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This Book "Priestley's Navigable Rivers and Canals" by Joseph Priestley was previously published in April 1831. NOTE: Oringinally called "Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways, of Great Britain".
For more information see About this Book

Index Page Link to Previous Page 441

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the country it passes through, is low and flat; there is, however, a little elevation near Market Weighton, and a lock on the Warren at Wolsea, besides the sea lock at its opening into the Humber.

The act for executing this useful work is entitled, 'An Act for draining and preserving certain Commons, Low Grounds, and Carrs, in the parish of Market Weighton, and other adjacent parishes in the East Riding of the County of York; and for making a navigable Cut or Canal, from Market Weighton to the River Humber.' By this act certain persons are appointed as trustees or commissioners for executing the work and other purposes connected therewith, to have the direction and management of the drainage and navigation, and from time to time to tax or assess the owners and occupiers of the low lands, according to the number of acres they occupy, for the benefit they receive from the said drainage, such acre-tax not to exceed forty shillings per acre; the proceeds to be employed in maintaining and completing the same. They are also empowered to inclose part of the commons or waste lands, for defraying the tax. They also have power to take away, if necessary, certain drains or sewers, and, if requisite, others may be substituted and maintained out of their funds. The locks, to be erected, are not at any time to pen up the water higher than within 3 feet of the surface of the land. The commissioners are empowered to demand for the navigation of the main drain or canal, the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Groceries, Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Commodities 4s 0d per Ton.
For Stone 1s 0d ditto.
For Manure 0s 6d ditto. ditto.
For Coals, each Chaldron containing Thirty-two Bushels 2s 0d per Chaldron.
For Lime ditto 1s 6d ditto.
For Tiles 2s 0d per Thousand.
For Bricks 1s 0d ditto.
For Wool, each Pack containing Sixteen Stones 0s 8d per Pack.
For Wheat, Rye, Beans, Pens, Lentils, Barley, Oats, Malt, or any Seeds or Grain whatsoever 0s 8d per Quarter.
For Flour, each Sack containing Five Bushels 0s 6d per Sack.

And so on in Proportion for a less Distance than the whole Line, as may be agreed on by the Commissioners.

Certain persons having agreed to advance money for the immediate execution of the work, it is provided, that they shall receive a share of the rates, equal to the proportion of money by them so contributed, together with interest on the sums advanced.

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The commissioners may also tax the lands to the extent of five shillings per acre, for maintaining the canal and drainage, and for the payment of salaries and other expenses. The accounts of the drainage and of the navigation are to he kept separate.

Mr. Whitworth was the engineer. The work is well suited for the purposes intended, and highly beneficial to the town of Market Weighton and the neighbouring district.

MEDWAY RIVER.

17 Char. II. C. 6, R. A. 2nd Mar. 1664.

14 Geo. II. Cap. 26, R. A. 29th Apr. 1740.

32 Geo. III. C. 105, R. A. 15th June, 1792.

42 Geo. III. Cap. 94, R. A. 22nd June, 1802.

5 Geo. IV. C. 148, R. A. 21st June, 1824.

IT will not be necessary in the present instance to take particular notice of the first and second acts relating to this river, which were passed in the 17th of Charles II. and the 14th George II. more than to state that by these acts a company was incorporated under title of "The Company of Proprietors of the Navigation of the River Medway;" we shall therefore commence our remarks by quoting the act passed in 1792, entitled, 'An Act for improving the Navigation of the River Medway, from the town of Maidstone, through the several parishes of Maidstone, Boxley, Allington and Aylesford, in the county of Kent.'

By this act certain persons were named as a committee for improving the navigation of the Medway, from the lock in Maidstone to the lower part of an orchard belonging to Mr. G. Hunt, Jun. on the west side of the river below Aylesford Bridge, in Kent. They have the requisite powers for enlarging, widening and rendering straight the channel of the said river, and to make all necessary bridges, tunnels, and dams; they may also, with consent of the quarter sessions, alter or rebuild Aylesford Bridge, and make a collateral cut from a shoal in the river, called Preston Shelf, below the town of Maidstone, on the east side of the river, to any part of the same above and near the said bridge; they may likewise build a bridge or establish a ferry at Castle Shelf, purchasing the site thereof of Lord Romney; and for defraying all necessary expenses they are empowered to demand the following tonnage rates.

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TONNAGE RATES.

For Stone, Chalk aad Manure 1d per Ton.
For Lime 2d ditto.
For all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize 3d ditto.
For Coal 2d per Chaldron.

Timber, Knee Timber, Planks and Pannels are free from Dues; and Goods, Wares, &c. belonging the Inhabitants of Aylesford, and landed at the German Forestall, are exempted from Rates; and all Goods landed or shipped at Castle Shelf, shall only pay Half the above Rates.

The committee may also borrow £8,000, for the purposes of this act, on the credit of the tolls and rates.

