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This Book "Priestley's Navigable Rivers and Canals" by Joseph Priestley was previously published in April 1831. NOTE: Oringinally called "Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways, of Great Britain".
For more information see About this Book

Index Page Link to Previous Page 501

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branch of the Churwell; at Nell Bridge it is crossed by the turnpike-road, and pursuing the same southerly direction, leaving Deddington on the west and Aynhoe on the east, it terminates in the River Thames at the city of Oxford, 192 feet above the level of the sea. Its original line throughout is very winding, but particularly so from its commencement to the summit level. From its commencement in the Coventry Canal at Longford to Hill Morton, a distance of twenty-six miles and a half, it is on a level; in the next half mile there is a rise of 19 feet; it then traverses on a level to Napton for about seventeen miles, in which distance it communicates with the Grand Junction and the Warwick and Napton Canals; in the next two miles, the end of the summit at Marston Dobs Wharf, there is a rise of 55 feet 5 inches; for the next ten miles and three quarters is the extent of the summit level; in the next distance of seven miles and a quarter, there is a fall of 77 feet 4 inches to Banbury; from thence to the River Thames at Oxford, where it terminates, is twenty-seven miles and a quarter, with 118 feet fall, making the total length ninety-one miles. The summit level is 55 feet above the northern end of the Grand Junction Canal. It has an aqueduct of twelve arches of 22 feet span each, over the valley at Brinklow, and two others at Casford and Clifton over the Swift and Avon Rivers, which unite in the fork made there by this canal; at Newbold there is a tunnel of a hundred and twenty-five yards in length, passing under the Church Yard and Town's Street; and near Fenny Compton, not far from the summit level, another eleven hundred and eighty-eight yards long. This canal was originally projected by Mr. Brindley, who in 1769 was appointed engineer, and after him Mr. Whitworth. The company in their first act had power to raise £150,000 by shares of £100 each, and if needful a further sum of £50,000. Both these sums, along with £22,300 more, had in 1775 been expended, when the canal was only finished so far as Napton. They again applied to parliament for powers to borrow £70,000; this enabled them in 1778 to complete the canal to Banbury; and again by 26 George III. they obtained parliamentary power to borrow a further sum of £60,000, which enabled them to finish the work, and upon the 1st January, 1790, the canal was opened to Oxford.

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The first act for this stupendous undertaking was passed in 1769, under the title of 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal, from the Coventry Canal Navigation to the city of Oxford.' A second was passed in 1775, entitled, 'An Act to amend an Act made in the Ninth of his present Majesty for making and maintaining a navigable Canal, from the Coventry Canal Navigation to the city of Oxford.' A third in 1786, entitled, 'An Act to amend and render effectual Two Acts of the Ninth and Fifteenth of his present Majesty, for making and maintaining a naviqable Canal, from the Coventry Canal Navigation to the city of Oxford.' A fourth in 1794, entitled, 'An Act for amending and altering certain Acts of Parliament for making and maintaining a navigable Canal, from the Coventry Canal Navigation to the city of Oxford.' A fifth in 1799, entitled, 'An Act for explaining, amending and rendering more effectual several Acts, passed in the Ninth, Fifteenth, Twenty-sixth and Thirty-fourth of his present Majesty, for making and maintaining a navigable Canal, from the Coventry Canal Navigation to the city of Oxford.' A sixth in 1807, entitled, 'An Act for amending several Acts for making and maintaining a navigable Canal, from the Coventry Canal Navigation to the city of Oxford.' A seventh in 1808, entitled, 'An Act for amending and enlarging the Powers of the several Acts relating to the Oxford Canal Navigation;' and an eighth in 1829, under the title of 'An Act to consolidate and extend the Powers and Provisions of the several Acts relating to the Oxford Canal Navigation.'

As this last act consolidates all the parts of the previous acts, which are not repealed, it will not be necessary to notice them any further than as their clauses and provisions come into this. The company is chartered as "The Company of Proprietors of the Oxford Canal Navigation," with powers to complete that work from Longford, near the city of Coventry, to the city of Oxford; for accomplishing which they were, by the first and subsequent acts, authorized to raise certain sums of money, amounting in the whole to the sum of £278,648, in shares of £100 each and parts, and to demand certain rates for tonnage, wharfage, and other dues, which it is not requisite to enumerate here, as the regular charges are specified in the consolidated act of George IV. By that act

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the property of this canal is vested in the company of proprietors, who are to be responsible for all debts formerly, now, or hereafter contracted. The books of accounts and all other documents kept under former acts are to be retained as evidence, and the company has power generally to maintain the canal already made, to make reservoirs for supplying the Warwick and Napton Canal with water, and for rendering navigable the following cuts, which are so numerous and difficult to describe, as to induce us to use the words of the act.

