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This Book "Priestley's Navigable Rivers and Canals" by Joseph Priestley was previously published in April 1831. NOTE: Oringinally called "Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways, of Great Britain". For more information see About this Book
|Index Page||Link to Previous Page 481|
|DESCRIPTION OF GOODS||(*)||(+)||(±)|
|For every One Thousand of Bricks and Paving Tiles||4s 0d||1s 0d||1s 0d|
|For every Crate of Glass or Earthenware||0s 9d||0s 3d||0s 3d|
|For every Carboy of Vitriol or Oil||0s 3d||0s 1d||0s 2d|
|For every Corpse||21s 0d||5s 0d||10s 0d|
|For every Organ||20s 0d||5s 0d||5s 0d|
|For every Piano-forte, Harpsichord, Harp or Bass Viol||5s 0d||1s 0d||2s 0d|
|For every One Hundred Pipe Staves||2s 0d||0s 6d||-|
|For every Ton of Copper, Pewter, Brass or Metals||2s 0d||0s 6d||1s 0d|
|For every Ton of Ballast||1s 0d||-||-|
|For Bale Goods, and all other Articles, Wares or Merchandize, not specified in this Schedule, according to the Amount of Freight, at per Cwt||0s 2d||0s 6d||0s 6d|
This navigation, which is thirty miles in length, connects Norwich with the sea at Lowestoft, and will be highly advantageous to the city of Norwich, by the importation of coal, timber, and general merchandize, and the exportation of the manufactures of Norwich, with the agricultural produce of the surrounding district; and a national benefit by the shelter it will afford to shipping in tempestuous weather. It is ascertained, that, at present, more than 300,000 quarters of corn and 50,000 sacks of flour are carried, in wherries, annually down the river to Yarmouth, and 60,000 chaldrons of coal and 20,000 tons of goods up the river to Norwich.
32 George III. Cap. 100, Royal Assent 8th May, 1792.
THE original plan of this work was to make a canal from the Cromford Canal to the navigable River Trent, with collateral cuts from the same to the Earl of Stamford's estate in the parish of Greasley; another from the same to the estate of Edward Willoughby, Esq. in the parish of Cossall; and a third from Leen Bridge, in the town of Nottingham, to the west end of Sneinton Hermitage.
The necessary powers for executing the canal and cuts, were given to the proprietors as "The Nottingham Canal Company," by 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal, from the Cromford Canal in the county of Nottinqham, to or near to
'the town of Nottingham, and to the River Trent, near Nottingham Trent Bridge, and also certain collateral Cuts therein described, from the said intended Canal.' Under this act the company are directed to make a lock near the junction with the Cromford Canal and reservoirs for re-supplying water taken from the said Cromford Canal, but no reservoirs are to be made where the Erewash Company have a previous right, nor is any reservoir to be made in the Earl of Stamford's land. Proprietors of land have power to make railways to the canal, or the company may make the same, provided that none shall be made by them, without their forming another at the same time, for the use of the Duke of Newcastle's Collieries at Brinsley; collateral cuts may also be made, and lords of manors or owners of lands may build warehouses on the line; if they refuse, the company may do so. The following are ordered to be taken as
|For Coal, Lime, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, Iron-alone, Timber, Stone, Brick, Tile, Slate or Gravel for Six Days||1d per Ton.|
|All other Goods, Wares and Merchandize ditto||3d ditto.|
Coal, Iron and Lime-stone may remain on the Wharf Six Months; and Timber, Clay, Lime, Iron-stone, Stone, Brick, Tile, Slate or Gravel, may remain Thirty Days without further Charge; but all other Goods are to pay One Penny per Ton for the Space of Ten Days after the first Six, and One Penny per Ton for every additional Day they remain.
The company is empowered to raise £50,000 in shares of £100 each; and in case that should be insufficient, a further sum of £25,000 may be procured on mortgage, or assignment of the navigation; and for the payment of necessary expenses and the interest of monies employed, the following are to be demanded as
|For Coal and Coke navigated on the Canal or Collateral Cuts||4½d per Ton.|
In Addition to which they are to pay a Rate of One Half-penny per Ton, per Mile, provided that the whole does not exceed One Shilling per Ton.
|For all Lime and Lime-stone for burning, provided tbat Sum does not exceed the Tonnage for Twelve Miles||½d ditto per Mile.|
|For all Bricks||6d ditto. ditto.|
|For all Stone, so that the Rate does not amount to more than the Carriage would be for Ten Miles||1d ditto. ditto.|
|For all Iron, Iron-stone, Lead and other Minerals, Timber, Corn and other Goods, and Merchandize, so that the Amount is not more than the Charge for Twelve Miles||1d ditto. ditto.|
|For all Goods and other Things, except Slate, Lime and Lime-stone to be burnt, and Plaster, passed from the Trent into this Canal, and vice versa||2d ditto. ditto.|
Fractions of a Mile to be taken as a Mile; of a Ton as the Quarters therein, and of a Quarter as a Quarter.
Tillage, Dung, Soil, Marl, Coal Ashes, Turf, and all other Manure, except Lime, to be used on Lands near the Line, are free from Tolls.
Goods passing into or out of this Canal, or out of or into the Cromford, are to pay the same Rates as are paid for Goods passing to or from the Erewash from or into the said Cromford Canal.
