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This Book "Priestley's Navigable Rivers and Canals" by Joseph Priestley was previously published in April 1831. NOTE: Oringinally called "Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways, of Great Britain".
For more information see About this Book

Index Page Link to Previous Page 421

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mooring buoys, chains and capsterns, and the company are to build wharfs, warehouses and other works necessary for the purposes of the act. The following are to be taken as

DOCK, WHARFAGE, WAREHOUSING AND TONNAGE RATES.

For all Ships or Vessels entering the Dock or Basin, and not continuing therein above Twenty-one Days 0s 2d per Ton.
Above that Time, per Week additional 0s 1d ditto.
For all Goods, Wares, Merchandize and other Things, navigated into or out of the Dock or Basin 0s 1d ditto.
For all Sand, Lime-stone and Lime for Manure, Dung, Compost and other Manures and Materials for Roads, conveyed on the Railway 0s 1d ditto, per Mile.
For all Copper, Tin, Lead and other Ores, and all Matters containing Ore, Copper, Lead, Iron and other Metals; Timber, Coal, Coke, Culm, Cinders, Stone, Bricks, Earth, Clay, Chalk, Marl, Lime and Sand, not used for Manure 0s 0½d ditto. ditto.
For Parcels or Packages lying Seven Days in the Company's Warehouses, if not exceeding One Hundred Weight 0s 4d each.
Above that Weight 0s 4d per Cwt.
Coarse Goods not in Packages 3s 6d per Ton.
For every Horse, Mule and Ass, not drawing Goods nor going from Farm to Farm or to the Commons 0s 2d each.

The Rates of small Parcels, not weighing more than Five Hundred Weight, are to be regulated by the Company.

Fractions of a Ton and a Mile to be taken as the Quarters therein, and of a Quarter as a Quarter.

All Vessels belonging to his Majesty, or conveying Soldiers, Arms and Baggage, or belonging the Ordnance, Customs, Excise or Post-Office, are exempted from these Rates; as are also Owners of Lands on the Line and their Servants and Cattle.

The length of the railway is two miles and three hundred yards, in which distance there is a rise of 68 feet above high-water-mark; the dock is two hundred yards by fifty-five at the bottom, calculated to hold twenty-one vessels of three hundred tons as mentioned above; the depth is 16 feet below high-water-mark of the highest spring tides, and the flood-gates at the entrance are 36 feet wide. Mr. F. Foster estimated the whole at £11,736, 3s. 4d. including £8,074, l0s. the cost of the dock and other conveniences. The engineer's estimate was subscribed for in equal portions by Messrs. D. T. Shears, J. H. Shears, T. Margrave and W. Ellwood, Jun.

The work is completed and is found useful for the intended objects of its protection.

LLANLLYFIN AND CARNARVON RAILWAY.

(SEE NANTLLE RAILWAY.)

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LLANFIHANGEL RAILWAY.

51 George III. Cap. 123, Royal Assent 25th May, 1811.

THIS railway commences at a level of 447 feet above the sea, on the banks of the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal, with which it communicates, and proceeds from thence in a circuitous course nearly north-east to its junction with the Grosmont or Lianfihangel Crucorney Railroad at Lianfihangel Crucorney Court, in tile county of Monmouth.

The act for this work was passed in 1811, under the title of 'An Act for making a Railway from the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal, in the parish of Llanwenarth, to or near to Lianfihangel Crucorney in the county of Monmouth,' whereby the proprietors are incorporated as " The Llanfihangel Railway Company," and empowered to make a railway from the coal wharf of the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal, in the parish of Llanwenarth, to the village of Llainfihangel Crucorney, in the county of Monmouth, by or near the Cadvor, Penyr Worlod, Lanforst, and Maerdy, across the Usk, by or through the town of Abergavenny and other places, and to make inclined planes on the line. For the purposes of this act it is directed that £20,000 shall be raised in shares of £200 each, and if that sum should prove insufficient, they may obtain an addition of £15,000 by borrowing on mortgage of the work.

TONNAGE AND OTHER RATES.