This act was repealed and a new one granted in 1802, under the title of 'An Act for repealing an Act passed in the Thirty-second of his present Majesty, for improving the Navigation of the River Medway, from the town of Maidstone, through the several parishes of Maidstone, Boxley, Allington, and Aylesford, in the county of Kent, and for the better and more effectual improving the Navigation of the said River;' whereby the proprietors are incorporated afresh as "The Company of Proprietors of the Lower Navigation of the River Medway," and are empowered to improve and maintain the navigation and towing-paths, and execute other works entrusted to the committee under the former acts; they may also provide money for expenses by shares of £100 each; £5,000 to be thus raised in addition to the former sum of £8,000; or any part of the said £5,000, or the whole thereof, may be raised on mortgage; tile following are directed to be levied as

TONNAGE RATES.

For Stone, Chalk and Manure, except Lime 1½d per Ton.
For Lime, Timber, Deals, Bricks and Iron 4d ditto.
For all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize 6d ditto.
For Coals 4d per Chaldron.

The rights of the persons incorporated under the act of Charles II. are to be reserved, as far as they are authorized to scour, cleanse and deepen the Medway from below Shepherd's Wharf in Maidstone; and the said persons, who in that act were styled "The Company of Proprietors of the Navigation of the River Medway," may convey all goods, &c. on paying the rates first quoted in this article. The proprietors are restricted by this

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act from dividing more than £10 per cent. on their shares; when the profits amount to more, then the rates are to be forthwith reduced.

Another act was obtained in 1824, entitled, 'An Act for the more effectually improving the Navigation of the River Medway, from Maidstone to Halling in the county of Kent, and to alter and enlarge the Powers of an Act of the Forty-second of his late Majesty, for improving the Navigation of the said River.'

Having recited the title of the former act, the present one goes onto state that the company have raised a capital stock of £16,000, and have expended the whole thereof, besides contracting sundry debts in the execution of the works directed by the said act, and that the company cannot, in consequence, effect that improvement of the navigation which is required by the interests of the parties concerned therein; they are therefore authorized by this act to borrow £12,000 on mortgage of the rates, and to make and maintain a cut or canal from Ozier Bed Reach to East MaIling, and another from Haystack Hole to Occupells; to remove Preston Shoal; to alter Aylesford Bridge, and to make a towing-path from Occupells to Lower Town Wharf in St. Faith's Street, Maidstone.

They are also empowered to cleanse, scour, deepen and improve the channel of the river from Maidstone to Halling, through the parishes of Maidstone, Boxley, Allington, Aylesford, Ditton, East Malling, Burham, Birling Snodland, Wouldham and Halling.

The shoals and obstructions in the river are to be removed so as to leave it 90 feet wide and 3 feet deep in the middle; then Aylesford Bridge is to be altered; afterwards the navigable cut from Ozier Bed Reach to Newhythe and the towing-path from Haystack-Hole to Maidstone are to be completed. All this is to be done within five years; and in case sufficient should remain, out of the sum of £12,000 and any interest thereon, it is to be employed in making the navigable cut from Haystack Hole to Occupells, within five years afterwards; if a sufficient sum does not remain, the residue is to accumulate for that purpose. In lieu of the former rates, which are repealed, the following are to be taken as tonnage rates.

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TONNAGE RATES.

For Stones, Chalk, Sand and Manure 2½d per Ton.
For Lime, Timber, Deals, Bricks and Iron 6d ditto.
For all other Goods, Wares and Things whatsoever 10d ditto.
For Coals 6d per Chaldron.

Pleasure Boats and Boats used for Husbandry are to pass without paying Tolls.

The company are not to divide above £7, 10s. per cent. on their shares in any one year; but the excess, if any, is to be applied to the completion of the works, and after that to the paying off the debts due by the company. And when the mortgage debts are paid off, the tolls are to be reduced as below.

REDUCED RATES.

For Stones, Chalk, Sand and Manure 1¾d per Ton.
For Lime, Timber, Deals, Bricks and Iron 4½d ditto.
For all other Goods, &c. 7d ditto.
For Coals 4½d per Chaldron.

The exemptions mentioned in the former act are continued in this, as are also the rights of the Medway Navigation Company, who are to pay for navigating the whole or any part of the Lower Navigation, the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For Stone 2d1¼d per Ton.
For Chalk and manure 1d1d ditto.
For Lime 3d2¼d ditto.
For all other Goods, &c. 5d3½d ditto.
For Coal 4d2½d per Chaldron.

And when the mortgage debt is paid off, then these rates also are to be reduced to the amount above-stated in the second column.

This is a work of considerable utility, and one which has added greatly to the facilities of water carriage; and when the intended Weald Canal is made, will be a means of bringing the produce of the southern part of Kent to the great victualling place of Chatham.

In consequence of the recent discovery of a very valuable quarry of building stone on the south side of this river near Penshurst, a company, unconnected with the proprietors of the Medway Navigation, have at very considerable expense rendered this river navigable from Tunbridge up to Penshurst Bridge, by widening, deepening and straightening, and by making a cut of about a mile in length through the estate of Sir John Sidney, Bart.