The company may divide £8 per cent. per annum on the sums subscribed, and the surplus is to be funded to answer the deficiencies of any succeeding year; and when there is no deficiency for three successive years, then the rates are to be reduced. The Trent Undertakers may make a cut or communication into the canal at Sneinton Meadow, and boats may pass thereon, paying the rates as above.
This canal is about fifteen miles in length, its direction being nearly north-west, at no great elevation in any part. It was completed in 1802, and has a large reservoir at Amsworth, with a self-regulating sluice, whereby 3,000 cubic feet of water are let out per hour, for the purpose of supplying the Erewash Canal and certain mills on the line.
As affording a ready way for the export of farming produce and coal, and for importing timber, deals and other articles of home consumption, this is an useful work.
33 George III. Cap. 115, Royal Assent, 3rd June, 1793.
THIS canal commences at the collieries belonging to Sir Henry Hunloke, Bart. and E. M. Mundy, Esq. which collieries are situate in the township of Shipley, whence proceeding in a southerly direction, leaving Ilkestone on the east and Kirk Hallam on the west, it falls into the Erewash Canal in the parish of Stanton-by-Dale, not far from Trowen, traversing a distance of about four miles and a half.
The act for this work was made in the year 1793, under the title of 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the Collieries at Shipley and West Hallam, in the county of Derby, to the Erewash Canal in the parish of Stanton-by-Dale, in the said county.' By this act the following are directed to be received as tonnage rates.
|For all Coal and Coke, not navigated on the Eyewash||4d per Ton.|
|For ditto, if got within the Liberties of Shipley and West Hallam, navigated on this Canal and the Erewash||8d ditto.|
|For ditto within the Liberties of Mapperley, Kirk Hallam, Ilkestone and Little Hallam, navigated on this Canal and the Erewash||1d ditto.|
|For all other Goods, Wares, &c||8d ditto.|
The Earl Stanhope and his Tenants in the parishes of Stanton-by-Dale and Dale Abbey may carry, free of Rates, any Iron-stone got within the Lordships of Shipley, Mapperley, West Hallam, Kirk Hallam, Ilkestone and Little Hallam, and used within Stanton-by-Dale and Dale Abbey, and also navigate on as much of the Canal as is in those Two Parishes, free of Rates, all Iron, Coal, Coke and. Iron-stone, the Produce of the said Parish, or brought from the Eyewash, and all other Goods, Wares and Articles whatever.
For completing the canal, the proprietors may raise £13,000, in shares of £100 each, and £6,500 if the first sum be not sufficient.
Railroads are laid from various parts of this canal to the coal mines near; but as the situation and number of these are changed as circumstances require, it would be impossible to describe them fully or correctly. The intention of the projectors was to afford a cheap and ready conveyance of coals and minerals from their works to the Erewash Canal, for the purpose of exporting; and though, as will be seen from what we have stated above, that this is exclusively a private speculation, it is not on that account an undertaking devoid of benefit to the public. The facilities which it affords the proprietors of conveying the produce of their mines, at the same time guarding the consumers from any additional cost of carriage, which land conveyance would add to the other charges incurred, will appear more evident on reference to our map.
33 George III. Cap. 103, Royal Assent 7th May, 1793.
40 George III. Cap. 56, Royal Assent 20th June, 1800.
THE first act for executing this advantageous undertaking was obtained in 1793, under the title of 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Cut or Canal from the Melton Mowbray Navigation, in the county of Leicester, to Oakham, in the county of Rutland;' by which certain proprietors, incorporated as "The Company of Proprietors of the Oakham Canal," are authorized to raise £56,000, in shares of £100 each, for executing the same; and in case that should not be sufficient, they may obtain a further
sum of £20,000, either by the admission of new subscribers, or by mortgage of the rates of the same. For the payment of interest and other necessary contingencies, the company have authority to demand as
|For all Coals, so that the gross Rate does not exceed Three Shillings||3½d per Ton, per Mile.|
|For all Iron, Timber, Coke and other Goods, so that the gross Rate does not exceed Four Shillings||4d ditto. ditto.|
For all Lime, Lime-stone and Stones used for Building, and Materials for Roads, Half the Rates for Coal are to be paid.
The Owners of Land through which the Canal passes are exempted from the Payment of Tolls for Dung, Soil, Marl, Ashes of Coal and Turf and all other Manures, except Lime, used on their Lands; and all Materials for Roads are to pass Toll Free, provided they pass no Lock, except when the Water flows over the Waste Weir.
Proprietors of lands and others may erect quays, wharfs and warehouses, the rates for using which are to be determined by certain commissioners appointed by the act.
Lord Winchelsea having a right of dues on all coals sold in the manor of Oakham, this act provides that the company shall pay him the sum of £15 per annum in lieu of the said dues.