A cut or canal from the Oxford Canal at Five Acres, in Sow, to join the Oxford Canal at Sow Common, to the westward of a bridge called Stone Bridge; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal at Colt's Close, in Sow aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at Culvert Close, to the south-westward of a bridge called Cater's Bridge; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal at Noon Hill, in Ansty in the county of the city of Coventry, to join the Oxford Canal at Topcoal Piece, in Shilton in the county of Warwick; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal, opposite to the termination of the last-mentioned cut or canal in Shilton aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at a garden in the occupation of Joseph Astell, in Ansty aforesaid; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal, at Bottom Mill Field, in Ansty, to the eastward of a bridge called Squire's Bridge, to join the Oxford Canal at Bridge Close, in Ansty aforesaid; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal opposite to the termination of the last-described cut or canal in Ansty aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at Hill Close, in Ansty aforesaid; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal opposite to the termination of the last-described cut or canal in Ansty aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at Horse Close, in Combe in the county of Warwick, to the eastward of a bridge called Pridmore's Foot Bridge; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal opposite to the termination of the last-described cut or canal in Combe aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal, at Broad Ground, in Combe afore said; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal at Broad Ground, in Combe aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at Horse Close, in Combe aforesaid; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal at House Ground, in Combe aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at Combe aforesaid, to the southward of a bridge called

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Lord Craven's Bridge; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal opposite to the termination of the last-mentioned cut or canal in Combe aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at Bridge Close in Stretton under Fosse, in the county of Warwick; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal opposite to the termination of the last-mentioned cut or canal in Stretton under Fosse aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at River Field, in Stretton under Fosse aforesaid; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal at the Hill, in Newbold Revell in the county of Warwick, to join the Oxford Canal at the Cherry Orchard, in Easenhall in the county of Warwick; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal opposite to the termination of the last-described cut or canal in Easenhall aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at Hall Oaks Close, in Easenhall aforesaid; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal opposite to the termination of time last-described cut or canal in Easenhall aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at Hall Oaks Wood, in Easenhall aforesaid; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal at Crowthorne Close, in Easenhall aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at Pierce's Bottom Field, in Little Harborough, in the county of Warwick; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal opposite to the termination of the last-described cut or canal in Little Harborough aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at Home Close, in Little Harborough aforesaid, to the westward of a bridge called Walton's Bridge; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal at Buswell Leys, in Little Harborough aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal near a bridge called Old Park Bridge, in Little Harborough and Little Lawford aforesaid; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal opposite to the termination of the last-mentioned cut or canal in Little Harborough and Little Lawford aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at or near the west end of Fall's Turn, in Little Lawford aforesaid; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal at Fall's Turn in Newbold upon Avon aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at First Cocklands, in Newbold upon Avon aforesaid, to the westward of a bridge called Perkin's Bridge; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal at Newbold upon Avon aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at Mowlands, in Newbold upon Avon aforesaid; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal at Newbold upon Avon aforesaid, to join the Oxford

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Canal at Below the Barn, in Newbold upon Avon aforesaid; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal opposite to the termination of the last-described cut or canal in Newbold upon Avon aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at Penn Close, in Brownsover, to the westward of a bridge called Master's Bridge; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal at Brownsover, to join the Oxford Canal at Arnold's Ground, in Clifton upon Dunsmore; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal at Dunsland's Meadow, in Clifton upon Dunsmore aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at Clifton upon Dunsmore aforesaid; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal at the Heath, to join the Oxford Canal at another place called the Heath, in Clifton upon Dunsmore aforesaid, to the westward of a bridge called Double Bridge; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal at Clifton upon Dunsmore aforesaid, to the westward of a draw-bridge, to join the Oxford Canal at Hill Morton in the county of Warwick, opposite to the lock called the Lower Lock; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal at Hill Morton Wharf; to join the Oxford Canal to the eastward of a foot bridge in Hill Morton aforesaid; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal opposite to the termination of the last-mentioned cut or canal in Hill Morton aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at Kilsby in the county of Northampton; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal at Kilsby aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at Haswell's Meadow, in Barby in the county of Northampton; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal at Barby Haugh, in Barby aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at Dairy Ground, in Barby aforesaid, northward of a foot bridge; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal at Barby aforesaid, to the northward of the said foot bridge, to join the Oxford Canal at Barby aforesaid, to the south-westward of the last-mentioned foot bridge; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal opposite to the termination of the last-mentioned cut or canal in Barby aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at Wormborough, in Barby aforesaid, to the north-westward of a bridge; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal opposite to the termination of the last-mentioned cut or canal in Barby aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at Plough Meadow, in Onley, in the county of Northampton, to the west of a bridge called Barby Wood Bridge; also a cut or canal from the

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Oxford Canal at Rowdyke, in Onley aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at the Meadow, in Willoughby in the county of Warwick; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal, opposite to the termination of the last-mentioned cut or canal in Willoughby aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at Willoughby aforesaid; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal opposite to the termination of the last-mentioned cut or canal in Willoughby aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at Willoughby aforesaid, to the southward of a foot bridge called Ellard's Foot Bridge; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal at Two Acre Denny Furlong, in Braunston in the county of Northampton, to join the Oxford Canal at Kiln Leys, in Wolfhampcote in the county of Warwick; also a cut or canal from the Oxford Canal opposite to the termination of the last-mentioned cut or canal in Wolfhampcote aforesaid, to join the Oxford Canal at the Eighteens in Wolfhampcote aforesaid.

On the completion of which cuts the following are to be discontinued, and if the canal be not completed in five years, the powers thereof are to cease.