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By this means the navigation of this fine river is extended about six miles further into the interior; and as good building stone is a rare commodity within this distance of the metropolis, it will doubtless amply repay the spirited individuals who have, without any parliamentary enactment, produced the means by which it may be introduced to market.

MERSEY RIVER.

45 George III. Cap. 62, Royal Assent 27th June, 1805.

THIS may properly be considered a private bill, being only passed to enable Joseph White, Esq. lord of the manor of Higher Bebington, owner of property on the Cheshire and Lancashire sides of the River Mersey, and proprietor of the Rock Ferry House at Liverpool, to demand rates for the passage of the river there, and to erect slips, wharfs and piers on both sides for the convenience of passengers and goods conveyed over the said river. The following are the

FERRY RATES.

For all Persons passing over 1d each.
For all Calves, Pigs and Sheep 1d ditto.
For all Bulls, Cows, Steers or Heifers 2d ditto.
For all Horses, Mares, Geldings, Colts, Fillies. Mules or other Beasts 3d ditto.
For all Wheels of Carts, Coaches, Chaises or other Carriages 6d ditto.
For all Marl, Manure, Stone, Lime and other Articles 6d per Ton.
For all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize, Corn and other Articles of Provision excepted 1d per Cwt.
For Corn 1d per Sack.
For every Hamper or Basket of Fowls, Potatoes and other Vegetables,not carried on the Knee of a Passenger 1½d each.
If so carried No Charge.

If the piers, &c. are not kept up, the tolls are to cease. The daily use of the ferry stamps its utility; but as it does not come within the scope of this publication, any further observations are unnecessary.

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MERSEY AND IRWELL NAVIGATION.

7 George I. Cap. 15, Royal Assent 17th June, 1720.

34 George III. Cap. 37, Royal Assent 28th March, 1794.

THE first attempt towards making navigable the Rivers Mersey and Irwell from Liverpool to Manchester, was the obtaining an act in the year 1720, under the title of 'An Act for making the Rivers Mersey and Irwell navigable, from Manchester to Liverpool, in the county palatine of Lancaster.' By this act certain persons were appointed undertakers, with power to scour and cleanse the rivers, and to make the necessary cuts and branches, build bridges, sluices, locks and weirs; all these necessary works were done, and a navigable communication made between Liverpool and Manchester, to the incalculable benefit of those towns; and for defraying time cost of such works, the undertakers are empowered to demand the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Coal, Cannel, Stone, Slate, Timber or other Goods, Wares and Merchandizes, conveyed between Bank Quay and Hunt's Bank in Manchester 3s 4d per Ton.

Dung, Marl and Manure carried on the Navigation for the use of the Owners or Occupiers of Lands within the Distance of Five Miles from the said Rivers, are free from the Rates; and since the River Mersey has been before navigable from Liverpool to Bank Quay, all Goods, Wares and Merchandize passing between those two Places, are not to be liable to the Rates.

This act was amended in 1794, by another act, entitled, 'An Act for altering an Act passed in the Seventh of George the First, entitled, An Act for making the Rivers Mersey and Irwell navigable, from Liverpool to Manchester, in the county palatine of Lancaster; by incorporating the Proprietors of the said Navigation, and to declare their respective Shares therein to be personal Property.' By this second act, the undertakers and other persons therein named are incorporated as "The Company of Proprietors of the Mersey and Irwell Navigation," and are invested with the powers of the former act; the navigation, its tonnage rates and duties, buildings, wharfs, warehouses, quays and all other appurtenances thereto belonging are granted to the said company, as are also all boats, barges, vessels and other effects, matters and things pertaining to the same.

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Commencing on the west side of the town of Manchester, at 93¼ feet above the level of the sea, the Irwell takes a very sinuous course to the west, passing Chat Moss and uniting with the Mersey after having left Flixton House to the east; from their junction the united rivers continue their progress towards Liverpool, making many turnings in their course to Warrington, at a short distance from which town a navigable cut called the Mersey and Irwell Canal opening from the rivers takes a course nearly south for a short distance, then turning to the south and again to the south-east and passing Norton Priory, it enters the estuary of the Mersey at Runcorn Gap. From Warrington the united rivers make a great detour to the south and back again northward, after which they open into the estuary before-mentioned near Sankey Bridge. Owing to the very winding course of the rivers, the length of this navigation may be reckoned fifty miles, but the distance is in many places shortened by side-cuts across the loops or bends. The elevation is not great, the whole rise being only 70 feet. The various canals and navigations connected with the Mersey and Irwell, or so near as to make a communication extremely easy, render this an undertaking of vast importance and utility.

The navigation, for which the acts quoted were obtained, has been one of very great cost to the proprietors; in many instances, as will be seen on the map, cuts of considerable dimensions have been made to shorten the winding course of the river; the want of water, also, which was severely felt in dry seasons, has been another source of expense to the undertakers; they have however conducted the work with great spirit and perseverance; and when their expensive works near Runcorn Gap are completed, this navigation will be one of the first importance.

MONKLAND CANAL.