Having obtained the act, the company proceeded immediately to put the work into execution, but when about ten miles of the line had been finished, they were obliged, by want of funds, to apply a second time to parliament for a fresh act, which was obtained in June, 1800, under the title of 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Oakham Canal to raise Money for completing the said Canal, and also for altering and amending an Act passed in the Thirty-third of his present Majesty, for making the said Canal.' By this last act they are enabled to raise a further sum of £30,000, either by the admission of new subscribers, or by bond, or by promissory notes, or they may, if more eligible, admit persons, to whom they already owe money, amongst the number of shareholders, by way of payment of their debt, assigning the interest of one share for every £100 they are so indebted to the said persons; or they may make a call on the present subscribers to the amount of £15,000, being half of the £30,000 ordered by this act to be raised. They are also entitled to the following additional tonnage rates.
|For all Coals, so that the gross Amount does not exceed One Shilling and Sixpence per Ton||1½d per Ton, per Mile.|
|For all Iron, Timber, Coke and other Goods, the gross Amount not exceeding Two Shillings per Ton||2d ditto. ditto.|
For all Lime, Lime-stone, Stooe and Bricks for Building, Half the Rates for Coal.
It is also provided, that whenever the Leicester and Melton Mowbray Canal Company shall reduce their additional rates, the additional rates on this canal shall have a corresponding reduction.
This canal is fifteen miles in length; commencing in the town of Oakham, in the county of Rutland, it pursues a course nearly due north, by Burley Hall to Greetham, a little beyond which it makes a turn to the west and enters the county of Leicester, near Edmonthorpe Hall, having, from Oakham to this place, traversed a distance of six miles and a half, on a level; from Edmonthorpe it verges to the north-west, leaving Stapleford Park on the east; it then turns toward the west, which direction it pursues to its junction with the Melton Mowbray Navigation in Mill Close on the west of that town, having, from Edmonthorpe to its termination, passed a distance of eight miles and a half, parallel to the River Wreak, and with a fall of 126 feet from the level at Edmonthorpe.
This work, by its connection with Melton Mowbray, opens an easy and cheap passage for the produce of the country situate both north and south of Oakham and of the adjacent country, and consequently is attended with much advantage to the district through which it is carried.
30 Geo. III. C. 52, R. A. 28th April, 1790.
31 Geo. III. Cap. 76, R. A. 6th June, 1791.
40 Geo. III. C. 54, R. A. 20th June, 1800.
46 Geo. III. Cap. 122, R. A. 12th July, 1806.
54 Geo. III. C. 176, R. A. 28th June, 1814.
THIS river has its source in Slaugham, in Sussex, and running easterly, passes through the parish of Cuckfield-by-Paxhill; thence it runs nearly south by Buckham Hall, Newick Place, Isfield Place, Coombe Park, and Landport, to Lewes; and thence continues in a southerly course to the sea at Newhaven Harbour.
The first act of parliament for improving this navigation was passed in 1790, and is entitled, 'An Act for improving, continuing
'and extending the Navigation of the River Ouse, from Lewes Bridge, in the town of Lewes, to Hammer Bridge, in the parish of Cuckfield, and to the Extent of the said parish of Cuckfleld, and also of a Branch of the said River, to Shortbridge, in the parish of Fletching, in the county of Sussex.' It incorporates a number of persons, amongst whom are Lord Sheffield, Sir Godfrey Webster, Sir Peter Burrell, and Sir William Burrell, by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the River Ouse Navigation," and empowers them to raise, amongst themselves, for carrying into effect this act, the sum of £25,000, in shares of £100 each, of which sum, £10,000 is to be subscribed before the work is commenced, and to collect the following
|For all Chalk, Lime, Dung, Mould, Soil, Compost or other Manure, Timber, Planks, Fire Wood, Corn or Grain, ground or unground, or any other Article manufactured at Barcombe Mill; Beech, Gravel and Materials for Roads, conveyed between Lewes Bridge and Barcombe Mill||½d per Ton, per Mile.|
|For the same Goods above Barcombe Mill||1d ditto. ditto.|
|For all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize between Lewes Bridge and Barcombe Mill||1d ditto. ditto.|
|For the same Goods above Barcombe Mill||1½d ditto. ditto.|
And in the same Proportion for any greater or less Distance or Quantity.
No tolls to be taken between Barcombe Mill and Lewes, until £500 have been expended on the improvement of the river.
|For all Goods, Wares and Merchandize for a Period of Two Months||0s 6d per Ton.|
|For a longer period than Two Months||1s 0d ditto.|
If left for a longer Period than Twelve Months, the same Rates to be paid as the Tonnage Rate for such Goods.
No Vessel of less than Ten Tons to pass through the Locks, without leave of the Proprietors.
The next act of parliament respecting this river was passed in 1791, and is entitled, 'An Act for improving the Navigation of the River Ouse, between Newhaven Bridge and Lewes Bridge, in the county of Sussex; and for the better Draining of the Low Lands, lying in Lewes and Laughton Levels, in the said county,' and appoints certain persons therein named, together with the commissioners of the Lewes and Laughton Levels, trustees for carrying it into effect, who are authorized to collect the following tonnage rates.
|For all Beech, Gravel and other Materials to be used for repairing Roads||3d per Ton.|
|For all Chalk, Lime, Dung, Mould, Soil, Compost, and other Manure||2d ditto.|
|For all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize||4d ditto.|
And so in Proportion for a greater or less Quantity than a Ton.
Vessels passing between Lewes Bridge and Southerham Corner, and Newhaven Bridge and Lock Hole, to be exempted from Tolls.