The part of the existing canal which passes from the commencement of the cut or canal herein-before described as commencing at the Five Acres, in Sow aforesaid, to the termination of the same cut or canal at Sow Common, in Sow aforesaid, to the westward of a bridge called Stone Bridge; also the part of the existing canal which passes from the termination of the cut or canal before described as terminating at Horse Close, in Combe aforesaid, to the eastward of a bridge called Pridmore's Foot Bridge, to Sandhole Turn, Hopsford Puddle, in Hopsford in the county of Warwick; also the part of the existing canal which passes from the termination of the cut or canal before described as terminating at Bridge Close, in Stretton under Fosse aforesaid, to a wharf called Stretton Wharf, in Stretton under Fosse aforesaid; also the part of the existing canal which lies between a bridge called Thompson's Bridge, in Brinklow in the county of Warwick, and the commencement of the cut or canal before described as commencing at the Hill, in Newbold Revell aforesaid; also the part of the existing canal which passes from the Basin in Fennis Field, in King's Newnham in the county of Warwick, to the termination of the cut or canal before described as terminating at Pierce's

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Bottom Field, in Little Harborough aforesaid; also the part of the existing canal which passes from the commencement of the cut or canal herein-before described as commencing at Buswell Leys, in Little Harborough aforesaid, to the termination of the same cut or canal near a bridge called Old Park Bridge, in Little Harborough and Little Lawford aforesaid; also the part of the existing canal which passes from the limeworks called Mr. Walker's Further Limeworks, in Newbold upon Avon aforesaid, to the commencement of the cut or canal herein-before described as commencing at the east end of Fall's Turn, in Newbold upon Avon aforesaid; also the part of the existing canal which passes from the termination of the cut or canal before-described as terminating at Below the Barn, in Newbold upon Avon aforesaid, to a wharf called Rugby Wharf, in Newbold upon Avon aforesaid, which last mentioned part of the existing canal lies in the parish or township of Newbold upon Avon aforesaid; also the part of the existing canal which passes from the termination of the cut or canal before described as terminating at Penn Close, in Brownsover aforesaid, to the westward of a bridge called Master's Bridge, to Cosford Puddle, in Cosford in the county of Warwick; also the part of the existing canal which passes from the termination of the cut or canal before described as terminating at Arnold's Ground, in Clifton upon Dunsmor, aforesaid, to Clifton Wharf, in Clifton upon Dunsmore aforesaid; also the part of the existing canal which passes from Messieurs Pickford and Company's Offices, in Braunston aforesaid, to the commencement of the cut or canal before described as commencing at Two Acre Denny Furlong, in Braunston aforesaid. The object for making so many new cuts and abandoning certain parts of the old line, has been to shorten the distance, in order to give greater expedition to the trade. The company are authorized to claim the following as

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Coal, except on the First Two Miles from the Junction with the Coventry Canal at Longford 1d per Ton, per Mile.
For all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize 1½d ditto, ditto.

And on the New Cuts the same Charge as if the Canal had been continued the former Length.

The Coventry Canal Company are to take the same Rate for Coal, per Mile, on the Two Miles excepted in the above Scale. And instead of the Rates payable under the former Acts, the following are to be taken.

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TONNAGE RATES IN GROSS.

For all Coals and Coke which shall pass from the Oxford Canal into the Grand Junction Canal, except such as shall have been previously navigated along the Warwick and Napton Canal 2s 9d per Ton.
For all Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Things, not being Coals, Coke, Lime or Lime-stone, which shall pass from any navigable Canal, except the Warwick and Napton Canal, into the Oxford Canal, and thence into the Grand Junction Canal, or from the Grand Junction Canal into the Oxford Canal, and thence into any other navigable Canal except the Warwick and Napton Canal 4s 4d ditto.
For all Coals and Coke which shall pass from the Warwick and Napton Canal into the Oxford Canal 1s 6d ditto.
For all Bar, Pig, Rod, Hoop and Sheet Iron, Castings, and other unmanufactured Iron and unmanufactured Steel, and Warwickshire Sand or Freestone, which shall pass from the warwick and Napton Canal into the Oxford Canal, or from the Oxford Canal into the Warwick and Napton Canal 1s 2d ditto.
For all Grain which shall pass from the Warwick and Napton Canal into the Oxford Canal, or from the Oxford Canal into the Warwick and Napton Canal 1s 6d ditto.
For all Lime and Lime-stone which shall pass from the Warwick and Napton Canal into the Oxford Canal 0s 4d ditto.
For all other Goods. Wares, Merchandize and Things which shall pass from the Warwick and Napton Canal into the Oxford canal, from the Oxford Canal into the Warwick and Napton Canal 3s 0d ditto.

Such Gross Tonnage to be taken instead of Mileage Rates, for Coal or Coke passing along the said Canal, between the End of the Second Mile from Longford and its Junction with the Warwick and Napton; and for Pig, Bar, Rod, Hoop or Sheet-iron, Castings and all other manufactured and unmanufactured Iron, Steel, Grain, Lime-stone, Lime, Sand, Freestone, and all other Goods, between the Junction with the Warwick and Napton and the Coventry Canal, and vice versa.

Warehouses and wharfs may be built and the following demanded as

WAREHOUSING AND WARFAGE RATES.

For all Coals, Metals and other Goods whatever 2d per Ton.
For all Parcels not weighing more than Fifty-six Pounds 2d each.
For all ditto not weighing more than Six Hundred Pounds 4d ditto.
For all ditto exceeding One Thousand Pounds 6d per Ton.