For all Dung, Compost, Lime-stone, Manure and Materials for Roads 0s 2d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Lime, Chalk, Marl, Ashes, Peat, Clay, Bricks and Sand 0s 3d ditto. ditto.
For all Coals, Cinders, Coke, Culm, Charcoal, Tin, Copper, Lead-ore, Lead in Pigs or Sheets, Iron-stone or Ore, Iron in Pigs and Bars, Tiles, Slates, Flag-stones and other Stones 0s 4d ditto. ditto.
For all other Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Things whatsoever 0s 6d ditto. ditto.
For Horses, Colts, Mules or Asses, not drawing any Goods liable to Toll, and for Cows, and Horned or Neat Cattle, except Swine or Sheep 0s 1d each.
For all Swine and Sheep 0s 6d per Score.
For Persons travelling in all privileged Waggons, carrying Passengers for Hire 0s 1d per Mile, each.

Parcels under Five Hundred Weight to be paid for according to a Rate fixed by the Proprietors.

Tickets to be delivered by the Collector of Tolls, and no Toll to be paid for the same Horse or other Animal more than once in the Day.

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Lords of manors or the company may erect wharfs and warehouses on the line, for using which they shall charge the following
For Coal, Culm, Lime, Lime.stone, Clay, Iron, Iron-stone, Lead or other Ores, Timber, Stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slates, Gravel or other Things 1d per Ton.
For Packages of not more than Fifty-six Pounds 1d each.
For ditto above Fifty-six Pounds and not exceeding Five Hundred Weight 2d ditto.
For ditto exceeding Five Hundred Weight 6d per Ton.

But if the same shall remain on any Wharf or in any Warehouse for a longer Time than Forty-eight Hours, then the Proprietors may charge, in addition, One Penny per Ton for Wharfage and Three-pence per Ton for Warehousing, for the next Ten Days, and the same Sums respectively for every Day the said Goods shall remain on the Wharfs or in the Warehouses.

There are other clauses, but of no general interest. Mr. William Crossley made the estimate of this railroad in 1810, and stated that a single railroad would cost £13,390, 12s. and a double one £17,862. The length of the road is eleven thousand six hundred and six yards, and the money originally subscribed £15,400.

LONDON AND CAMBRIDGE JUNCTION CANAL.

52 George III. Cap. 141, Royal Assent 9th June, 1812.

54 George III. Cap. 168, Royal Assent 20th June, 1814.

As far back as the year 1778 Mr. Whitworth pointed out to the Common Council of the City of London, the public advantage which would accrue by making a canal from Bishop's Stortford to Cambridge; and that body gave him orders, as their engineer, to make a survey of the country between those places, which he did in the years 1779 and 1780. He reported this line to be very practicable; the length whereof by his survey was twenty-eight miles and a quarter, with a rise from Bishop's Stortford to the head level at Elsenham of 84 feet, and a fall from thence to the River Cam at the low end of Cambridge of 141 feet 2 inches. This scheme has lain dormant till the present proprietors saw the great advantage the public would derive by accomplishing an easy communication between the metropolis and the various towns and districts in the line of this projected canal down to Lynn and the Isle of Ely; and for the purpose of putting into execution so important a work, they applied and obtained an act in 1812, under the title of 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable

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'Canal, with Aqueducts, Feeders and Reservoirs, from the Stort Navigation at or near Bishop's Stortford, in the county of Hertford, to join the River Cam, near Clayhithe Sluice, in the county of Cambridge, with a navigable Branch or Cut from the said Canal at Sawston to Whaddon, in the county of Cambridge;' by which certain subscribers were incorporated as "The Company of Proprietors of the London and Cambridge Junction Canal," and empowered to complete a navigable canal from Sir George Duckett's Canal, called the Stort Navigation, at or near Bishop's Stortford, through the parishes and hamlets of Bishop's Stortford, Hockerill, Birchanger, Stansted, Mount Fitchet, Ugley, Newport, Saffron Walden, Littlebury, Little Chesterford and Great Chesterford, Hinxton, Ickleton, Duxford, Whittlesford, Great Shelford, Trumpington, Cherry Hinton, Fen Ditton and Horningsea, to join the Cam below Clayhithe Sluice, in the parish of Horningsea aforesaid; and to make a branch or cut with proper aqueducts and other works, from the said canal at Great Shelford to Whaddon; and to make necessary works for supplying the said canal and branch with water. The company may also construct railways and inclined planes, should the same appear more advantageous, in any part of the line; but the proprietors are not to make any works within the park of Lord Braybrook, at Audley End, nor to take water from streams flowing into the same; nor to erect buildings between the park walls and the banks of the canal. There are also similar clauses respecting the estates of Shortgrove, Elsenham Hall, Elsenham Leys, and many others, the property of gentlemen living near the intended line. The streams, which feed that valuable conduit in the market place of Cambridge, called Hobson's Conduit, from which great part of the town and university obtain water, are by this act to be kept from injury or diminution. For completing the undertaking, the proprietors are empowered to raise £570,000 in shares of £100 each; and should this prove insufficient they may raise an additional sum of £300,000, either amongst themselves, or by the creation of new shares, or by mortgage, or by promissory notes; but no proceeding is to take place before £425,250 shall have been actually subscribed. For defraying the necessary expenses and paying interest the company may demand the following rates.