The land in the neighbourhood of this navigation is divided into five districts, which may be taxed to pay the expense of the drainage, in the following proportions, viz.-
|First District||1s 0d per Acre.|
|Second ditto||1s 6d ditto.|
|Third ditto||1s 0d ditto.|
|Fourth ditto||0s 4d ditto.|
|Fifth ditto||0s 4d ditto.|
And in the same Proportion for each District
The trustees are not to reduce the tolls or tonnage rates, without reducing in the same proportion the rates and assessments on the land, except the tonnage rates are more than double the amount of the drainage rates, and the tonnage must be reduced in the same proportion as the drainage rates, except when the latter exceeds half the amount of the former, nor shall the tonnage rates be reduced until the money borrowed does not exceed £6,000. The tolls of this navigation to be exempted from all taxes what ever; and the trustees may borrow money on the security of the tolls, rates and duties, and may also sell the old parts of the river, in lieu of which they have substituted new cuts.
By the 40th George III. which is entitled, 'An Act to alter, amend, and enlarge the Powers of an Act, passed in the Thirty-first Year of the Reign of his present Majesty King George the Third, for improving the Navigation of the River Ouse, between Newhaven Bridge and Lewes Bridge, in the county of Sussex, and for the better Draining of the Low Lands lying in Lewes and Laughton Levels, in the said county,' it is stated, that in consequence of the pressure of the drainage rates on the owners of the land in the level for the purposes of this act, it is expedient to increase the tonnage rates on the river; the former tolls are therefore repealed, and in lieu thereof may be taken the following tonnage rates.
|For all Beech, Gravel and all other Materials for repairing Roads, Chalk, Lime, Dung, Mould, Soil, Compost or any other Manure||4d per Ton.|
|For all other Goods, Wares, and Merchandize||8d ditto.|
And so in Proportion for a greater or less Quantity than a Ton.
When the tonnage rates exceed the amount of the drainage rates by £20, the trustees may lower them, and if lower may raise them, so as to keep the amount levied from each as nearly equal as possible, provided that the tonnage rates in no instance exceed the sums above stated.
The act passed in 1806 is entitled, 'An Act for altering, amending, and rendering more effectual an Act passed in the Thirtieth Year of his present Majesty, for improving the Navigation of the River Ouse, in the county of Sussex;' and repeals that part of the former act which authorizes the company to continue the navigation of the river from Hammer Bridge, in the parish of Cuckfield, to the extent of the said parish. It empowers the company to raise a further sum of £30,000, and to mortgage the tolls and rates as a security for it, or by annuity; and it allows the proprietors of lands on the western side of Isfield Lock, and the occupiers or owners of Barcombe Mill, near Primmer Wood Lock, to take and use the surplus or waste waters at those locks.
The last act relating to this navigation was passed in 1814, and is entitled, 'An Act for altering and enlarging the Powers of Two Acts of his present Majesty, for improving the Navigation of the River Ouse, in the county of Sussex;' and after stating that the tolls and rates authorized to be taken by former acts were insufficient for supporting the navigation, it repeals such tolls and rates, and authorizes the company to take the following
|For all Chalk, Dung, Mould, Soil, Compost, Lime-stone, Ashes or other Manure (Lime excepted) carried between Lewes Bridge and Sharps Lock||2d per Ton, per Mile.|
|From Sharps Lock to Goldbridge||1½d ditto. ditto.|
|From Goldbridge to the extremity of the Navigation||1d ditto. ditto.|
|For all Beech, Gravel, Flints, Stone and other Materials for repairing Roads||1d ditto. ditto.|
|For Hay, Straw, Timber, Planks, Coal, CuIm or Fuller's-earth||1½d ditto. ditto.|
|For Lime||2d ditto. ditto.|
|For Corn or Grain ground or unground, Flour, Wheat or Seeds||3d ditto. ditto.|
|For every Hundred of Faggots and Hop Poles, and for every Cord of Fire or other Wood||2d per Mile.|
|For all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize||¼d ditto, per Cwt.|
And so in Proportion for greater or less Distances, or greater or less Quantities.
|For every Package or Parcel under Fifty Pounds Weight||¼d per Mile.|
|For every Person in a Boat or Barge, except the Person having the Management thereof||1d ditto.|
For every Boat, Barge or other Vessel of less Burthen than Ten Tons passing through any Lock, the Sum of Sixpence for each Lock it passes through; but if laden with any of the Articles above enumerated, instead of this Sixpence, the Rates on such Articles to be paid.
Only Half of these Tolls to be taken on Goods passing between Lewes Bridge and Barcombe MilL
In the year 1767, Mr. Smeaton states that the high-water mark at the pier head at Newhaven was 15 feet 6 inches, on the moon's quarter day; and at the same time at Lewes Bridge, 13 feet 4 inches. The length from Newhaven to the top of the navigation near Cuckfield, is near thirty miles.
Edward IV. Charter - - - - - - 1462.
The Lord Protector, Charter, 26th June, 1657.