If they remain above Twenty-four Hours, One Half-penny per Ton shall be paid for Wharfage and Two-pence per Ton for Warehousing for the first Seven Days, and the same Sums respectively for every further Seven Days.

The company are authorized to raise for the completion of the work, £131,877, on mortgage, at £5 per cent. interest; but they may borrow at a lower rate. It is impossible to describe all the public benefits derived from this important work; but by inspecting our map, it will be seen that the direct line of water communication is through a certain part of this canal, from London to Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester and the extensive manufacturing districts of the middle and northern parts of the kingdom; and further, it is also the means of conveying an

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immense quantity of coal from the coal district in the neighbourhood of Birmingham, to Oxford and other towns situate upon the banks of the Thames.

OYSTERMOUTH RAILWAY.

44 George III. Cap. 55, Royal Assent 29th June, 1804.

THIS railway commences at the Brewery Bank in the town of Swansea, where it communicates with the Swansea Canal; it then travels along the banks of the Swansea Bay in a south-westerly direction past Sketty, Lelbyputt and Norton Halls, when turning towards the east it terminates at Oystermouth, not far from Castle Hill Field; from Swansea northwards it is continued on the west side of the Swansea Canal as far as Morriston, communicating with several mines on the line.

The act for executing this work was passed in the year 1804, under the title of 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway or Tramroad from the town of Swansea, into the parish of Oystermouth, in the county of Glamorgan.' By it the proprietors are incorporated as "The Oystermouth Railway or Tramroad Company," with power to raise £8,000, in shares of £100 each; and in case this should prove inadequate, a further sum of £4,000, either by subscription amongst themselves, or by the creation of new shares, or by mortgage of the works. They are also empowered to collect the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Iron, Goods, Wares and Merchandize, except as below 4d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Iron Castings 3d ditto. ditto.
For all Pig-iron 2½d ditto. ditto.
For all Iron-stone, Calcined Iron-ore, Iron-ore, Rotten stone, Coals, Culm, Stone-coal, Coke, Cinders, Charcoal, Timber, Stones, Tiles, Bricks and Clay 1½d ditto. ditto.
For all Lime-stone, Lime, Sand and all Kinds of Manure 1d ditto. ditto.

Fractions of a Mile to be paid for as the Quarters therein, and of a Ton, for a Quarter of a Mile, as a whole Ton.

The Company also have the power of charging according to their discretion for Parcels not exceeding Five Hundred Weight.

This railroad runs through a district full of mines and minerals, and affords all the facilities for shipping their produce which works of this description are intended to supply.

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PEAK FOREST CANAL.

34 George III. Cap. 26, Royal Assent 28th March, 1794

39 & 40 George III. Cap. 38, Royal Assent 30th May, 1800.

45 George III. Cap. 12, Royal Assent 18th March, 1805.

THE Peak Forest Canal commences in the Manchester, Ashton-under-Lyne and Oldham Canal, to the west of the town of Ashton-under-Lyne; at this point it crosses the Tame River, and following a direction nearly parallel to the course of that river, continues for some miles upon the same level; it next branches off by Butterhouse Green and Chadkirk to Hyde Bank Tunnel; it then crosses the Mersey a little below Water Meetings, by an aqueduct 90 feet high; passing this aqueduct it arrives at the parish of Marple, where it rises 212 feet by means of sixteen locks to the summit level, which extends to Whaley Bridge and Bugsworth; at the top lock of this summit it is joined by the Macclesfield Canal. At Bugsworth a railway commences, which passing by Chapel Milton and Chapel Townend, where there is an inclined plane six hundred yards long, rising 4 inches per yard, proceeds to Limestone Rock in Peak Forest, a distance of seven miles with a rise of about three-eighths of an inch per yard throughout its whole length, deducting, of course, that part occupied by the inclined plane above-mentioned.

The first act for this work was obtained in 1794, under the title of 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from and out of the Canal Navigation from Manchester to or near Ashton-under-Lyne and Oldham, in the county palatine of Lancaster, at the intended Aqueduct Bridge in Duckenfleld, in the county of Chester, to or near to Chapel Milton, in the county of Derby; and a Communication by Railways or Stone Roads from thence to Load's Knowl, within Peak Forest, in the said county of Derby; and a Branch from and out of the said intended Canal to Whaley Bridge, in the said county of Chester.' By this act the proprietors, who are incorporated as "The Company of Proprietors of the Peak Forest Canal," are empowered to make the canal and railroad, with all necessary works belonging to the same. By the act also Mr. Hodgson is empowered to make tunnels under

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such parts of the canal as shall pass his estate at Hagg's Bank; mines are reserved to lords of manors, but these are not to be worked to the prejudice of the navigation. For executing this work the proprietors are empowered to raise £90,000, in shares of £100 and in case this should prove insufficient, they may borrow a further sum of £60,000, on mortgage of the rates. For paying interest of capital and other contingencies, they may demand the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Lime-stone 1½d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Stone (except Limestone,) Lime, Coal and other Minerals 2d ditto. ditto.
For all Dung, Clay, Sand and Gravel not passing through a Lock 1d ditto. ditto.
For all Dung, Clay, Sand and Gravel passing through a Lock 2d ditto. ditto.
For all Timber, Goods, wares and other Merchandize, and all other Articles, Matters and Things not herein-before particularized 3d ditto. ditto.