10 George III. Cap. 105, Royal Assent 12th April, 1770.

THE act for executing this work was obtained so long back as the year 1770, under the title of 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Cut or Canal and Waggon Way, from the

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'Collieries in the parish of Old and New Monkland, to the city of Glasgow.' By this act the proprietors are incorporated as "The Company of Proprietors of the Monkland Navigation," and are empowered to raise £10,000, in shares of £100 each; and in case this should prove inadequate to the completion of the work, then the further sum of £5,000 may be subscribed. The following are the authorized

TONNAGE AND WHARFAGE RATES.

For all Coals, Stones, Timber, Dung, Fuel, and all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize whatever, conveyed on the Canal 1d per Ton, per Mile.
For ditto on the Waggon Way 1d ditto, ditto.
Limestone ¼d ditto, ditto.
Ironstone ½d ditto, ditto.

Gravel, Paving-stones and other Materials, except Limestone for repairs of Roads, and Dung, Soil, Marl and all Sorts of Manure for improving Lands and Grounds, are exempted from the Rates.

The Monkland Canal begins at Old Monkland Coal Works, about 290 feet above the level of the sea, and proceeds in a course nearly direct from east to west, to Glasgow, where it communicates with a branch of the Forth and Clyde Canal, 156½ feet above the sea level. In its course it receives the Monkland and Kirkintilloch, Garnkirk and Glasgow, and Airdrie Railroads, thus opening an easy way for the transit of coals and the import of other goods into the interior.

The intent of this work, as the preamble of the act declares, is to facilitate the conveyance of coal, &c. from the interior parts of the country, and to make a better communication between the collieries in the parishes of Old and New Monkland to the city of Glasgow, and it has answered the original intention and fully proved the utility of the work.

MONKLAND AND KIRKINTILLOCH RAILWAY.

(SEE KIRKINTILLOCH, OR MONKLAND AND KIRKINTILLOCH RAILWAY.)

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MONMOUTH RAILWAY.

50 George III. Cap. 123, Royal Assent 24th May, 1810.

THE act for this work, obtained in 1810, and entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway from Howler Slade in the Forest of Dean, in the county of Gloucester, to the town of Monmouth; and for making other Railways therein mentioned, in the county of Gloucester and Monmouth;' provides for the making of a railway or tramroad from Howler Slade in the Forest of Dean, by the villages of Newland and Redbrook and the town of Coleford to May Hill, near Monmouth, or to a place in the said town of Monmouth, extending north-eastward from Wyebridge to the Nag's Head near Dixon Gate, by passing the bridge over the Wye or by passing the river itself by a boat; and also to make branches out of the said main railway, viz, one from Winnall's Hill southwards to Winnall Colliery, with a collateral line to the mine in Clear-Well-Mead; another line from the same place northward to Wymberry Slade; one from the said line at Swan Pool to the village of Staunton; one other from the same in Lord's Grove to Redbrook Tin Mines, there branching into two railways, one extending to Lower Redbrook Tin Mines, the other to the Wye at Cinder Bank in Newland, there crossing the river to Pool Dee in the parish of Penallt, in the county of Monmouth, and also the necessary wharfs; thus rendering easy the communication between those several places, and facilitating the conveyance of coal, stone and other products of the said forest.

The proprietors are incorporated as "The Monmouth Railway Company," with the usual powers, and have authority to raise £22,000, in shares of £50 each; and should this prove insufficient, they may borrow £6,000 additional, by promissory notes or mortgage; and when the Lydney and Lidbrook (now the Severn and Wye) Railway Company shall have completed certain branches mentioned in their act, then the present company may unite their works therewith, on the payment of a yearly rent of £50 to the aforesaid company. They are also empowered to collect time following tonnage rates.

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TONNAGE RATES.

For all Stone for the repairs of any Turnpike-Roads, Streets or Highways; Lime for Manure and all other Manure 8d per Ton.
For all Coal, Coke, Culm, and for all other Stone, Coal, Cinders, Chalk, Marl, Sand, Lime, Clay, Ashes, Peat, Lime-stone, Pitching and Paving-stone, (not being for Manure, or for the repair of any Turnpike-Roads, Streets or Highways) Iron-stone, Iron or other Ore and other Minerals, and Brick, the Produce of the said Forest, which shall be carried or borne on the said Railways, from any Place within the said Forest, and not passing beyond Staunton Lane End, in Coleford, or to any other Place of less Distance than aforesaid, at which such Goods shall be deposited for Sale, or to be from thence conveyed by any other Means than on the said Railway or Railways 6d ditto.
For all Coal, Coke, CuIm, and for all Stone, Coal, Cinders, Chalk, Marl, Sand, Lime, Clay, Ashes, Peat, Lime-stone, Pitching and Paving-stone, (not being for Manure, or for the repair of any Turnpike-Roads, Streets or Highways) Iron-stone, or other Ore and other Minerals, and Bricks, the Produce of the said Forest, which shall be borne or carried from the said Place called Staunton Lane End, along the said Railways or either of them 6d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Goods, Commodities, Wares or Merchandizes whatsoever carried from Redbrook aforesaid, to or near Pool Dee aforesaid, or back again from thence to the River Wye 6d ditto.
For every Carriage conveying Passengers, or light Goods or Parcels, not exceeding Five Hundred Weight 6d per Mile.
For all other Goods, Commodities, Wares and Merchandizes whatsoever carried on the said Railways or either of them, whether the Produce of the said Forest or not 6d per Ton, per Mile.