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TONNAGE RATES.

For all Goods, Wares, Merchandize, and all other Matters or Things whatsoever 3d per Ton, per Mile.

Fractions of a Mile to be taken as a whole Mile, and Vessels having on Board a less lading than Twenty Tons, shall pay for Twenty Tons.

The proprietors of the canal, lords of manors or others may erect wharfs and warehouses on the line; and for the accommodation thus afforded, rates shall be paid according to agreement between the company and the owners of goods. Owners and occupiers of land may convey corn and grain and manure, the actual produce of their lands, on the levels of the canal, free from tolls, provided they pass no lock; and they may carry back manure for their lands tonnage free.

In the year 1814 a second act was obtained, under the title of 'An Act to alter and amend an Act made in the Fifty-second of his present Majesty, for making a Canal from the Stort Navigation, at or near Bishop's Stortford, to the River Cam.' By this act it appears that the sum of £425,250 had not been subscribed, therefore the works were not commenced; but as an amount had been raised, nearly sufficient for making the part between Clayhithe Sluice and Saffron Walden, it is provided by this second act, that the clause, insisting on the amount above stated, should be repealed, and this part of the work, with the cut from the canal from Sawston to Great Shelford, should be commenced; but that part between Saffron Walden and the Stort Navigation shall not be commenced before three-fourths of the estimate for the whole work is subscribed. By this act also fifteen additional subscribers are to be elected into the committee, as directors, at the next general assembly of the company.

Commencing at the level of the Bishop's Stortford Canal, there is a rise of 72 feet to the summit of this canal, by twelve locks of 6 feet each, bringing the work to the west end of the summit level, near to the large tunnel, which is a mile and three hundred and forty yards in length. The distance from the commencement to the summit level has four of these locks in the first mile and a half; there is then a level of six furlongs and eight chains; in the remaining space of one mile and two furlongs there are the remaining eight locks; the summit level is four miles, six furlongs

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and two chains long, and from it there are ten locks descending to the east a distance of three miles, six furlongs and three chains to a second tunnel four hundred and eighteen yards in length. At thirteen miles, three furlongs and one chain from the Bishop's Stortford Canal is a third tunnel seven hundred and four yards long, and the canal locks down by twenty-two locks in twelve miles, four furlongs and six chains from the west end of this third tunnel; at the distance of eight miles, six furlongs and seven chains from which the branch to Whaddon commences; this is near to Shelford Magna, whence to the entrance into the Cam at Clayhithe Sluice there are eight locks in a distance of ten miles, one furlong and nine chains, making a total fall of 165 feet 9 inches. The Whaddon Branch has thirteen locks.

The dimensions of the canal and branch are 5 feet in depth, 24 feet breadth at the bottom and 44 feet at the top; the summit level is the same breadth at the bottom, but 6 feet deep and 48 feet at the surface. The estimate for the main line was £523,838, including reservoirs, feeders and steam engines; of this sum £121,300 was subscribed at first in shares of £100 each. The estimate for the Whaddon Branch, including an aqueduct over the Grant or Granta River, was £44,848. The line was surveyed and laid down in 1811 by Messrs. Netlam and Francis Giles, under the direction of Mr. Rennie.