Fractions of a Mile to pay as a Mile; of a Ton as the Quarters therein, and of a Quarter as a Quarter.

The Sum of Three-pence per Ton is charged for Wharfage for any Time under Ten Days, and the further Sum of One Half-penny per Ton per Day, for any greater length of Time than Ten Days.

No Boat under Fifteen Tons Burthen, when the water does not, or under Ten Tons when the Water does, flow over the Weirs of any of the Locks, shall pass through any Lock without Consent in Writing, or unless the Owner or Navigator of such Boat shall pay Tonnage equal to Fifteen Tons or Ten Tons respectively as aforesaid.

Proprietors of mines of coal, stone, furnace, or other works are empowered to make branch railways of not more than two thousand yards in length, and branch cuts or canals of not more than four miles in length, to communicate with the said canal or railway, under certain limitations.

Immediately after the act was obtained this work was commenced, but after five years the funds were completely exhausted, and application was therefore made to parliament for a second act, which was granted in 1800, under the title of 'An Act for altering and amending an Act passed in the Thirty-fourth Year of his present Majesty, for making and maintaining the Peak Forest Canal, and for granting to the Company of Proprietors of the said Canal further and other Powers.' By this act it is stated, that of the £90,000 directed to be raised by the first act, £80,600 only had been subscribed, and only part of the subscription paid, whilst of the £60,000 directed to be borrowed, only £36,540 had

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been obtained, all which had been expended by the proprietors on the work; they are therefore by this act empowered to raise, either by new shares or by promissory notes under the common seal, any sums necessary to complete the undertaking, provided the same shall not in the whole, amount, with the sums already raised, to more than £150,000.

Notwithstanding these enactments, the funds were so unequal to the expenditure, that the debt continued to accumulate, and the proprietors were obliged to apply a third time to parliament; an act was consequently obtained in 1805, entitled, 'An Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the Peak Forest Canal more effectually to provide for the Discharge of their Debts, and to complete the said Canal, and the Cut, Railways and Stone Roads, and other Works thereof.' This act having stated that only £69,955 had been raised under the authority of the last act, and that of the whole sum contributed, only £573, 5s. remained unexpended, empowers them to provide a further sum of £60,000 by the creation of new shares, at such prices as to them shall appear most expedient; these new shares having a title to all the benefits secured to the old ones, in proportion to their appointed value.

It will be seen from the commencement of this article, that though the first act directed the canal to be continued as far as Chapel Milton, it only extends to Bugsworth, five furlongs beyond Bottoms Hall, where it crosses the River Goyt; at this point the branch to Whaley Bridge, four furlongs and seventeen poles long, is made under sanction of the first act. The total length of the main line is fourteen miles and seven furlongs; it was executed under the direction of Mr. Benjamin Outram, and opened on the 1st May, 1800.

The work, as originally projected, was designed to supply the country with coal, and limestone for the repair of roads, and with lime for building and manure; but by being connected with the Macclesfield Canal, now in execution, its beneficial effects must be very greatly extended, as thus it becomes one of the lines connecting Manchester with London and the midland counties.

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PEAK FOREST, BEARD AND WOODLANDS RAILWAYS.

56 George III. Cap. 29, Royal Assent 21st May, 1816.

THESE railways not having yet been executed, it is only necessary to state that the act for their establishment was obtained in 1816, as 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway or Tramroad from Peak Forest to Beard, and from Peak Forest aforesaid to or near to Woodlands, all in the county of Derby.' The railways are to be executed at the cost of the Duke of Devonshire and Lord George Henry Cavendish.

The estimate for the first road to Beard was made by Mr. James Meadows, being £1,227 for one mile and about three quarters; the second was surveyed by Mr. Josias Fairbank, being a distance of seven miles and three quarters, the execution of which was estimated by him at £6,637, 15s. 3d.; but as the time, limited by the act, is expired for making them, it is useless to remark further upon this article.

PEMBREY HARBOUR, CANAL AND RAILWAY.

6 George IV. Cap. 115, Royal Assent 10th June, 1825.

THIS is not an extensive work; commencing in Pembrey Harbour, the connecting cut or canal runs directly northward to the junction with the Kidwelly and Llanelly Canal.

The act for executing this work was obtained in the year 1825, under the title of 'An Act for making and constructing a Harbour and other Works, in the parish of Pembrey, in the county of Carmarthen, and for making a Canal and Railway from the said Harbour to Kidwelly and Llanelly Canal, in the said county;' by which certain persons, incorporated as" The New Pembrey Harbour Company," have power to establish a safe and commodious harbour on the north of Burry River, with a navigable canal, quays, wharfs, piers and railways, communicating with the Kidwelly and Llanelly Canal; for defraying the expenses attendant

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on the same they are to raise £20,000, in shares of £100 each; and should this prove insufficient, they may obtain a further sum of £10,000 by mortgage. They are also empowered to demand as

HARBOUR RATES.

For every Ship, Barge, Boat or Vessel, entering or going out of the Harbour 8d per Ton.
For ditto, running into the same by Stress of Weather, and not unloading 6d ditto.
For ditto, staying longer than Seven Days 3d ditto, per Day.

