest, at the rate of £4, 4s. per cent, per annum, over those persons who executed the said agreement and who were creditors of four-fifths of the said, sum of £11,300. And the company are also empowered to raise a further sum of £15,000, in addition to the £15,000 to be advanced by Mr. Dudley, by mortgage of their tolls and rates.
The length of the main line of this railway is about sixteen miles, and the branch to Shipston-upon-Stour two miles and a half; and the rise from the canal at Stratford-upon-Avon to Moreton-in-Marsh is 360 feet.
The principal object of this railway is the conveyance of coal to supply Moreton, Stow and other parts of that country; and, in return, to take stone and agricultural produce.
3 George II. Cap. 13, Royal Assent 15th May, 1730.
32 George II. Cap. 47, Royal Assent 5th April, 1759.
16 George III. Cap. 21, Royal Assent 25th March, 1776.
THIS canal commences at the River Severn, near Framiload, in the county of Gloucester, and from thence runs in an easterly direction by Witminster, rlear which it is crossed by the Gloucester and Berkeley Canal; it thence continues an easterly course, crossing the Stroudwater, by Eastington and Stonehouse, and terminates in the Thames and Severn Canal, at Wallbridge, near Stroud. The length is rather more than eight miles, with a rise of 102 feet 5 inches.
The first act of parliament relating to this undertaking was passed in 1730, and is entitled, 'An Act for making navigable the River Stroudwater, in the county of Gloucester, from the River Severn, at or near Framiload, to Wallbridge, near the town of Stroud, in the same county.' It appointed certain persons therein named undertakers for effecting the provisions of the act, and authorized their taking the following
|For all Coals, Corn, Malt, Grain or Meal of any Sort, carried on the Stroudwater between the River Severn at Framiload and Wallbridge, near Stroud||3s 6d per Ton.|
|For all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize||3s 0d ditto.|
And in proportion for a greater or less Weight or Distance.
From the opposition of the millers, arising from the fear of losing their water, and other causes, this act was not carried into execution; but in 1759 a second act of parliament, entitled, 'An Act to amend and explain an Act made in the Third Year of his present Majesty's Reign,' was passed, which authorized John Kemmett, Arthur Wynde, James Pynock and Thomas Bridge to carry into effect the provisions of the former act, and giving them all the powers therein granted to the undertakers, they covenanting to complete the navigation without locks, and consequently without loss of water to the millers. The scheme by which these gentlemen meant to effect their purpose, was by shifting the cargoes into boxes, and at every mill to remove them into other boats by means of cranes; the plan, however, did not succeed, though it was persevered in to nearly the ruin of the projectors.
In 1776 another act of parliament was passed, entitled, 'An Act to amend an Act, passed in the Third Year of his late Majesty's Reign, entitled, An Act for making navigable the River Stroudwater, in the county of Gloucester, from the River Severn, at or near Framiload, to Wallbridge, near the town of Stroud, in the same county, and for giving other Powers for the Purpose of making a Navigation from Framiload to Wallbridge aforesaid.' It states that the undertakers appointed by the preceding act had failed to complete the navigation, and that certain persons had subscribed £20,000 for that purpose. The act, therefore, incor-
porates these persons by the name of" The Company of Proprietors of the Stroudwater Navigation," and empowers them to raise £20,000 amongst themselves, in two hundred shares of £100 each, and, if necessary, a further sum of £10,000, either amongst themselves, by creation of new shares, or by mortgage of the undertaking, and authorizes them to take the same tolls and rates as the undertakers under the first act of parliament were empowered to take, and which are enumerated in a foregoing part of this article. The tolls and rates to be exempted from all taxes. Fifteen years allowed to the company to complete the navigation.
No Boat of less than Twenty Tons to pass thrQugh the Locks without leave of the Company, except when the Waste Water runs over the Weir.