13 George I. C. 33, R. A. 15th May, 1727.
5 George II. C. 15, R. A. 1st June, 1732.
7 George III. C. 96, R. A. 15th April, 1767.
THE River Ouse rises on the borders of Yorkshire and Westmoreland. Its most northern branch called the Swale commences near Lady's Pillar; another branch rises at Shunner Fall, 2,329 feet above the level of the sea. The river runs by Reeth, Richmond and Catterick to Morton Bridge, a little below which the Bedale River unites with it. Passing on by Newby Park to Topcliffe Bridge, it is joined by the Codbeck, and proceeds to near Myton Hall, where it receives the Ure, and being augmented by many other streams in its route, it arrives at Linton, where it first takes the name of Ouse. Thence continuing in a southerly direction to Benningbrough Hall, it is joined by the River Nidd and proceeds south-easterly to the city of York, where the River Foss runs into it. Passing through the city, it runs by Bishopthorpe Palace, Naburn, and Moreby Hall; not far from Nun-Appleton Hall it is joined by the River Wharfe, and passing Cawood takes a winding and very circuitous direction to Selby; thence it proceeds in a south-easterly course until it meets the River Derwent near Barnby-on-the-Marsh; passing on, at the village of Armyn it receives the River Aire, thence proceeding easterly it runs near
the town of Howden, at which place it takes a southerly direction to the port of Goole, where it is joined by the River Dunn or New Dutch River; winding by Swinefleet and Saltmarshe Hall to a place called Flaxfleet, it there receives the Trent, and from this point loses its name in the River Humber.
By charter of Edward IV. granted in 1462, the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of York were appointed to oversee and be the conservators of this river, as well as of the Aire, Wharfe, Derwent, Dunn and Humber, which are connected with it.
The first act of parliament relating to this river was passed in 1657, when Cromwell was Protector, and is entitled, 'An Act for amending the River of Ouse, at or near the city of York.' The next act was obtained in 1726-7, and entitled, 'An Act for improving the Navigation of the River Ouse, in the county of York.' This was followed by another in 1732, entitled, 'An Act for rendering more effectual an Act passed in the Thirteenth Year of the Reign of his late Majesty King George the First, entitled, An Act for improving the Navigation of the River Ouse, in the county of York;' which authorized the following to be taken above Wharfe's Mouth, as
|For all Salt, Lead, Wool, Corn, Flour, &c. &c||0s 6d per Ton.|
|For all Steel and Iron||1s 0d ditto.|
|For all Wine, Groceries and other Things||2s 6d ditto.|
Another act was passed in 1767, entitled, 'An Act for making navigable the River Ouse from below Widdington Ings, at or near Linton, to the Junction of the Rivers Swale and Ure; and for making navigable the said River Swale from the said Junction to Morton Bridge; and also the Brook running from Bedale into the River Swale, in the county of York;' wherein it is stated that the navigation of the said river has been improved above the city of York to Linton-upon-Ouse, in the said county; and that the continuing the said navigation from below Widdington Ings, near Linton, to the junction of the Rivers Swale and Ure, and from thence up the River Swale, to Topcliffe and Morton Bridge, and also making navigable the brook below the said bridge to the town of Bedale, will be of great utility to the public; and a great
number of persons are appointed commissioners for carrying the provisions of the act into effect, who are to erect a lock at Linton which will admit a vessel of not less than 60 feet long, 15 feet 4 inches in breadth, and which draws four feet water, upon passing which the following must be paid as
|For all Coal, Cinders, Lime and Lime-stone, Stone, Gravel, and Manure, carried on the said River, Cuts or Canals, from below Widdington Ings to the Junction of the Ure and Swale||4d per Ton.|
|For all Butter and other Goods, Wares and Merchandize||9d ditto.|
|For all Coal, Cinders, Lime and Lime-stone or other Stone, Slate, Gravel or Manure, carried upon the River Swale, Brook, Cuts or Canals, from the Junction of the Swale and Ure to Bedale, or from Bedale back to the said Junction||1s 10½d per Ton.|
|For all Butter and other Goods, Wares and Merchandize||3s 9d ditto.|
And so in Proportion for a less Distance, and for a greater or less Quantity than a Ton.
The commissioners have power to borrow money, for executing the work, upon security of the tolls, or by annuities.
Another act was passed in the same year as the preceding act, entitled, 'An Act for making navigable a Brook called Codbeck, from the River Swale to the borough of Thirsk, in the county of York.' The same commissioners as named in the act last mentioned are appointed to carry the act into execution, and are empowered to take the following
|For all Coal, Cinders, Lime and Lime-stone or other Stone, Slate, Gravel and Manure, from the Junction of the said Brook and the River Swale to the Borough of Thirsk, or from Thirsk to such Junction||1s 6d per Ton.|
|For all Butter, and all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize||2s 6d ditto.|
And so in Proportion for a less Distance, or a greater or less Quantity than a Ton.
They may borrow money for the purposes of the undertaking on security of the tolls.
The last act of parliament relating to the navigation connected with this river, was passed in 1770, and is entitled, 'An Act for completing the Navigation of the River Swale, from its Junction with the River Ure to Morton Bridge, and of Bedale Brook, in the county of York; and for repealing part of an Act made in the Seventh Year of his present Majesty's Reign, relating thereto.'
It incorporates certain persons therein named, as "The Company of Proprietors of the River Swale and Bedale Brook Navigation." This company are empowered to raise, amongst themselves, or by the creation of new shares, or by mortgage of a moiety of the tolls and rates, the sum of £30,000; and they are authorized to take the following
|For all Coal, Cinders, Lime and Lime-stone or other Stone, Slate, Gravel or Manure, from the Junction of the Swale and Ure to Bedale, or from Bedale to such Junction||1s 10½d per Ton.|
|For all Butter, and all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize||3s 9d ditto.|
And so in Proportion for a less Distance, or a greater or less Quantity.