The completion of this canal will be found highly advantageous to the agricultural counties of Cambridge, Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex and Hertford, and very beneficial to the metropolis.

LOUTH CANAL.

3 George III. Cap. 39, Royal Assent 24th March, 1763.

9 George IV. Cap. 30, Royal Assent 9th May, 1828.

THE first act for making the Louth Canal was obtained in 1763, under the title of 'An Act for making a Navigation from the River Humber, by a Canal or Cut at or near Tetney Haven, to the River Ludd in the parish of Alvingham, in the county of Lincoln, and for continuing the said Navigation in or near the said River, from thence to or near the town of Louth, in the said county,'

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which sufficiently declares the proposed line of the same. The length thereof is about fourteen miles, in a south-west direction, at a very trifling elevation above the sea; for the first nine miles and three quarters, commencing at the sea-lock gates in Tetney Haven, the line is on a level; in the next two miles and three quarters there is a rise of 24 feet, and in the remaining mile and a half a rise of 32½ feet. The line was surveyed by Mr. John Grundy and afterwards revised by Mr. Smeaton; the estimate for which amounted to £16,500. For putting this work into execution, certain commissioners were empowered to raise money on mortgage of the tolls, which are directed to be paid as below.

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Goods, Wares, Merchandize or Commodities, except Groceries 4d per Ton.
For all Groceries 8d ditto.

A Chaldron of Coals containing Forty eight Winchester Bushels to be estimated as One Ton.

Less Weights than a Ton to pay in Proportion.

The sum borrowed under this act was altogether £28,000; but though this amount had been expended, the canal was found to be so defectively constructed, that a further outlay was required, in consequence whereof meetings of the commissioners were held in the year 1777, for devising means to procure the necessary funds, and Mr. Chaplin having proposed to advance the sums required, on condition that he should have the tolls on lease for ninety-years, the act for sanctioning which agreement should be obtained at his cost, when required, that proposal was, with the exception of two subscribers, agreed to, and the lease granted to Mr. Chaplin, he covenanting on his part to make all repairs, to pay all wages and legal interest for all sums previously subscribed.

Mr. Chaplin accordingly took the works into his own hands, but doubts as to the validity of this agreement were entertained, and it having become expedient on other accounts to repeal the first act, a second was obtained in 1828, entitled, 'An Act for improving and maintaining the Navigation from the River Humber to Alvingham in the county of Lincoln, and from thence to Louth in the same county.' By this act the remainder of the term of Mr. Chaplin's lease, subject to a reduction of the tolls, is continued to him and his heirs or assigns. Instead of the former

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rates, there shall be demanded according to the following list, for goods, &c. conveyed on the canal from the Humber to and above the lock, called the Basin Lock, as in the first column of the list, and for all goods, &c. conveyed a less distance, as in the second column of the said list.

LIST OF TONNAGE RATES BEFORE REFERRED TO.

For all Sugar, Molasses, Plums, Currants, Raisins and Figs 4s 0d4d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Slate, Timber, Deals and Free-stone 2s 8d3d ditto. ditto.
For every Chaldron of Coals of Forty-eight Bushels Imperial Measure 2s 8d3d per Mile.
For every Forty Bushels of Cinders, Coke or Culm 1s 4d1½d ditto.
For every Eighty Tods of Wool, Twenty-eight Pounds each Tod 2s 8d3d ditto.
For every Thousand of Stock Bricks, Paving Bricks, Floor Bricks or Pantiles 2s 8d3d ditto.
For every Thousand Common Bricks 1s 4d1½d ditto.
For every Quarter of Rye Grass Seed and Hay Seed 0s 2d.
For every Four Quarters of ditto .1d ditto.
For every Twelve Bunches of Plaster Laths 0s 4d.
For every Fifteen ditto .½d ditto.
For every Quarter of Wheat, Beans, Peas, Rye, Lentils, Barley, Malt, Oats, Rapeseed or Linseed 0s 6d½d ditto.
For all other Goods, Wares, &c. whatsoever 2s 8d3d per Ton, per Mile.