The act of parliament, passed in 1783 for making the Thames and Severn Canal, restrains the Stroudwater Company from taking more than 2s. 3d. per ton for coal carried on their canal, and passing to the Thames and Severn, and going thereon not more than one hundred and fifty yards above the high road at Brimscombe, and 1s. per ton only for coal going more than one hundred and fifty yards beyond such road.
|For all Flint, Brick, Stone, Clay, Chalk, Salt, Ores, Salt-rock and Lime-stone, passing more than One Hundred and Fifty Yards on the Thames and Severn Canal, above the Road at Brimscombe, and carried on the Stroudwater Canal either up or down||½d per Ton, per Mile.|
|For all Timber, Black Glass Bottles and Phials, and Crates of Pottery||1d ditto. ditto.|
|For all Iron, Cast and Wrought, and ail other Goods, Wares and Merchandize||1½d ditto. ditto.|
And in proportion for a greater or less Quantity or Distance.
This canal has been of infinite advantage to tile town of Stroud, and the clothing district in the neighbourhood, by furnishing them with coal at a cheap rate, and conveying their heavy and bulky goods to various markets; and from its connection with the Thames and Severn, was the means of forming the first communication by inland navigation between London and Bristol, and the counties of Gloucester, Worcester and Hereford.
(SEE GRAND SURREY CANAL.)
41 George III. Cap. 33, Royal Assent 21st May, 1801.
45 George III. Cap. 5, Royal Assent 12th March, 1805.
THIS railway commences at a basin which connects it with the River Thames at a place called Ram Field, in the parish of Wandsworth, and from thence proceeds in a southerly direction, running parallel with the River Wandle to Mitcham, (where there is a branch from it to Hack Bridge, in the parish of Carshalton;) it proceeds from thence in a south-easterly direction to a place called Pitlake Meadow, in the town of Croydon, where it unites with the Croydon, Merstham and Godstone Railway, already described in this work, and called in our map the southern part. The basin is about a quarter of a mile long, with a lock next the Thames, and is sufficiently spacious to hold thirty barges or more at once. The length of this railway is nearly nine miles, with no where a greater ascent than about 1 inch in 10 feet. It was the first public railway constructed near London, and the expense of its construction, including lock, basin and branch, was estimated by Mr. W. Jessop at £33,000.
The act of parliament authorizing this undertaking was passed in 1801, and is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway from time town of Wandsworth to the town of Croydon, with a collateral Branch into the parish of Carshalton, and a navigable Communication between the River Thames and the said Railway at Wandsworth, all in the county of Surrey.' It incorporates the subscribers by the name of "The Surrey Iron Railway Company," and empowers them to raise, for tile purposes of the undertaking, amongst themselves the sum of £35,000, in three hundred and fifty shares of £100 each, and, if necessary, a further sum of £15,000, either amongst themselves, by creation of new shares or by mortgage of the tolls and rates, and also authorizes them to take the following
|For all Goods, Wares and Merchandize whatever, carried into or out of the Dock or Basin||4d per Ton,|
|For all Dung carried on the Railway||2d ditto, per Mile.|
|For all Lime-stone, Chalk, Lime and all other Manure, (except Dung) Clay, Breeze, Ashes, Sand and Bricks||3d per Ton, per Mile.|
|For all Tin, Copper, Lead, Iron-stone, Flints, Coal. Charcoal, Coke, Culm, Fullers' Earth, Corn and Seeds, Flour, Malt and Potatoes||4d ditto. ditto.|
|For all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize||6d ditto. ditto.|
Fractions of a Quarter of a Ton to be considered as a Quarter, but all Fractions of a Mile as a Mile.
Lords of manors and owners of land on the railway may erect wharfs and warehouses, and on their refusing to do so when required, the company may erect them, and may receive such reasonable rates and allowance on all goods lying on or in them more than twenty-four hours, as the commissioners appointed under this act shall deem sufficient.
The act provides that nothing contained in it shall prejudice the rights of the Lord Mayor and Corporation of the city of London, as conservators of the River Thames; and that the company shall pay to the said Lord Mayor and Corporation the sum of 21s. as a fine or acknowledgment for opening a communication between the basin and the River Thames, and an annual rent of £10 as a compensation for the diminution of any tolls or rates which may be caused by this undertaking.