The act limits the amount of dividend to be paid on the shares to £10 per cent. per annum, and when the receipts from the tolls exceed that sum, the highest rate of tolls to be reduced one-eighth.
Lords of manors and owners of land may erect wharfs and warehouses, and on their failing to do so, when required, the company have the power of erecting them, and they, as well as such owners, may take for every ton of goods, remaining not longer than ten days, sixpence; and for every subsequent day one half penny per ton.
Half a century back a lock 21 feet wide and 70 feet long was erected on this river at Naburn, four miles below York, at which a small toll of 1s. 2d. is taken on every vessel. Before the erection of this lock the tide flowed 4 feet at Ouse Bridge in York, being a distance of eighty miles from the sea.
The River Ouse, notwithstanding the limited trade of that portion above the city of York, has such an immense traffic in the lower part, by reason of the numerous rivers and canals immediately communicating with the manufacturing districts of Yorkshire and Lancashire, in addition to the coal mines, stone quarries, and various iron works situate in the West Riding, as will undoubtedly rank it the second river of the kingdom in importance and utility; whilst by its union with the estuary of the Humber, merchandize is exported to and imported from all parts of the world.
22 Char. II. C. 16, R. A. 11th April, 1670.
24 Geo, II. C. 12, R. A. 22nd May, 1751.
35 Geo. III. C. 77, R. A. 19th May, 1795.
36 Geo. III. C. 73, R. A. 7th Mar, 1796.
45 Geo. III. C. 72, R. A. 27th June, 1805.
50 Geo. III. C. 166, R. A. 9th June, 1810.
56 Geo. III. C. 38, R. A. - - - - 1816.
58 Geo, III. C. 48, R. A. - - - - 1818.
59 Geo. III. C. 79, R. A. 14th June, 1819.
2 Geo. IV. C. 64, R. A. 28th May, 1821.
7 & 8 Geo. IV. C. 47, R. A. 28th May, 1827.
11 Geo. IV. C. 53, R. A. 29th May, 1830.
COMMENCING with the head of this navigation at Thetford, it runs from thence in a northerly direction about three miles and a half; thence westerly, passing Santon, Downham and Brandon, a distance of thirteen miles, and thence by a north-westerly course for six miles, to its junction with the River Ouse at Brandon Creek Bridge, making the whole about twenty-two miles and a half, in the greater part of which distance it divides the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. Its elevation above the level of the sea is very slight, the country through which it passes being generally flat.
The first act relating to this river was passed in 1670, and entitled, 'An Act for making navigable the Rivers commonly called Brandon and Waveney.' This was followed in 1751, by an act, entitled, 'An Act for appointing Commissioners to put in Execution an Act made in the Twenty-second Year of the Reign of King Charles the Second, for making navigable the Rivers commonly called Brandon and Waveney; so far as the same relates to the Navigation of the River commonly called the Lesser Ouse, from Thetford to Brandon, and from Brandon to a Place called the White House, near Brandon Ferry, in the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk;' which states that disputes have arisen amongst the land-owners on this river respecting the navigation, and the commissioners appointed under the act of Charles II. being dead, it is necessary to appoint fresh commissioners, and it then goes on to name a number of persons, amongst whom are the Duke of Grafton, Lord Cornwallis, the Marquis of Granby, Lord Euston, and Lord Henry Beauclerk, to be the commissioners for putting the act in execution.
The last act of parliament relating to this navigation was passed in 1810, and is entitled, 'An Act for amending an Act of the Twenty-second Year. of his late Majesty King Charles the Second, so far as the same relates to the River Brandon, otherwise the Lesser Ouse, from the White House, near Brandon Ferry, to Thetford, in the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, and for improving the Navigation of the said River.' It states that the act passed in the reign of Charles II. authorized the mayor, burgesses and commonalty of Thetford to make navigable this river, and for so doing to receive and take such tolls and rates thereon as should be fixed by commissioners named in the act, and that if the mayor, &c. declined the undertaking, the commissioners should appoint some other person who would accept the same; that the mayor, &c. not being in a situation to make this navigation, the commissioners appointed the Earl of Arlington to carry the purposes of the act into effect, and authorized him, for so doing, to take the following
|For every Last of Corn or Grain; every Chaldron of Coal, (Forty Bushels;) every Load of broad Plank and Timber, and every Ton of all other Goods, Wares and Commodities||6d.|
And the commissioners named under the act, and the mayor, burgesses and commonalty of Thetford, granted and assigned the above tolls to the Earl of Arlington, by a deed dated 20th January, 1677, which tolls were, by an indorsement on this deed dated 10th March, 1796, demised and released by the Duchess Dowager of Grafton (sole executrix of the will of the late Duke of Grafton, who was sole executor of the Earl of Arlington) to the mayor, &c. of Thetford; and they have made considerable improvements in the navigation.
The act then appoints certain commissioners, in addition to those appointed by the last act, repeals the tonnage rates before fixed, and empowers them to collect the following
The Column marked thus (*) are the Rates to he paid between Whitehouse and the Sluice called the Cross Gravel Haunch.
The Column marked thus (+) between the Cross Gravel Haunch and Brandon Perry.