Fractions of a Ton and a Mile to be reckoned as the Quarters therein, and of a Quarter as a Quarter.

Coal brought up the Lines of the Lydney and Lidbrook Company to pay only Three-fourths of the above Rates, except those carried from Redbrook to Pool Dee.

Several clauses are inserted for preservation of the timber in the forest, and for securing his Majesty's rights to shares of the mines. Inspectors are to be appointed by the King's Surveyor General for searching suspicious persons and their carriages, for the maintenance of which inspectors and for the enjoyment of certain privileges, the proprietors are to pay certain annual and weekly rentals or allowances. Wharfs, &c. may be erected by the company, who are to receive according to the annexed scale of wharfage rates.

WHARFAGE RATES.

For Coals, Culm, Lime, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, Tin-plates, Iron-stone, Lead and other Ores, Timber, Stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slates, Gravel, Hay, Straw, Corn, Corn in the Straw or Manure 1d per Ton.
For all other Goods, wares, Merchandizes or Things whatsoever 3d ditto.

None but the that enumerated Articles may remain on the Wharfs above Six Days, but these may lie thereon for One Month on the Payment of Sixpence per Ton. After the other Articles have remained Ten Days more than the Six before-mentioned, they shall pay One Penny per Ton, and One Penny per Ton for every further Day.

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An inspection of the map will shew that the plan is well designed to answer the purposes of the subscribers thereto.

MONMOUTHSHIRE CANAL.

32 George III. Cap. 102, Royal Assent 3rd June, 1792.

37 George III. Cap. 100, Royal Assent 4th July, 1797.

42 George III. Cap. 115, Royal Assent 26th June, 1802.

THIS extensive undertaking of canal and railroads, for the company have powers to construct both, was first authorized by the legislature in 1792, by 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Cut or Canal from or from some Place near, Pontnewynydd into the River Usk, at or near the town of Newport, and a collateral Cut or Canal from the same, at or near a Place called Cryndaw Farm, to or near to Crumlin Bridge, all in the county of Monmouth; and for making and maintaining Railways or Stone Roads from such Cuts or Canals to several Iron Works and Mines, in the county of Monmouth and Brecknock.' By this act the proprietors are empowered to raise £120,000, in shares of £100 each, and a further sum of £60,000, if required. The company is designated "The Company of Proprietors of the Monmouthshire Canal Navigation," and has power to make new railways to iron-works, limestone quarries, or coal mines within eight miles of the line of their canal. The proprietors commenced their undertaking under the superintendence of Mr. J. Dadford, Jun. the engineer who made the estimate; and the work proceeded, but it afterwards being found advantageous to extend the original design, a second act was obtained in 1797, under the title of 'An Act for extending the Monmouthshire Canal Navigation, and for explaining and amending an Act passed in the Thirty-second of his present Majesty, for making the said Canal.' The powers of this last act, however, were soon found insufficient for the purposes designed, a third was therefore obtained in 1802, entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining certain Railways to communicate with the Monmouthshire Canal Navigation, and for enabling the Company of Proprietors of that Navigation to raise a further Sum of Money to complete their Undertaking, and for explaining and amending the Acts passed in the Thirty-second and Thirty-

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Seventh of his present Majesty, relating thereto.' By this act the proprietors were enabled to borrow a further sum of money, and to make additional railways communicating with their canal. Five per cent, of the clear profits of the undertaking are to be invested in government securities, till a fund of £1,000 shall have accumulated for repairs of the works. The rates on various articles are to be reduced, when the proprietors are able to divide £10 per cent, on their shares, and coal is the first article so to be reduced; but when the dividend shall fall below £10 per cent. then the rates are to be advanced again. The following are the

TONNAGE RATES.

Iron-stone, Iron-ore, Lead-ore, Coal, Coke, Culm, Stone-coal, Cinders, Charcoal, Lime, if not intended for Manure; Tiles, Bricks, Lime-stone, Flags and other Stone, conveyed on the Canal or Railways 2½d per Ton, per Mile.
Hay, Straw, Corn in the Straw, Materials for Roads, Lime and other Manures 1½d ditto. ditto.
Iron, Lead, Timber and all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize 5d ditto. ditto.
Horses, Mules or Asses passing the Toll-Gates on the Railroads 1d each.
Cows, Horned or Neat Cattle ditto ½d ditto.

Vessels not to pass the Locks, unless the Water flows over the Waste Weir above, without special Permission.

The whole sum raised under the different acts amount to £275,330, in £100 shares. The company made nine miles of the Sirhowey Railroad, of which distance they receive the rates; they have also an annual rent of £110 from the Sirhowey Company, for allowing them to connect their railroad with these works; and they allowed £3,000 to the Brecknock and Abergavenny Company for permission to unite with that work.