A second act of parliament was obtained in 1805 by this company, entitled, 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Surrey Iron Railway to raise a further Sum of Money, for completing the said Railway, and the Works thereunto belonging,' which empowered them to raise an additional sum of £10,000 for the completion of the work, either amongst themselves, by the creation of new shares, or by mortgage of the tolls and rates.
The railway is double throughout, and at the north-west end of Croydon is but about three-eighths of a mile from the Croydon Canal. Its principal object is to facilitate the conveyance of lime, chalk, flint, fullers' earth and agricultural products from its neighbourhood to London; and in return to take from thence coals and manure for the supply of the country through which it passes.
(SEE OUSE RIVER, YORK.)
34 George III. Cap. 109, Royal Assent 23rd May, 1794.
THIS canal commences in Swansea Harbour, at the mouth of the Tawe River, and running in a direction a little to the eastward of north, and parallel with the River Tawe, passes Landoor, the copper-works of J. Morris, Esq, at Morris Town; afterwards crossing the small River Twrch, it terminates at Pen Tawe, and from whence is continued a railway to the lime-works at Hen-Noyadd, in the parish of Ystradgunlais, in the county of Brecon. There are two railways branching from this canal, each about two miles in length; one near Ynis Tawe, to coal mines, and the other to coal mines and lime-works near Bryan Morgan.
The length of this canal is about seventeen miles, of which a portion, one mile and a half in length, between Landoor Brook and Morris Town, (called Morris's Canal) through the estate of the Duke of Beaufort, was constructed by that nobleman, who receives the tolls thereof. From Swansea to opposite Pont-ar-Tawe, a distance of about eight miles and a quarter, is a rise of 105 feet; from thence to Pont Gwaynclawdd, eight miles further, it rises 237 feet; and there is a rise of 31 feet in the remaining three quarters of a mile, making a rise in the whole distance of 373 feet.
The act of parliament, under authority of which this undertaking was completed, is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal, from the town of Swansea, in the county of Glamorgan, into the parish of Ystradgunlais, in the county of Brecon.' It incorporates the subscribers by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Swansea Canal;" empowers them to raise £60,000 in shares of £100 each, and, if necessary, a further sum of £30,000; and authorizes them to take the following
|For all Iron, Goods, Merchandize, &c. (except Pig-iron, Iron Castings, Calcined Iron-ore, Iron-stone, Iron-ore, Rotten-stone, Charcoal, Coal, Culm, Stone-coal, Coke, Cinders, Timber, Stone, Tiles, Bricks, Clay, Lime-stone, Lime, Sand and all Kinds of Manure||4d per Ton, per Mile.|
|For all Iron Castings||3d per Ton, per Mile.|
|For all Pig-iron||2½d ditto. ditto.|
|For all Iron-stone, Calcined Iron-ore. Iron-ore, Rotten-stone, Coal, Culm, Stone-coal, Coke, Cinders, Charcoal, Timber, Stone, Tiles, Bricks and Clay||3½d ditto. ditto.|
|For all Lime-stone, Lime and all Kinds of Manure||1d ditto. ditto.|
|For all Lime, Lime-stone and Manure passing from Swansea) to the South Boundary of the Fee of Trewyddfa (about Two Miles)||½d ditto. ditto.|
The Tolls taken by the Duke of Beaufort, on that Part of the Canal belonging to him, to be the same as those taken by the Company.
No Boat under Fifteen Tons to pass any Lock when the Water does not flow over the Waste Weir; nor any Boat under Ten Tons to pass when it does so flow, without leave or paying the Tonnage respectively.
Mr. Thomas Sheasby was the engineer employed in this canal, which was completed and opened in October, 1798. The principal objects for which it was executed are the export of coals, ironstone, &c. with which the country abounds, and the convevyance of lime to the intermediate works and country, and of copper and other ores and minerals to the extensive foundries about Swansea.
36 George III. Cap. 67, Royal Assent 26th April, 1796.
THE River Tamar, under authority of this act of parliament, is made navigable from Morwelham Quay, near Calstock, (where the Tavistock Canal begins) up to Boat Pool, from whence a canal has been made, which runs in a course a little to the west of north, by Launceston, Milton Abbott, Bradstone, Lifton, Warrington, Northcott and Tetcott, to Tamerton Bridge, a distance of about twenty-two miles. There is a collateral cut near Poulson Bridge, to Launceston.