Ships in his Majesty's Service, Custom, Excise and Post-Office Vessels are exempted from these Rates.

Persons using these works are also to pay according to the following schedule for

WHARFAGE RATES.

For Coals, Coke, Culm, Ashes, Breeze, and all Sorts of Manure, lying upon or at any Wharf for any Time, not exceeding the Space of Fourteen Days 0s 6d per Chaldron, or Ton.
For the same lying longer than Fourteen Days, per Week 0s 6d ditto.
For Stone of all Descriptions, for Fourteen Days or less 0s 6d per Ton.
For the like, for any Time exceeding Fourteen Days, per Week 0s 6d ditto.
For Timber of all Descriptions, for Fourteen Days or less, per Load of Fifty Cubic Feet 1s 6d per Load.
For the like, for any Time exceeding Fourteen Days, per Week 1s 6d ditto.
For Iron, Brass, Copper and all other Minerals, for Fourteen Days or less 0s 8d per Ton.
For the like, for any Time exceeding Fourteen Days, per Week 0s 6d ditto.
For Hemp, Flax, Pitch, Tar and Rosin, for Fourteen Days or less 1s 0d ditto.
For the like, for any Time exceeding Fourteen Days, per Week 1s 0d ditto.
For Grain and Seeds of all Descriptions, for Fourteen Days 0s 2d per Quarter.
For the like, for any Time exceeding Fourteen Days, per Week 0s 2d ditto.
For Meal and Flour, for Fourteen Days or less 0s 0d per Sack.
For the like, for any Time exceeding Fourteen Days, per Week 0s 2d ditto.
For Bran or Pollard, for Fourteen Days or less 0s 1d per Quarter.
For the like, for any Time exceeding Fourteen Days, per Week 0s 1d ditto.
For Hops, Wool and Rags, for Fourteen Days or less 1s 6d per Ton.
For the like, for any Time exceeding Fourteen Days, per Week 1s 0d ditto.
For Lime, for Fourteen Days or less 1s 0d ditto.
For the like, for any Time exceeding Fourteen Daye, perWeek 0s 8d ditto.
ditto For limestone, for Fourteen Days or less 0s 6d ditto.
For the like,for any Time exceeding Fourteen Days, per Week 0s 6d ditto.
For all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize, not before enumerated, for Fourteen Days or less 1s 6d ditto.
For the like, for any Time exceeding Fourteen Days, per Week 1s 0d ditto.

When the dividends exceed £20 per cent thea these rates are to be reduced. The work was laid down by Mr. James Pinkerton, and the total estimate, including breakwater and harbour, 800 feet by 300 and 24 deep, was £16,449, 9s. 7d.

This is a very useful undertaking; affording great facilities to the shipping of coal and other articles brought down by the canal to the harbour.

page 516

PENCLAWDD CANAL.

51 George III. Cap. 106, Royal Assent 21st May, 1811.

THE Penclawdd Canal commences in the River Burry, at Penclawdd, and runs in a crooked course from west to east, to the mines not far from the Paper Mill Lands, with which it is connected by a short railroad; another railroad branches off near its opening into the river, which runs down for a short distance to the south-west. There is a short separate railroad from the river to certain mines on Loughor Common, a little to the north of the main canal.

This work was designed by Messrs. E. Marten and D. Davies, who estimated the canal, from Penclawdd to Kingsbridge, six thousand three hundred and thirty-six yards long, at £3,168, and the railroad, from Travella to Pontllwidda, two thousand eight hundred and eighty yards, at £2,016, making, with sundry collateral branches, &c. a total of £9,934.

The act for forming this work is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal, and a Railway or Tramroad, from the River Burry, at or near the village of Penclawdd, in the parish of Lanridian, into the township or borough of Loughor, and divers Branches therefrom, all in the county of Glamorgan.' By it the proprietors are incorporated as "The Penclawdd Canal and Railway or Tramroad Company," with the usual powers. They may raise £12,000, in shares of £100 each, and if necessary a further sum of £8,000, on mortgage of the works. The following are ordered to be taken as

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Iron, Goods, Wares, Merchandize and other Things 4d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Iron Castings 3d ditto. ditto.
For all Pig-iron 2½d ditto. ditto.
For all Iron-stone, Calcined Iron-ore, Iron-ore, Rotten-stone, Coals, Culm, Stone-coal, Coke, Cinders, Charcoal, Timber, Stones, Tiles, Bricks and Clay 1½d ditto. ditto.
For all Lime-stone, Lime, Sand and all Kinds of Manure 1d ditto. ditto.

Fractions of a Mile as the Quarters therein, and of a Quarter as a Quarter, except for Lime, Lime-stone and Manure; and of a Ton as the Quarters therein.

The Rates for Parcels not exceeding Five Hundred Weight to be determined by the Proprietors.

page 517

Wharfs and warehouses may be built by the company, or private individuals, the rates for using which are to be determined by commissioners, appointed for that purpose.

This is not a very extensive work, but it is one of considerable utility.

PENRHYNMAUR RAILWAY.