The Column marked thus (±) between Brandon Ferry and Thetford.
|DESCRIPTION OF GOODS||(*)||(+)||(±)|
|For every Last of every Sort of Corn or Grain||0s 2d||0s 4d||1s 0d|
|For every Chaldron of Coal, Thirty-six Bushels||0s 2d||0s 4d||1s 0d|
|For every Hundred of single Deals and Battens||0s 3d||0s 6d||1s 6d|
|For every Hundred of double Deals||0s 6d||1s 0d||3s 0d|
|For every Thousand of Reed||0s 4d||0s 8d||2s 0d|
|For every Thousand of Pantiles||0s 4d||0s 8d||2s 0d|
|For every Hundred of Spars or Poles, of less than Sixteen Feet in Length||0s 3d||0s 6d||1s 6d|
|For ditto, exceeding Sixteen Feet in Length||0s 6d||1s 0d||3s 0d|
|For every Ton or Load of other Goods, Wares and Commodities||0s 2d||0s 4d||1s 0d|
The act also authorizes the commissioners to borrow £10,000 on security of the tolls and rates, for the purposes of improving this navigation.
IT is unnecessary to recite the early enactments for this work, as they are consolidated in the act of 1827, entitled, 'An Act for improving the Drainage of Part of the South Level of the Fens within the Great Level commonly called Bedford Level, and the Navigation of the Rivers passing through the same, in the counties of Cambridge, Suffolk, and Norfolk, and in the Isle of Ely.' Certain persons are appointed navigation commissioners, with power to make a cut from a little below Ely to Sand Hill End, in the parish of Littleport, such cut to be 50 feet wide at the bottom, 74 at the top, and 6 feet deep at least; the base of the bank to be 36 feet broad and the top 12 feet, such bank to be 12 feet high from the bottom of the cut. They are also empowered to scour, cleanse and deepen such parts of the Cam and Ouse between Clayhithe and Hermitage Sluices and Littleport Bridge, and as well the present course of the Larke between Swale's Reach and Littleport Bridge, as the intended course of the river from Prick Willow to Sandy's or Sandall's Cut, and also such parts of the several navigable lodes, communicating with the said Rivers Cam and Ouse above Littleport Bridge, as may be necessary. An acreage tax of five shillings per acre in certain parts and sixpence
per acre in others is ordered to be collected. Towing-paths are to be made and maintained by the said commissioners. They are also to charge as
|For every Horse, Mule, Ass or other Beast||0s 3d each.|
|For every Drove of Neat Cattle||1s 0d per Score.|
|For every Drove of Calves, Sheep or Lambs, Hogs or Pigs||0s 8d ditto.|
The following are directed to be paid by all vessels and rafts navigated on the Ouse between Littleport Bridge and Upware Sluice, or on the Larke between Littleport Bridge and Prick Willow, as
|For Coals or Cinders||0s 6d per Chaldron.|
|For Deal Boards or Battens||3s 0d per Hundred.|
|For Poles||1s 6d ditto.|
|For Timber||0s 8d per Load or Ton.|
|For Wheat, Beans, Peas or Rye||1s 0d per Last.|
|For Oats, Barley or Malt||1s 0d ditto.|
|For Bricks and Tiles||0s 4d per Thousand.|
|For Sedge||0s 1d per Hundred.|
|For Stones or Pebbles||0s 8d per Ton.|
|For Turves||0s 1d per Thousand.|
|For Hay||0s 4d per Load or 20 Cwt.|
|For Seeds||1s 6d per Last.|
|For Clay or Sand||0s 4d per Ton.|
|For Salt Fish||0s 8d per Cwt.|
|For Iron or Lead||1s 6d per Ton.|
|For Salt||0s 8d ditto.|
|For Wine or Cider||3s 0d per Tun.|
|For Oil, Vinegar, Pitch, Tar or Soap||0s 8d per Ton.|
|For Butter or Cheese||0s 8d ditto.|
|For Faggots or Billets||0s 1d per Hundred.|
|For Hops||0s 4d per Pocket.|
|For Pales, Barrel or Hogshead Staves||0s 1d per Hundred.|
|For Passage Boats||0s 1d each Passenger.|
|For all other Goods, Wares or Mercbandize whatsoever, not herein-before mentioned||0s 8d per Ton.|
|For every Barge, Lighter, Vessel or Boat, either empty or carrying less than a Ton, and whether haled or not||0s 2d each.|
Commissioners may borrow money on mortgage of the rates. From the end of the cut to Littleport, this river is joined by the Little Ouse at Brandon Bridge, and at Creek Ferry by the Wissey or Stoke River, and proceeding to Denver Sluice where the New Bedford River connects with it. Leaving Downham Market to the east it passes on to Wiggen Hall, where that immense cut lately finished by Sir Edward Banks, called the Eau Brink Cut, conducts the waters down to Lynn. The Eau Brink Cut is 300 feet wide and nearly three miles long; the ordinary tides rise 15 feet.
Having described the part of this river below Denver Sluice,we now proceed to the upper part, or the
WHICH from Denver Sluice to Hermitage Sluice, a distance of twenty miles, in a direct course, is called the New Bedford River. At a further distance of eight miles and three quarters, it reaches St. Ives, and five miles and a half further it arrives at Huntingdon; ten miles from which place it comes to St. Neots; six miles from which place, at Tempsford, is the junction of the Ivel River with it, whence it proceeds eleven miles to Bedford.