And so in Proportion for a greater or less Quantity than above.

if Goods remain on the Wharfs or in the Warehouses for more than Twenty-four Hours and not exceeding Six Days, the Company may charge the Owners Three-pence per Ton, over and above the Tonnage Rates for the same.

Provision is also made for keeping the water of the River Ludd at a certain level, and for protecting the low lands between Tetney Haven and Alvington Out Fen. After the debt charged upon the work shall have been paid off, the commissioners and their successors, named and appointed in the act, may invest any part of the surplus monies, not exceeding £3,000 in each year, in the Public Funds or Exchequer Bills, as a fund for repairs.

There are other clauses for the protection of private property, which being such as are usually inserted, it is needless here to enumerate.

This, as far as it extends, is an useful work, and highly beneficial to the town of Louth, and the adjoining district.

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LOYNE OR LUNE RIVER.

23 Geo. II. C. 12, R. A. 14th March, 1749.

12 Geo. III. C. 81, R. A. 1st April, 1772.

29 Geo. III. C, 39, R. A. 24th June, 1789.

47 Geo. III. C. 37. R. A. 1st Aug. 1807.

THE first enactment for improving the Loyne or Lune took place as far back as the year 1749, under the title of 'An Act for improving the Navigation of the River Loyne, otherwise called Lune, and for building a Quay or Wharf, &c.;' wherein it is stated that the Loyne or Lune has become dangerous for navigators, and very inconvenient for the town and port of Lancaster, now becoming a place of considerable trade to the West Indies and other foreign parts; it is therefore necessary that a quay or wharf, with other conveniences, should be built on the west side of the river, and that buoys should be placed at the entrance into the said river and other places thereof, and land-marks erected for guiding ships and vessels to and from the said town; this act therefore appoints certain trustees to build a quay or wharf with other works and conveniences, and to erect piers or moles at the mouth of the said river, and for raising the necessary funds. The following rates are to be collected during twenty-one years for all ships and vessels coming into or going out of the port.

TONNAGE RATES.

For every Vessel trading to or from any Port or Place in Europe within the Streights or Mediterranean Sea, into or from any Port or Place in Africa, America or Greenland 1s 0d per Ton.
For ditto trading to any Foreign Port in Europe, except Ireland, the, Isle of Man or the Streights 0s 8d ditto.
For ditto to any Port or Place in Great Britain, South of Holly Head, or North of the Mull of Galloway 0s 6d ditto.
For ditto in Ireland or the Isle of Man 0s 4d ditto.
For ditto in Great Britain, North of Holly Head or South of the Mull of Galloway 0s 2d ditto.

For ditto coming into the River in Ballast and not lading or unlading in the Port, One-fourth of the said Rates.

Vessels of War and Ships driven in by Stress of Weather, are exempt.

At the end of twenty-one years half the above rates are to cease. Trustees are empowered to borrow £2,000 on security of the duties, and to pay interest thereon at £5 per cent.

A second act was obtained in 1772, under the title of 'An Act to explain and amend an Act made in the Twenty-third Year of the Reign of his late Majesty George the Second, for improving the

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'Navigation of the River Loyne, otherwise called Lune, &c. &c. in the county palatine of Lancaster.' By this act the rates of the former act were confirmed, with power to the commissioners or trustees, of lowering them when expedient to half the original sums; the other clauses, merely confirming the former act, need not be quoted.

The next application to parliament was made in 1789, when a third act was obtained under title of 'An Act to explain, amend, and render more effectual several Acts, made in the Twenty-third of George the Second, and Twelfth of his present Majesty, for improving the Navigation of the River Loyne, otherwise called Lune, &c. &c. and for other Purposes therein mentioned.' By this act it is stated that the commissioners have borrowed £6,000 under authority of the former acts, and have expended the same on the works, as directed, and particularly on the making of a wet dock at Glasson, and other improvements of the said river, in doing which a debt of £1,560 has been contracted; and since it will be advantageous to build a stone land-mark in place of the present wood one at Rossall Point, as well as one or more light-houses near Lancaster Bay, it is by this act provided that the rates levied under the former acts shall be collected, together with the following

ADDITIONAL RATES.