The act is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a Navigation from Morwelham Quay, in the parish of Tavistock, in the county of Devon, to Tamerton Bridge, in the parish of North Tamerton, in the county of Cornwall; and also a certain collateral Cut from Poulson Bridge, in the parish of Lifton, in the said county of Devon, to Richgrove Mill, in the parish of St. Stephen, near to the borough of Launceston, in the said county of Cornwall.' It empowers the company of proprietors to raise amongst
themselves, for the purposes of the act, the sum of £121,000, in shares of £50 each, and they are to pay £200 per annum to the Duchy of Cornwall for the liberty of making this navigation. Inclined planes and railways may be substituted in place of locks on this canal.
This canal was designed principally for the supply of coal, sea-sand and lime as manure, and affords an opening for the export of the agricultural products of the country through which it passes.
43 George III. Cap. 130, Royal Assent 27th July, 1803.
THIS canal commences in the tideway of the Tamar River, (near the commencement of the Tamar Manure Navigation) at Morwelham Quay New Basin, near Calstock, and terminates at the town of Tavistock. Its length is about four miles, in nearly a north-east course, and through Morwelham Down by a tunnel about two thousand six hundred and forty yards long and about 460 feet beneath the highest point of the down above it. It has likewise a branch from Crebar, near the north end of the tunnel, to the slate quarries at Millhill Bridge.
The act of parliament for this canal is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from and out of the River Tamar, at or near Morwelham Quay, to the town of Tavistock; and also a collateral Cut to lead from the said Canal to Millhill Bridge, in the county of Devon.' It empowers the company of proprietors to raise amongst themselves, for the purposes of the act, the sum of £50,000, in shares of £50 each, and to take the following
|For all Lime-stone conveyed through the Tunnel||1s 3d per Ton.|
|For all Building-stone, Slates, Bricks, Tiles, Clay, Sand, Earth, Dung, Ores, Iron and Metals (made marketable) conveyed through the Tunnel||2s 0d ditto.|
|For all Coal, Coke, Culm, Lime, Timber, Bark, Corn, Grain and all other Goods passing through the Tunnel||3s 0d ditto.|
|For all Building-stone, Slate, &c. as above, carried on any Part of the Canal or its Branches, except in the Tunnel||1s 0d ditto.|
|For all Coals, Coke, &c||1s 6d ditto.|
Ores may be carried to the Dressing Floor, or the Waste or Rubbish of Mines or Lodes be removed to proper Places on any part of the Canal free of Toll.
Besides the above rates, all goods which pass into or from the Tamar River, and are not loaded at Morwelham Quay, are to pay as below, for reimbursing the owner or occupier thereof, for the loss of wharfage on such goods, viz.
|For all Slate||0s 3d per Ton.|
|For all Lime-stone||0s 6d ditto.|
|For all Ores, (made marketable) Iron, Bricks, Tiles, Clay, Sand, Earth and Dung||0s 6d ditto.|
|For all other Goods||1s 0d ditto.|
In addition to the above, One Penny per Ton is to be paid on all Goods entering the Canal Basin at Morwelham.
By an estimate furnished by Mr. John Taylor and Mr. J. Hitchins, dated in February, 1803, it appeared that the expense of completing the canal, to be 16 feet at top, 8 feet at bottom, and 3 feet deep, and tunnel, would amount to £36,958, 16s.
From the Tamar River, the first one-eighth of a mile is level with high water at Morwelham Quay; thence in a quarter of a mile is a rise of 237 feet; thence about three miles and one-eighth to Tavistock is level; the branch is level to New Quarry about a mile and five-eighths; thence to Millhill Bridge, three-eighths of a mile, is a rise of 19½ feet.
The locks upon this canal are to be calculated for boats of 12½ feet long and 5 feet wide; but the company may erect inclined planes for boats or boxes of goods, instead of locks.