52 George III. Cap. 142, Royal Assent 9th June, 1812.

THE act for completing this work was obtained in 1812, under the title of 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway front Penrhynmaur, in the parish of Llanfihangel Escelfiog, to Red Wharf, in the parish of Llanbedrgoch, in the county of Anglesea; and also a Dock in the parish of Llanbedrgoch;' whereby certain persons are incorporated as "The Anglesea Railway Company," with power to make railways, a dock, cuts, locks and other necessary works for the same, and to raise the sum of £15,000 for that purpose, in shares of £150 each; and in case this should prove insufficient, they may borrow £8,000 additional, on mortgage of the works.

For paying interest and other contingencies they are authorised to demand the following

TONNAGE AND WHARFAGE RATES.

For every Vessel entering the Dock, payable by the Master 0s 2d per Ton.
For all Goods imported or exported therein 0s 2d ditto.
For Horses, Mares, Geldings, Bulls, Oxen, Cows and Heifers imported 2s 0d. each
For all Calves, Swine and Sheep imported 0s 2d ditto.
For all Dung, Compost, Lime-stone, Manure and Materials for Roads, conveyed on the said Railway 0s 2d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Lime, Chalk, Marl, Ashes, Peat, Clay and Bricks 0s 3d ditto.
For all Coal, Cinders, Coke, Culm, Charcoal, Tin, Copper, Lead-ore, Lead in Pigs or Sheets, lron-stone or Ore, Iron in Pigs, Bar-iron, Tiles, Slates, Flag-stones and other Stones 0s 4d ditto.
For all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize whatever 0s 6d ditto.

Small Parcels under Five Hundred Weight to be charged according to the Order of the Committee of Proprietors.

Fractions of a Ton to be considered as the Quarters therein, and of a Quarter as a Quarter; Fractions of a Mile as Half a Mile.

They are also empowered to charge for passing on the railway the following rates.

page 518

RATES.

For every Horse, Mare, Gelding, Colt, Mule or Ass, not carrying or drawing any Goods on the Road 2d each.
For all Cows and Horned or Neat Cattle 1d ditto.
For all Sheep, Swine and Calves 8d per Score.
For all Carriages and Waggons carrying Persons for Hire 1d each Passenger.

This is an useful work; commencing at Penrhynmaur Coal Works, it proceeds in a north-easterly direction to Red Wharf Bay, crossing in its course the turnpike-road between Holyhead and Bangor. At Red Wharf Bay it has a branch which follows the shore of the bay for a short distance northwards. The whole length is seven miles and four chains, disposed of in the following inclined planes. From high-water-mark in Red Wharf Bay, there is a rise of 14 feet 7½ inches, in two thousand nine hundred and one yards; in the following length of one thousand seven hundred and forty-six yards, there is a further rise of 38 feet 1 inch; thence to the summit it is five hundred and seventy-two yards, and rises 27 feet 6½ inches; in the next length of one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five yards there is a descent of 27 feet; and the remaining distance of five thousand four hundred and seven yards, to the coal works, is level. Mr. W. W. Bailey surveyed this work in 1812, and his estimate was for a single road, having twenty turns out of sixty yards each in length, £8,797, 8s. 2d. and for a dock or basin at Red Wharf, £1,005, making in the whole £9,802, 8s. 2d. for executing which the Earl of Uxbridge and Holland Griffith, Esq. subscribed £5,000 each.

PLYMOUTH AND DARTMOOR RAILWAY.

59 George III. Cap. 115, Royal Assent 2nd July, 1819.

1 George IV. Cap. 54, Royal Assent 8th July, 1820.

1 & 2 George IV. Cap. 125, Royal Assent 2nd July, 1821.

COMMENCING at Bachelor's Hall in the parish of Lydford, at no great distance from the prison erected for the reception of prisoners of war on Dartmoor, the Plymouth and Dartmoor Railway runs in a very circuitous course from north to south by Moortown, Grenofen, Buckland Abbey, Hoo Meavy, and Borringdon to Crabtree in the parish of Egg Buckland, where it crosses the turnpike road from Plymouth to Exeter, and where the original line ter-

page 519

minated; from thence, however, its course was continued, under powers granted by subsequent acts, to the sound at Sutton Pool, a short distance south of Plymouth.

The original line to Crabtree was twenty miles in length, the estimate of which was made by Mr. William Stuart, amounting to £45,000. The original design for communicating with Sutton Pool, and for which authority is given under the act of 1st George IV. was in length two miles and three furlongs, with two branches, one to the limeworks at Catsdown, one mile, two furlongs and eight chains in length, and another diverging from the Sutton Pool Branch, of two furlongs and two chains in length, the estimate for which amounted to the additional sum of £5,677; these, however, have given place to one branch from Crabtree to Catsdown, and from thence to Sutton Pool. The first act for its execution was obtained in 1819, under the title of 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway or Tramroad from Crabtree, in the parish of Egg Buckland, in the county of Devon, to communicate with the Prison of War on the Forest of Dartmoor, in the parish of Lydford, in the said county.' By this act the company, incorporated as " The Plymouth and Dartmoor Railway Company," has the power of constructing the railway and all necessary works connected with the same. The proprietors are to contribute, for these purposes, the sum of £27,783, in shares of £50 each and parts of shares; but should this prove inadequate for the completion of the work, they may raise, either by subscription, or by the admission of new subscribers, or by mortgage of the works, a further sum of £5,000. For paying the interest of the money advanced and other incidental expenses, the company may charge the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Stone for repairing Roads, and for all Manure 2d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Stone, Cinders, Chalk, Marl, Sand, Lime, Clay, Ashes, Peat, Lime-stone, Iron-stone and other Materials, Building-stone, Pitching and Paving-stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slates, Timber, Lead in Pigs or Sheets, Bar-iron, Waggon-tire and all Gross or Unmanufactured Articles and Building Materials, and for all other Goods, Wares and Things 6d ditto. ditto.
For every Horse, Colt, Mule, Ass or other Beast not carrying, or drawing Goods 3d each.
For all Cows, Homed or Neat cattle, driven on the Road 1d ditto.
For all Swine and Sheep 3d per Score.