This canal and its branches and railroads commence in the Usk River, not a great distance below the town of Newport, close to the termination of the Rumney and Sirhowey Railroads; passing on in a direction nearly full north and leaving Newport to the east, the canal extends by Pontypool to Pontnewynydd, a distance of more than seventeen miles and three quarters. Near this place it connects with the Abergavenny and Brecknock Canal. In its course it passes Malpas, opposite which at Crynda-Farm, is a branch canal to Crumlin Bridge. At Count-y-Billa Farm, at Risca and at Pill Gwenlly it joins the Sirhowey Tramroad; from the Crumlin Bridge Branch there is a railroad to Beaufort Iron Works; a branch

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to Sorwy Furnace, another to Nant-y-glo Works, and a third to the Sirhowey Railroad to Risca. Near Pontypool is a railway branch to Tronsnant Furnace and another to Blaen-Din Works. From the Usk to Pontnewynydd in a distance of twelve miles and a half, there is a rise of 447 feet by the canal; in its railway continuation to Blaen-Ason, there is a rise of 610 feet in a distance of five miles and a quarter. From Crynda-Farm to Crumlin Bridge the canal rises 358 feet in eleven miles; the railway from Crumlin Bridge to Beaufort rises 619 feet in ten miles; the Nant-y-glo Branch has a rise of 518 feet.

This is an extensive and useful undertaking, being in the very centre of a country abounding in limestone, stone, coal, iron, tin and lead, which before this work was executed were permitted to remain undisturbed, for want of a conveyance for the produce of the mines. The cost of the work has been great, but it is a speculation which will not fail, eventually, of proving highly beneficial to the parties who have embarked their property in it; for by a most singular clause in the act, the coal from Newport can be carried to supply the Bristol Market without paying the sea duty, notwithstanding all other coal brought down the Severn, which does not approach within many miles so near the sea, as the Newport Coal, cannot be carried to Bristol, without payment of the duty on sea-borne coal.

MONTGOMERYSHIRE CANAL.

34 George III. Cap. 39, Royal Assent 28th March, 1794.

55 George III. Cap. 83. Royal Assent 22nd June, 1815.

2 George IV. Cap. 119, Royal Assent 23rd June, 1821.

THE Montgomeryshire Canal was commenced under an act of parliament obtained in the year 1794, with the title of 'An Act for making a navigable Canal from or near Porthywain Lime Rocks in the parish of Llanyblodwell, in the county of Salop, to or near Newtown, in the county of Montgomery, and also certain collateral Cuts from the said Canal.' By this act the proprietors were incorporated as "The Company of Proprietors of the Montgomeryshire Canal," and authorized to raise £72,000, in shares of £100 each, and a further sum of £20,000, if required, to complete the same. The company thus empowered began their

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projected work, but after having expended £71,100, in the main line of the canal and a collateral cut to Guilsfield, they found their funds insufficient for the completion of the undertaking, and therefore applied for a second act, which was granted in 1815, as 'An Act to authorize the raising of a further Suns of Money to complete the Montgomeryshire Canal, and to extend the Power of deviating from, and making certain Alterations in, part of the original Plans, and for explaining and rendering more effectual, an Act of the Thirty-fourth of his present Majesty, for making the said Canal.'

By the second act the company are authorized to vary the line and to continue it; their title was also changed into that of "The Company of Proprietors of the Western Branch of the Montgomeryshire Canal," with the powers of the former company secured to them. The former part of this canal is by the present act distinguished as "The Eastern Branch of the Montgomeryshire Canal," and is to be supplied by the present company, with water from the Severn Feeder, the property of the former company, but now transferred to the present. This act directs the raising of £40,000 in new shares, to form one capital stock with the former capital. The same officers are to be appointed for both, and in fact it is now to be considered one concern, with this exception, that the expenses of the Eastern Branch are to be paid out of the stock and profits of that branch exclusively, and the cost of the Western out of the funds raised under this act. The old shareholders are to divide five per cent. annually on their stock, and the surplus profits are to form a fund for completing the Western Branch.

The new shareholders of the Western Branch are to divide their own profits, till they receive an annual dividend of £5 per cent, when the two shall be consolidated and pass as one.

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Lime-stone 1½d2¼d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Coal, Culm and Lime 2¼d3d ditto. ditto.
For all other Stone, Pig-iron, Brick, Timber, Tiles, Slates, Gravel, Sand, Lead and Iron-ore, and all other Minerals 3d5d ditto. ditto.
For all Bark, Cordwood, Coke, Charcoal, Lead, Wrought-iron, Balk and Deals 3½d5½d ditto. ditto.
Por all other Goods, Wares and Mercbandize 4d6d ditto. ditto.

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These rates in the first column only apply to the portion of canal and cuts already made; for the extension from the present termination at Garth Mill and Newtown, the rates in the second column are allowed.