Morwelham Down, through which the tunnel passes, is of hard rock and supposed to be intersected by several fissures or lodes filled with metallic ores. It is the property of the Duke of Bedford, who is the most considerable subscriber to the undertaking, and who has leased to the company the mines which may be found in tunnelling.
The canal crosses the Lumbourn River near Crebar by an aqueduct bridge two hundred yards long and 60 feet above the river. Its principal object is the export of slate, copper-ore and other minerals and agricultural produce; and the import of coals, lime and other articles for the supply of Tavistock and the neighbouring country.
11 George IV. Cap. 121, Royal Assent 17th June, 1830.
THIS noble river has its source in that romantic district which separates the counties of Perth and Argyle, and but a few miles north of the head of the beautiful Loch Lomond. Its course is eastwardly, embracing Locbs Dochart and Tay; and thence in a southwardly course by the town of Dunkeld and Scone Palace, (the ancient residence of the Scottish Kings) to the city and port of Perth, from which place it gradually widens in a considerable estuary, and falls into the North Sea between Button Ness and Tentmoor Point, about five miles east of the port and harbour of Dundee, and twenty-eight from Perth.
The Tay is navigable at spring tides to the city of Perth, but much obstructed by the floods at one time and the shallows at another, but more in particular by one situate betwixt the quays of Perth and the Friar Town, called the Weel Ford; to remedy which, and to improve the navigation generally, an act was obtained on the 17th June, 1830, entitled, 'An Act for enlarging, improving and maintaining the Port and Harbour of Perth; for improving the Navigation of the River Tay to the said city; and for other Purposes therewith connected;' and by which, twenty-six commissioners are appointed to carry the purposes of this act into execution.
The proposed improvements consist chiefly in deepening about fifteen hundred yards in length of the river from the Towns-ford, opposite the Merchant's Pier, on the west side of the river to Friar Town, so as to admit vessels drawing 9 feet 6 inches at neap tides, at that part of the river nearest to Perth, and 14 feet 6 inches at Friar Town Deeps. The quays also are to be rebuilt to the extent of nearly eight hundred yards. Mr. James Jardine was the engineer employed on this business, who estimated the expense at £14,504, the whole of which is to be paid out of the funds of the city of Perth. In coasideration of the outlay of this sum, the act empowers the commissioners to demand the following rates.
For every Vessel, Ship, Boat, Bark or Lighter, for every Time it comes to the Port or Harbour of Perth, and within that Portion of the Precincts of the said Port and Harbour, lying above the point where the Willowgate Branch of the River falls into the main Stream below Friar Town the following Dues shall be paid.
|If not Registered at any Port of the United Kingdom (register)||4½d per Ton.|
|If Registered at any Port of the United Kingdom||3d ditto.|
|If only employed in carrying Goods or other Commodities to or from Dundee, or other Ports in the River Tay||3d ditto.|
|For every Steam Vessel enployed in the River Tay in carrying Passengers and their Luggage exclusively, which shall enter or leave the said Port or Harbour within the Limits set forth as above||one third ditto.|
For every Vessel remaining at the Harbour or Quays of Perth more than Six Months, one-third more of the above Dues; so remaining One Year, double the above Dues; and the above Rates for every Six Mouths it shall so remain beyond One Year.
For the additional rates and duties leviable upon goods imported and exported, we refer the reader to the Schedule B at the end of the act, as they are far too numerous for our insertion. In addition to these, however, there are the tolls, rates and duties payable to the Lord Provost, Magistrates and Town Council of Perth, comprised under the name of Custom, Anchorage, Sess Boll, Shore Dues and Coal Deacon's Dues; but as these are charges arising from custom and unsanctioned by any parliamentary enactment, we purposely omit them also.
On the credit of the dues, the commissioners may borrow £16,000 sterling for the purposes of the act; and, for further security, the Lord Provost, Magistrates and City Council of Perth are empowered to interpose the security of the common funds of the city, at the same time. Their rights, dues, duties, privileges and jurisdictions are protected by a clause in the act; so also is the right of free port and harbour claimed by the Right Honorable the Earl of Kinnoul, at the Bridge End of Perth, as a part and pertinent of the Barony of Balhousie.