The rendering this river navigable may be considered of very ancient date, for as early as the 6th Charles I. the Old Bedford River, twenty-one miles long and 70 feet wide, was cut under authority of the Law for Sewers, for the purpose of conveying the waters of this river, in such manner as to render it a better drainage, and in 1652 the plan of Sir Cornelius Vermuden, for making another cut nearly parallel to the last, was put into execution. In 1649 an act was obtained under the Lord Protector Cromwell, and afterwards confirmed in the 15th Charles II. establishing the Fen Corporation. Under this last act the New Bedford River was completed; both the Old and New Bedford Rivers empty themselves into the Ouse, within a mile of each other, and at about seventeen miles from Lynn; there is also a connection between the Old Bedford River and the River Nen, about twelve miles in length, near Ramsey Mere.
The act of the 11th George IV. authorizes the making of new cuts for the two-fold purpose of navigation and drainage in the north-eastern extremity of the Bedford Level, which is entitled "The North Level Navigation and Drainage."
The part proposed as a navigation and to be called The North Level Main Drain, commences in the Nene Outfall Cut, a short distance below the place where that canal forms a junction with Kinderley's Cut, and at the point where the Shire Drain, separating the counties of Lincoln and Cambridge, falls into the Nene Outfall.
Its course is easterly by Tid Cote and Cross Gate; from whence it proceeds in a straight line, crossing Tid Fen Drain
and by Elloe Bank to Clows Cross, where the navigation is to terminate; but a drainage-cut is to he made from the last-mentioned place in a straight course to the Old Eau Drain at Black Horse Sluice, about two miles south of the town of Crowland. The Navigation Cut is eight miles and three furlongs in length, six miles and a half of which is perfectly straight. The bottom of the canal is to be 2 feet 4 inches above low water in Crab Hole, in the Wash; the sill of the sluice to be 3 feet 4 inches above low water where the neap tides rise 16 feet and springs 23 feet. The bottom of the navigation at the upper end at Clows Cross to be 5 feet above low water at Crab Hole; having therefore, a drainage fall in eight miles and three furlongs, of 2 feet 8 inches. The drain to Black Horse Sluice is seven miles in length and in one straight course, with a fall of 1 foot 10 inches.
The estimate for these works was made by Messrs. Pear and Swanborough, civil engineers, and amounted to £92,517, of which the navigable part was estimated at £54,458.
For the providing of the necessary funds for the executing and maintaining this navigation and drainage, an annual tax of sixpence per acre, for two years is to be levied on all lands comprised in the five districts of the North Level and Great Portsand, with some exceptions not interesting to the general reader; also a further tax of three shillings per acre after the first two years.
Of the before exempted lands, Sutton Common is chargeable with an annual tax of one shilling and sixpence per acre.
The navigation and drainage to be under direction of the North Level Commissioners, who have power to take such tolls on the navigation as they may from time to time, at their meetings, think proper to direct. They are also entitled to bank tolls; but as this does not enter into or form any part of the immediate object of our work, it is purposely omitted.
The act, under authority of which these works are to be executed, was passed on the 29th May, 1830, and entitled, 'An Act for improving the Drainage of the Land lying in the North Level, part of the Great Level of the Fens called Bedford Level, and in Great Portsand, in the manor of Crowland, and for providing a Navigation between Clows Cross, and the Nene Outfall Cut;' for which purpose the commissioners may borrow the neces-
sary sums of money on mortgage of the rates and taxes; and when these sums are repaid, the rates and taxes to be reduced; so that the annual amount of receipts be not more than the actual expenditure.
The chief object of the work is to effect a better drainage of these extensive levels; that of the navigation being of minor importance, although it will doubtless materially tend to improve the estates through which it passes, by facilitating the introduction of lime, and by affording a cheaper mode of quitting the surplus agricultural produce of that fertile district.
These rivers, cuts and drainages are so connected together that their advantages are felt in every part of the country through which they pass.
9 Geo. III. C. 70, R. A. 21st April, 1769.
15 Geo. III. C. 9, R. A. 30th Mar. 1775.
26 Geo, III. C. 20, R. A. 11th April, 1786.
34 Geo. III. C. 103, R, A. 23rd May, 1794.
39 Geo. III. C. 5, R. A. 21st Mar, 1799.
47 Geo. III. C. 9, R. A. 25th July, 1807.
48 Geo. III. C. 3, R. A. 11th Mar. 1808.
10 Geo. 1V. C. 48, R. A. 14th May, 1829.
THIS is a very extensive and important line of navigation. Commencing in the Coventry Canal at Longford, 315½ feet above the level of the sea, it pursues an easterly course as far as Ansty Hall, which lies on its northern bank; it continues this direction till it crosses a small branch of the Sow River, when it makes a detour and runs southward for some miles; it then turns abruptly to the north, pursuing that track to Casford, and crossing the Swift near Churchover, returns down the valley by Cotton House and Stamford Park, to Clifton. From Clifton the canal follows a southerly course to Hill Morton, leaving Rugby on the west, from Hill Morton to Wolfhampcote, near which place it communicates with the Grand Junction Canal at Braunston Tunnel; here it verges to the west till it opens into the Warwick and Napton Canal, not far from Napton and 332¼ feet above tile level of the sea. From the junction its direction is to the south; at Marston Wharf it rises to 387¼ feet above the level of the sea, and not far from this place is its summit level; passing a tunnel near Fenny Compton it follows the same direction to Banbury, where it crosses a
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