For every Vessel trading to or from any Port or Place in Europe within the Streights or Mediterranean Sea, into or from any Port or Place in Africa, America or Greenland 6d per Ton.
For ditto trading to any Foreign Port in Europe, except Ireland, the Isle of Man or the Streights 4d ditto.
For ditto to any Port or Place in Great Britain, South of Holly Head or North of the Mull of Galloway 3d ditto.
For ditto in Ireland or the Isle of Man 2d ditto.
For ditto in Great Britain, North of Holly Head or South of the Mull of Galloway 1d ditto.

These additional rates to cease when the sum of £2,500, which this act directs to be borrowed, shall have been paid off, and the old debt reduced to £4,000. One penny per ton is to be paid by every vessel as a light-house duty, which sum shall be applied to the maintenance of the said light-house; the overplus, if any, to be employed in reducing the debt. By this act it is

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also provided that the port of Lancaster shall from time to time be cleansed and scoured, and the entrance from the sea kept clear and open.

A fourth act was obtained in 1807, entitled, 'An Act to explain, amend, and render more effectual several Acts, for improving the Navigation of the River Loyne, otherwise Lune, and for building a Quay or Wharf near Lancaster, in the county palatine of Lancaster.' By this act it appears that the commissioners cannot, out of the present rates, pay the interest, &c. due from their trust, or carry on and uphold the necessary works, they are therefore empowered to take, in lieu of all former rates, except the light-house dues, which are to continue the same, the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For every Vessel trading to or from any Port or Place in Europe within the Streights or Mediterranean Sea, into or from any Port or Place in Africa, America or Greenland 3s 0d per Ton.
For ditto trading to any Foreign Port in Europe, except Ireland, the Isle of Man or the Streights 2s 0d ditto.
For ditto to any Port or Place in Great Britain, South of Holly Head or North of the Mull of Galloway 1s 6d ditto.
For ditto in Ireland or the Isle of Man 1s 0d ditto.
For ditto in great Britain, North of Holly Head or South of the Mull of Galloway 0s 6d ditto.

The same Exemptions as before are made by this Act, and Vessels conveying Coal or Fuel are also declared free from the Dues or Rates.

By this act the commissioners are empowered to appoint or license a sufficient number of pilots to conduct vessels in and out of the port, and to enforce the pilotage dues from all masters of vessels refusing to take on board a pilot, licensed according to the powers of this act.

MACCLESFIELD CANAL.

7 George IV. Cap. 30, Royal Assent 11th April, 1826.

DURING the progress of the Peak Forest Canal, it appeared desirable that another should be made between the summit levels of that work and of the Trent and Mersey Canal, thereby forming a more direct communication between the southern canals and the town of Manchester; no resolution, however, was come to on this subject before the year 1825, when a line was determined upon,

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under the direction of Mr. Telford, and in the following year parliamentary sanction was obtained under the title of 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the Peak Forest Canal in tile township of Marple, in the county palatine of Chester, to join the Canal Navigation from the Trent to the Mersey, at or near Hardings Wood Lock, in the township of Talk, or Talk-on-the-Hill, in the county of Stafford.' By this act the company were incorporated by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Macclesfield Canal."

The work, designed for the passage of narrow vessels of 7 feet wide, commences near the northern extremity of the summit level of the Peak Forest Canal, in the township of Marple, and passes upon that level through a very undulating part of the county of Chester, crossing at a considerable elevation several vallies whose streams afford it supplies of water; leaving Lime Hall on the east and Macclesfield on the west, it proceeds to the turnpike-road from Buxton to Congleton, having completed a distance of seventeen miles and a half; it then descends by locks to its lowest level, crossing the River Dane on the east of Congleton, and after pursuing a south-west direction to the Trent and Mersey Navigation, enters the summit level of that canal, making the total fall 113 feet 9 inches, and its total length twenty-nine miles, four furlongs and eleven poles.

The original estimate was £295,000, and the proprietors are empowered to raise by shares £300,000; should this be inadequate, they may raise a further sum of £100,000, on mortgage of the tolls.