It is provided, by the last clause in the act, that the payment of dues and duties shall not commence until £5,000 of the requisite fund for improving the navigation has been advanced.
The improvement of a navigation, extending nearly thirty miles into one of the most fertile districts of Scotland, cannot fail to be attended with considerable advantage to the trading community of a city where the manufacture of linen cloth and leather, and the processes of bleaching and printing are carried on to a considerable extent.
48 George III. Cap. 48, Royal Assent 27th May, 1808.
9 George IV. Cap. 97, Royal Assent 19th June, 1828.
THE first act for executing this useful work was obtained in 1808, under the title of 'An Act for making a navigable Cut from the East Side of the River Tees, near Stockton, into the said River near Portrack, in the county of Durham; and making various other Improvements in time Navigation of the said River between the town of Stockton and the Sea.' By this act certain persons are incorporated as "The Tees Navigation Company," with power to make a navigable cut from the Tees, from the bridge across that river at Stockton to the junction of the same with the sea at Portrack, and to make the same navigable for ships and other vessels, and to improve, open, dig, widen and cleanse the said river, with its creeks and outlets, in any part between Stockton and the sea; and also to remove, cut through, or otherwise destroy any rocks, shoals, shallows or other obstructions lying near the bar or mouth of the said river, for stopping the present course of which and for diverting the same, they are also empowered to make embankments, which, however, must be maintained at their own expense. The proprietors have power to enter and use lands for the purposes of this act, proper compensation being made to the owners thereof; for the settlement of which, commissioners are appointed by the act, with authority to fill up vacancies. For completing the works the company may raise £7,000, in shares of £50 each; and, should this prove insufficient, they may raise an additional sum of £5,000, either by the creation of new shares, or by mortgage of the works, or on optional notes.
For paying interest on the capital advanced, borrowed money and other contingencies, they are authorized to demand the following
|For every Ship trading to or from the Tees, from or to any Port in Great Britain||0s 6d per Ton.|
|For ditto, to or from any Foreign Port, except British Vessels laden with Norway Timber only||0s 9d ditto.|
|For every British Vessel laden with Norway Timber only, trading to the Tees||0s 6d ditto.|
|For every Foreign Ship trading to or from the Tees, from or to any Foreign Port, except Foreign Ships laden with Norway Timber only||1s 6d per Ton.|
|For ditto laden with Norway Timber only||1s 0d ditto.|
Ships of War, Ships in Distress and all Vessels in his Majesty's Service are exempted from these Rates.
The company have also a power to erect light-houses on or near the bar of the Tees, and to charge for them, on every vessel passing the bar, the following
|For all British Coasting Vessels entering or going out of the River Tees with Goods chargeable in the aforesaid Tonnage Duties at the Rate of Sixpence per Ton, for each Lower Mast||5s 0d per Ton.|
|For all British Vessels from or to Foreign Ports chargeable with the aforesaid Tonnage Duties at the Rate of Sixpence and Nine-pence per Ton, for each Lower Mast||7s 6d ditto.|
|For all Foreign Vessels chargeable to the aforesaid Tonnage Duties at the Rate of One Shilling and One Shilling and Sixpence per Ton, for each Lower Mast||10s 0d ditto.|
|For all British Vessels entering only for Anchorage, for each Lower Mast for passing Inwards and Outwards||7s 6d ditto.|
|For all Foreign Vessels entering only for Anchorage, for each Lower Mast forpassing Inwards and Outwards||15s 0d ditto.|
In the year 1828 the company obtained a second act, entitled, 'An Act to enable the Tees Navigation Company to make a navigable Cut from the East Side of the River Tees, near Portrack in the county of Durham, into the said River near Newport in the township and parish of Acklam, in the North Riding of the county of York.'