A third act was obtained in 1821, entitled, 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Eastern Branch of the Montgomeryshire Canal, to alter the Line of the Tannat Feeder; to make a navigable Cut from the Guilsfield Branch, to improve the same; and to amend Two several Acts respecting the said Canal.' The design of this act is to enable the proprietors of the Eastern Branch to alter the line of the Tannat Feeder, and to make a cut from the Guilsfield Branch, in order to improve the same. By this act also, the clauses whereby the two branches were to be consolidated, is repealed, and the consolidation is not to take place unless by consent of the proprietors of each. The point of commencement of the Eastern Branch, which before was doubtful, is now to be taken at the distance of thirty-five yards from the sill of the upper gate of the higher of the two Carreghofa Locks.

The length of this canal is twenty-seven miles, and was executed under the direction of Mr. J. Dadford, Jun. It has a lockage of 225 feet, in the main line from Llanymynach to Newtown. Commencing at Portywain Lime Works in Llanyblodwell Parish, in which place it unites with a branch of the Ellesmere Canal, it passes near the village of Llanymynach and crosses the Verniew River, joining at this place another branch of the Ellesmere Canal; thence running to Gwern-felu, where the branch to Guilsfield turns off, it proceeds to Welch Pool; after this it runs parallel to the Severn, past Beniew, through Garth Mill to its union with the Severn on the east side of Newtown. Its direction, by inspecting the map, will be found nearly south-west.

The estimate for the branch from Garth Mill to Newtown, was made. by Mr. Josias Jessop, and amounted to £28,268, including six locks of 8 feet each, and an aqueduct at Llyvior Brook; the cut to be 15 feet wide at the bottom, and 4 feet 6 inches deep.

The estimate for the cut from the upper end of the Guilsfield Branch to Pool Quay and widening the Guilsfield Branch, was made by Mr. G. W. Buck, at £9,140, 11s. 11d. including

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£5,592, 1s. for the cut; £1,134, 14s. 6d. for deepening and widening the Guilsfield Branch; and £2,413, 16s. 5d. for making the Eastern Branch, or Tannat Feeder, navigable.

The northern parts of the line in particular, and the whole line generally, is situated in the midst of quarries of limestone, slate and freestone, and near mines of coal, lead-ore and other minerals; the advantages of the work, therefore, are of much importance, as well to the proprietors of land on its banks as to the public in general; particularly when we take into consideration its connection with the Ellesmere Canal, and the extent of country traversed by this useful line of navigation.

NANTLLE RAILWAY.

6 George IV. Cap. 63, Royal Assent 20th May, 1825.

7 & 8 George IV. Cap. 3, Royal Assent 21st March, 1827.

9 George IV. Cap. 62. Royal Assent 23rd May, 1828.

THIS railway commences at the Gloddfarlon Slate Quarries, near Nantlle Pool, and proceeding in a westerly direction for some distance, it turns at right angles to the north, in which direction it proceeds to its termination at the shipping quay at Carnarvon.

The first act for this work is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway or Tramroad, from or near a certain Slate Quarry called Gloddfarlon, in the parish of Llandwrog, in the county of Carnarvon, to the town and port of Carnarvon, in the same county.' By this act the proprietors are incorporated as "The Nantile Railway Company," with power to make the necessary works; they are also directed to raise £20,000 in shares of £100 each, for paying the interest of which, and other current expenses, they are entitled to the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Copper, Tin, Lead, lron and other Ores, and all Matters containing Ores of Copper, Tin, Lead, Iron and other Metals; and all Slates, Slate-stones, Blocks of Slate, Tiles and Tile-stone 6d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Lime, Lime-stone, Dung, Compost and all Sorts of Manure, Materials for the repair of Public Roads and Highways; Timber, Coals, Coke, Culm, Cinders, Stones, Bricks, Earth, Clay, Chalk, Marl, Lime, Sand, Corn, Grain, Flour, and all other Goods, Wares and Commodities whatever 3d ditto, ditto.

Fractions of a Ton and of a Mile to be taken as the Quarters therein, and of a Quarteras a Quarter.

Occupiers and Owners of Land on the Line, are not to pay Tolls for their Carriages or Cattle.

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When the sum annually raised for the necessary expenses shall exceed what is required for carrying on the work, and for paying a dividend on the shares at the rate of £5 per cent, then the remainder shall be appropriated to paying off the sums originally subscribed; and when these are all paid off, the rates are to be reduced, as far as regards the first articles described in the foregoing scale of rates, to 3½d. per ton per mile; the other articles to be paid for as before.

The sum, estimated under the first act, does not appear to have been sufficient for completing the road, as in 1827 a second was obtained under the title of 'An Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the Nantlle Railway to raise a further Sum of Money for completing the said Railway and other Works.' By this act the further sum of £70,000 was directed to be raised by mortgage of the works, and the rates were ordered not to be reduced till all the debt both of shareholders and mortgagees should be paid.

A third act was obtained in 1828, entitled, 'An Act for extending the Time of completing the Nantlle Railway and other Works connected therewith, in the county of Carnarvon.' This act, like the second, is very short, merely giving the further space of five years for completing the work.

NARR RIVER.