By the act they are restricted from taking any water out of the summit levels of the Peak Forest Canal and of the Trent and Mersey, except under certain limitations. The canal is to be supplied with water from certain rivers, brooks, rivulets and water-courses, &c. but without injury to any mills thereon; and for the purpose of defining when the water shall be taken out, Mr. Nicholas Brown, of Wakefield, and Mr. Thomas Brown, of Manchester, civil engineers, are to determine under what state of the rivers, brooks, &c. the surplus water may be taken without injury to the mill-property thereon. Five reservoirs are to be constructed for the supply of the eanal, and the following are fixed as tonnage rates.

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TONNAGE RATES.

For all Sand, Gravel, Paving-stones, Brick, Clay, Coal for burning Lime-stone, and Rubble-stone for Roads 1d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Ashler-stone, Slate, Flags, Spar, Coal, except for burning Lime, and other Materials 1½d ditto. ditto.
For all Timber, Lime, Goods, Wares and all other Merchandizes, Articles, Matters and Things not mentioned above 0d ditto. ditto.

Fractions of a Ton and of a Mile to be taken as the Quarters therein, and of a Quarter as a Quarter.

Dung, Soil, Marl and Ashes of Coal or Turf for Land upon the Line, are exempt from Toll, provided no Lock be passed, or if passed, when the Water flows over the Waste Weir.

The advantages of this canal, when completed, will be seen from an inspection of the map, as it will be found to form the shortest line of communication between the Peak Forest and Trent and Mersey, and to lessen the distance thirteen miles between London and Manchester.

MAMHILAD RAILWAY.

54 George III. Cap. 101, Royal Assent 17th June, 1814.

THIS railroad, commencing in the Brecon and Abergavenny Canal, at an elevation of 447 feet above the level of the sea, runs in an easterly direction for a short distance, and then taking a detour, proceeds southerly to its termination near Usk Bridge, over the river at that place. The country abounds in limestone, and by means of this railroad an easy conveyance is found for this material and ironstone, which is also a produce of the neighbourhood.

As it is connected so intimately with the Abergavenny Canal, it will only be necessary here to quote the title of the act obtained for its completion, which is 'An Act for making and maintaining a Tramroad or Railway from the parish of Mamhilad, in the county of Monmouth, to or near Usk Bridge, in the said county.'

The railroad is five miles and three chains in length, and there is a descent, from its junction with the Brecon and Abergavenny Canal to Usk Bridge, of 308 feet 6 inches. The work was estimated by Mr. John Hodgkinson at £6,000, of which £4,150 were subscribed in shares of £50 each.

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MANCHESTER, ASHTON AND OLDHAM CANAL.

(SEE ASHTON-UNDER-LYNE CANAL.)

MANCHESTER, BOLTON AND BURY CANAL.

31 George III. Cap. 68, Royal Assent 13th May. 1791.

45 George III. Cap. 4, Royal Assent 12th March, 1805.

THIS canal was projected for the purpose of making a communication, by narrow boats of 7 feet wide, between the towns whose names it bears; but by an agreement entered into in 1794, with the Leeds and Liverpool Canal Company, for making a junction at Redmoss, the proprietors of the Manchester, Bolton and Bury Canal were induced to make their canal capable of navigating vessels 14 feet wide, the same as those on the Leeds and Liverpool Canal.

By the first act obtained in 1791, and entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from Manchester to or near Presto-lee-Bridge, in the township of Little Lever, and from thence by one Branch to or near the town of Bolton, and by another Branch to or near the town of Bury, and to Weddell Brook in the parish of Bury, all in the county palatine of Lancaster,' the proprietors were incorporated as "The Company of Proprietors of the Canal Navigation from Manchester to Bolton and to Bury." They were also empowered to make a canal from the River Irwell, near the Sugar House or Old Quay in Manchester, to a certain meadow near Presto-lee-Bridge, in the parish of Bolton, and from thence by one branch to Church Bridge in Bolton and to Bury Bridge in the parish of Bury, and from thence to Weddell Brook, in the same parish, and to make reservoirs, steam engines and other machines for supplying the same with water.

For completing the various works, the proprietors have power to raise £47,000, in shares of £100 each; and should this not prove sufficient they may raise a further sum of £20,000 either by themselves, or by the admission of new subscribers, or by mortgage. They are also empowered to demand the following tonnage rates.