By this act the company have the usual powers for making the projected cut, granted to them; they are likewise authorized to raise, for the purposes of this act, £20,000 by the creation of new shares; and they may, if needful, borrow £30,000 in addition to the said £20,000. Dividends of £10 per cent, to be paid annually on shares created under both acts, providing first for the paying off of the regular interest on £3,000 borrowed under power of the former act, and the interest on such sums as shall be borrowed under this act. The proprietors may, from time to time, lessen the rates and again advance them, if requisite; they may also reduce the dues on foreign ships and goods. Owners of land on the north side of the canal may keep a ferry-boat on the same; and the canal is declared to be free from any control of the Commissioners of Sewers. There are other clauses
saving time rights of several individuals, of the See of Durham, and of the Corporation of Stockton.
This line of navigation commences in the Tees at Stockton Bridge; it makes a very considerable bend below this point, being indeed almost in a circle; it is also crossed by the Stockton and Darlington Railroad, parallel with which road the new cut is made from near the crossing to its opening into the Tees Mouth.
The work is one of great utility for vessels trading to this part of the country; and since the Darlington Railroad was carried to Stockton, vessels are enabled to take coal from hence for the London market; and when the railway is extended, by the suspension bridge across the Tees, to the proposed docks, this trade will be considerably increased.
|2 Henry VI. C. 9, R. A. - - - - 1423.||14 Geo. III. C. 91, R. A. 14th June, 1774.|
|4 Henry VII. C. 15, R. A. - - - - 1487.||15 Geo. III. C. 11, R. A. 30th Mar. 1775.|
|23 Henry VIII. C. 18, R. A. - - - - 1535.||17 Geo. III. C. 18, R. A. 30th April, 1777.|
|3 James I. C. 20, R. A. - - - - 1605.||28 Geo. III. C. 51, R. A. 11th June, 1788.|
|21 James I. C. 32, R. A. - - - - 1623.||34 Geo. 111. C. 65, R. A. 23rd May, 1794.|
|7 Wm. III. C. 16, R. A. 22nd April, 1695.||35 Geo. III. C. 84, R. A. 2nd June, 1795.|
|11 & l2Wm. III. C. 21, R. A. 11th Apr. 1700.||35 Geo. III. C. 106, R. A. 22nd June, 1795.|
|12 Anne, C. 17, R. A. - - - - 1713.||45 Geo. III. C. 63, R. A. 27th June, 1805.|
|3 Geo. II. C. 11, R. A. 15th May, 1730.||45 Geo III. C. 98, R. A. 10th July, 1805.|
|7 Geo. II. C. 29, R. A. 13th June, 1733.||47 Geo. III. C. 31, R. A. 1st Aug. 1807.|
|11 Geo. II. G. 12, R. A. 29th May, 1738.||47 Geo. III. C. 70, R. A. 8th Aug. 1807.|
|18 Geo. II. C. 21, R. A. 2nd May, 1745.||50 Geo. III. C. 204, R. A. 20th June, 1810.|
|22 Geo. II. C. 48, R. A. 13th June, 1749.||52 Geo. III. C. 46, R. A. 20th April, 1812.|
|23 Geo. II. C. 26, R. A. 12th April, 1750.||52 Geo. III. C. 47, R. A. 20th April, 1812.|
|24 Geo. II. C. 8, R. A. 22nd Mar. 1731.||54 Geo. III. C. 223, R. A. 27th July, 1814.|
|32 Geo. II. C. 16, R. A. 2nd June, 1759.||2 Geo. IV. C. 123, R. A 2nd July, 1821.|
|4 Geo. III. C. 12, R. A. 5th April, 1764.||5 Geo. IV. C. 123, R. A. 17th June, 1824.|
|11 Geo. III. C. 45, R. A. 29th April, 1771.||8 Geo. IV. C. 75, R. A. 14th June, 1827.|
|11 Geo. III. C. - R. A. 8th May, 1771.||10 Geo. IV. C. 130, R. A. 19th June, 1929. (sic)|
THIS noble river, the most important in a commercial point of view of any in the world, has one of its sources at a place called The Head of the Isis, or Thames, near the road running from Cirencester to Tetbury, in the county of Gloucester, whence, under the name of the Isis, it flows to Latton, near Cricklade, where it is joined by another branch, whose source is about three miles from Cheltenham; thence passing Cricklade, where it is joined by another branch from the foot of Cleeve Hill, it runs easterly to Lechlade, at which place it becomes navigable, and