24 George II. Cap. 19, Royal Assent 22nd May, 1751.

10 George III. Cap. 27, Royal Assent 12th April, 1770.

THE River Narr Navigation, commencing at King's Lynn, runs for some distance from that town towards the south, in a direction nearly parallel with the Eau Brink Cut on the Ouse; it then makes a detour to the south-east, after which it proceeds in a sinuous course to the east, leaving on the north Bilney Lodge and West Acre Abbey; on the south Narborough and Narford Halls; and terminating at Castle Acre, all in the county of Norfolk.

The first act for this undertaking passed in the year 1751, as 'An Act for making the River Narr navigable from the town and port of King's Lynn to Westacre, in the county of Norfolk,'

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whereby certain commissioners were appointed for making navigable the River Narr from King's Lynn to West Acre, and for borrowing £3,500 on security of certain tolls to be levied on vessels using the navigation. The work was commenced, and the various sums of money so borrowed became, in process of time, the property of the Rev. Henry Spelman, to whom also, in December, 1769, an arrear of interest amounting to £1,154, 19s. 7d. was due, without the works being completed. The commissioners applied to parliament for another act, authorizing the said interest to be reckoned in future as a capital sum due to the said Mr. Spelman, who also engaged to furnish a further sum of £1,345, 0s. 5d. in order to pay the cost of the said second act and to complete the works. The act was in consequence obtained under the title of 'An Act to enlarge the Powers of an Act of the Twenty-fourth of his late Majesty, for making the River Narr navigable from the town and port of King's Lynn to Westacre, in the county of Norfolk, and for making the said Act more effectual.' By this act £800 are to be forthwith expended in repairs; £600 thereof in the river above Narborough, and £200 below. The debt owing to Mr. Spelman, his heirs or assigns, may be reduced by a notice of six months, signed by nine or more of the commissioners.

At the time this work was finished, it was an important benefit to the port of Lynn, and has apparently answered the purpose for which it was undertaken.

NEATH CANAL NAVIGATION.

31 George III. Cap. 85, Royal Assent 6th June, 1791.

38 George III. Cap. 30, Royal Assent 26th May, 1798.

BY the first act passed in 1791, and entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a Canal or navigable Communication from or near a certain Place called Abernant, in the county of Glamorgan, to or through a certain Place called the Brickfield, near Melincrytham Pill, into the street of Neath, near the town of Neath, in time said county,' power was given to certain persons, incorporated as "The Company of Proprietors of the Neath Canal Navigation," to purchase lands and to undertake the ne-

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cessary works for making and completing a navigable canal from Abernant, in Glamorganshire, to communicate with the River Neath in the town of that name, which canal will facilitate the conveyance of coals, ores, stone and timber, from the mines, quarries, woods and collieries on its line. They are also empowered to make use of the bed of the River Neath, wherever that may be useful or necessary for the completion of their plan, and they may make inclined planes, railways or rollers in any part, if deemed requisite. For these purposes they may raise £25,000, in shares of £100 each; and in case such sum should not prove sufficient, they may raise £10,000 additional, either amongst themselves, or on assignment of the rates. The shareholders are to receive £5 per cent, per annum, every year until the work is finished.

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Iron, Goods, Wares, Merchandize and other Things, except as specified below 4d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Iron Castings 3d ditto, ditto.
For all Pig-iron 2½d ditto, ditto.
For all Iron-stone, iron-ore, Coals, CuIm, Stone-coal, Coke, Cinders, Charcoal, Timber, Stone, Tiles, Clay, Bricks, Lime-stone, Lime and Manure of all Sorts 1½d ditto, ditto.

Fractions of a Mile and of a Ton to be taken as the Quarters therein, and of a Quarter as a Quarter.

No Tolls are to be paid by the Owners or Occupiers of the Melyn-y-court Furnace, Ynis-y-Gerwn Tin Mills and Aberdulais Forges, for any Goods conveyed between the last-named Place and the Ynis-y-Gerwn Tin Mills, or between the weir at the last-named Place and the Upper End of Llyntwrch.

Wharfs may be made and the charge for using them is to be determined by the company. Five pounds per cent, is to be reserved out of the clear annual profits, as a fund for repairs, till the same shall amount to £1,000, when it shall cease to be funded till the £1,000 is reduced to £500, and then it shall commence again. The company may also make railways and collateral cuts, with inclined planes on the same. Private individuals may build wharfs, &c. and charge the following

WHARFAGE RATES.

For Coals, Culm, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, Iron-stone, Lead or other Ores,Timber, Stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slates or Gravel 1d per Ton.
For all other Goods, Wares or Things 3d ditto.

None of these to remain on the Wharfs, &c. more than Six Days, except those first enumerated, which may remain One Month on paying Three-pence per Ton. After the first Six Days the Owners are to pay for the next Ten Days, One Penny per Ton additional; after that Time, One Penny per Ton for every succeeding Day. Pleasure Boats and Boats used for the Purposes of Husbandry, are to pass on the Canal and Cuts free of Toll.

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Jim Shead Waterways Photographer & Writer
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