page 520

Small Parcels, not exceeding Fitty-six Pounds in Weight, are to be charged according to the Determination of the Proprietors of the Road.

Fractions of a Ton and of a Mile to pay for the Quarters therein, and of a Quarter as a Quarter.

Wharfs and quays may be made either by the proprietors or the owners of land on the line, for which they are authorized to demand the following

WHARFAGE RATES.

For all Coals, Culm, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, Iron-stone, Lead.ore, or other Ores, Timber, Stone, Bricks, Slates or Gravel 1d per Ton.
For all other Goods, Matters or Things 2d ditto.

If any Articles remain above Twenty-one Days - for the first Ten Days after that Time, they are to pay an additional Rate of One Penny per Ton; and One Half-penny per Ton for every Day afterwards.

The work having been put in execution, it appeared advantageous to the traffic on the line, and to the trade of the town of Plymouth, that a branch should be made from the lime-works at Catsdown and Sutton Pool, in the parish of Charles, to communicate with the road at Crabtree; accordingly a second act was passed in 1820, entitled, 'An Act for making a Branch Railway, or Tramroad, from a Place called Crabtree, in the parish of Egg Buckland, to certain Limeworks at a Place called Catsdown, and from thence to Sutton Pool in the parish of Charles, all in the county of Devon, to communicate with the Plymouth and Dartmoor Railway, at Crabtree aforesaid.' By this act the company are authorized to raise for the new branch £7,200, making, with the former sum granted to be raised, the total of £34,983, which this act provides shall be raised by shares, or by borrowing of the Commissioners of Public Works, or by other means; the whole to be subscribed before the works are commenced. Tolls to be subject to the same regulations as those of the former act.

Having made considerable progress in the work, the proprietors found that the line might be improved by an alteration in a certain part thereof, they accordingly applied to parliament for a third act, entitled, 'An Act to authorize the Plymouth and Dartmoor Railway Company to vary the Line of a certain Part of the said Railway, and to amend the Acts passed for making the said Railway.' By this act they are empowered to vary the line between a place called Jump, in the parish of Bickleigh and Crabtree, and Leighain Mill, which deviation was nine thousand nine hundred yards, the estimated cost of which, by Mr. Roger Hopkins,

page 521

was £3,379. This estimate included a short tunnel in the land of Addis Archer, Esq. They have also power to raise £5,000 for making these alterations, by subscription or mortgage. It is provided by this act that the mortgage granted to the Commissioners of Exchequer Bills under the former acts shall not be invalidated, and that the execution of any of the acts obtained shall not extend to the altering of the ancient channel of the leat of water flowing to Plymouth for supplying that town, without the consent of the mayor and aldermen of the said town of Plymouth first obtained.

This useful work has proved of great advantage to the country through which it passes.

POCKLINGTON CANAL.

55 George III. Cap. 55, Royal Assent 25th May, 1815.

THE act for executing this work was granted in 1815, under the title of 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the River Derwent, at East Cottingwith, in the East Riding of the county of York, to the Turnpike Road leading from the city of York to the town of Kingston-upon-Hull, at a certain Place there called Street Bridge, in the township of Pocklington, in the said Riding;' wherein the proprietors are incorporated as "The Pocklington Canal Company," with powers to execute the proposed work, with all necessary tunnels, feeders, aqueducts and channels for the same; for accomplishing which they have authority to raise £32,000, in shares of £100 each, fractional parts of which shares may also be made; and in like manner they may, if it should be necessary, provide an additional sum of £10,000, either by subscription amongst themselves, or by mortgage of the works. For paying interest and other charges they are to demand the following as tonnage rates.

In the annexed Schedule, the Column A, are the Rates to be taken from East Cottingwith to Street Bridge; B, from Street Bridge to East Cottingwith; C, from East Cottingwith to Storthwaite; D, from East Cottingwith to Melbourn and Thornton; E, from East Cottingwith to Beilby; F, from Storthwaite to Melbourn and Thornton; G, from Storthwaite to Beilby; H, from Storthwaite to Street Bridge; I, from Melbourn and Thornton to Beilby; J, from Melbourn and Thornton to Street Bridge; K, from Beilby to Street Bridge; L, from Street Bridge to Beilby; M, from Street Bridge to Melbourn and Thornton; N, from Street Bridge to Storthwaite; 0, from Beilby to Melbourn and Thornton; P. from Beilby to Storthwaite; Q, from Beilby to East Cottingwith; R, from Melbourn and Thornton to Storthwaite S, from Melbourn and Thornton to East Cottingwith; T, from Storthwaite to East Cottingwith.

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