where the Thames and Severn Canal locks into it; continuing a very circuitous course, leaving Faringdon on the south and Bampton on the north, it proceeds through a part of the grounds of Blenheim, to Oxford, where the Oxford Canal enters it; proceeding southerly it passes by Nuneham Park to Abingdon, where the Wilts and Berks Canal joins it; taking a circuitous course, inclining to the south-east, to near the town of Dorchester, where it is joined by the Thame, and said to obtain the name of Thames, from Thame and Isis; it then proceeds in a southerly direction by Bensington, Wallingford, Streatley, Basilden Park, Maple Durham and Purley Hall, to Caversham Bridge near Reading, where the Kennet Navigation joins it; passing Caversham Park and Holme Park, and bending northerly it proceeds by Park Place to Henley; from thence passing by Fawley Court, Spinfield Lodge and Bisham Abbey, it runs to Great Marlow; and thence in a south-easterly course, by Maidenhead, on its way to Windsor; whence, winding round the Castle Hill, it proceeds, by Datchet, Staines and Chertsey, to near Woburn Park and Ham; here it is joined by the River Wey, which connects the Basingstoke Canal and the Wey and Arun Navigation with it; it now passes Oatlands, Ashley Park, Apps Court and Hampton Court Palace, in an easterly course to Thames Ditton, thence northerly to Kingston; and thence, in the same direction, by Teddington, Twickenham, and Ham House, to Richmond; it afterwards passes Isleworth and Sion House, to near Brentford, where the Grand Junction Canal communicates with it at the mouth of the River Brent; it then continues a winding course, by Kew, Brentford, Mortlake and Chiswick, to that part of Hammersrnith where it is crossed by the suspension bridge, Putney and Fulham, to Wandsworth, at which latter place the Surrey Railway communicates with it by means of a basin. A little lower down it is joined by the Kensington Canal. It pursues its course through London to a short distance below the tower, where the Saint Katherine Docks have recently been erected. A little further down are the London Docks; and at Rotherhithe there is a tunnel which has been cut under and about half-way across the river, but has been stopped, not only by the water getting through but by want of funds; it is next joined by the Grand Surrey Canal; and at
Limehouse, on the opposite side of the river, communicates with the Regent's Canal; as well as with the River Lea, a little further down, by the Limehouse Cut.
Proceeding in an easterly direction, it reaches the Isle of Dogs, round which it snakes a winding and circuitous course by Deptford and Greenwich; but a canal having been cut across the Isle of Dogs, connecting the river and cutting off a large bend, the distance is greatly shortened. It passes the East and West India Docks at Blackwall, and the Commercial Docks on the south side near the Deptford Road, and at Bow Creek receiving the River Lea, continues its course by Woolwich, where a canal is cut up to the Arsenal, a little below which, on the north side, the River Roding falls into it. Passing on to Purfleet, it is joined on its south side by the River Darent; and about five miles lower down is a short railway to Gray's Thurrock Lime Works; thence it flows on to Gravesend, where the Thames and Medway Canal unites with it; continuing its course eastward, it reaches Sheerness, where the River Medway and others join it, and where it forms a large estuary, called the mouth of the Thames.
The acts of parliament relating to this river are so numerous, (as will be seen by referring to the head of this article) that we shall only avail ourselves of those parts of them which we consider necessary as a matter of reference, touching the navigation of this river. The first, therefore, from which we shall make any extract is that passed in 1730, and entitled, 'An Act for reviving and amending an Act made in the Sixth and Seventh Years of time Reign of his late Majesty King William the Third, entitled, An Act to prevent Exactions of the Occupiers of Locks and Weirs upon the River of Thames, westward, and for ascertaining the Rates of Water Carriage upon the said River;' which states that the act of the 7th of King William III. therein referred to, having long since expired, and in consequence of which, the occupiers of locks and weirs on the River Thames, from the city of London, westward, to Cricklade; in the county of Wilts, being in the habit of exacting such exorbitant sums for the passage of barges and other vessels, as greatly to discourage navigation, and increase the rates of water carriage upon the river; and that tolls are now demanded from men haling barges and other vessels on
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