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TONNAGE RATES.

For all Lime Lime-stone, Clay, Bricks, Stone, Coal or other Minerals 2d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Timber, Goods, Wares, Merchandize and other Commodities 3d ditto. ditto.
For all Lime and Lime-stone, if passing the Locks when the Water flows over the Lock Weir, instead of the Rate above quoted ½d ditto. ditto.
For all Coal, Clay, Bricks or Stones, except Lime-stone, not passing any Lock, in lieu of the above quoted Rate 1½d ditto. ditto.

Wharfage Rates to be determined by the Company.

A junction having been proposed between the Mersey and Irwell Navigation and this canal, it is provided, that the proprietors of the Mersey and Irwell Navigation are exempted from all rates for conveying stone on this canal, when the water flows over the lock weirs, such stone being for the repair of the banks, &c. of the said Mersey and Irwell Navigation; and the proprietors of this canal may lock down into the Mersey and Irwell without paying any rates or dues, for any distance between Hunt's Bank and Throstle Nest. When this company's vessels pass below the first lock on the Irwell, they are to pay the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Coals, Stone, Lime, Lime-stone, Bricks, Slate, Iron and other Minerals ½d per Ton, per Mile.
For Timber and all other Goods 1d ditto. ditto.

Additional Rates to the same Amount as above may be demanded by the Mersey and Irwell Company, when the Rate of Carriage between Liverpool and Manchester shall be Six Shillings per Ton.

Proprietors of mines may make cuts to communicate with the canal. Lords of manors, and proprietors of land on the line may build wharfs, cranes, weigh-beams and warehouses, and if not, then the company may build the same. Proprietors of wharfs may demand the following

WHARFAGE RATES.

For all Coal, Lime, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, Iron-stone, Timber, Stone, Brick, Tile, Slate, Flags, Sand or Gravel 1d per Ton.
For all other Goods 3d ditto.

Coal, Iron and Lime-stone may remain for Three Weeks on the Wharf ; the other Goods may remain not longer than Six Days, without paying an additional Sum of One Penny per Ton for the next Thirty Days.

The company having received the powers above recited, commenced their operations; but after having carried on the work for some time, it was found that not only the sums, directed

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by the act to be raised, had been expended, but that a debt of £31,345 was also incurred; they therefore applied a second time to parliament and obtained an act, entitled, 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Canal Navigation from Manchester to Bolton and to Bury, to raise Money to complete the same.' By this act they were empowered to raise an additional sum of £80,000 amongst themselves, for paying off the debt and for completing the work; and for the readier obtaining of this sum, they had authority to borrow any part thereof on mortgage. This act having only the usual clauses, it is unnecessary to quote any other part of it.

The direction of the canal is north-west; from its commencement in the Mersey and Irwell Navigation there is a rise to the basin in Salford, of 68 feet 4 inches by six locks; thence it runs nearly parallel with the Irwell on a level for about four miles; in the next three miles there are twelve locks; the remaining part of the line and the branch to Bury is level. The whole rise is 189 feet 6 inches. It crosses the Irwell by an aqueduct near to Clifton Hall, and there are two other aqueducts, one over the River Roach, not far from Darley Hall, and another over the Irwell near Bolton. The length of the line is above fifteen miles. At first the canal was designed, as stated above, for narrow boats, and some locks were built accordingly; but these were afterwards pulled up and rebuilt, and the canal widened. There is a feeder from the Irwell, with a reservoir at Bury, and another at Radcliffe.

The work is of great utility, not only to the towns it connects, but also to the adjacent country, abounding in coals and minerals, for which it affords a ready conveyance; and also to the cotton trade which is carried on very extensively in this part of Lancashire.

MANCHESTER AND OLDHAM RAILWAY.

7 George IV. Cap. 99, Royal Assent 26th May, 1826.

THE act for making this railway was obtained in the year 1826, under title of 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway or Tramroad from Manchester to Oldham, with a Branch from Failsworth Pole, to or near to Dry Clough, in the township of

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'Royton, all in the county palatine of Lancaster;' whereby the proprietors are incorporated as "The Manchester and Oldham Railway Comupany," with powers to make and maintain a railway or tramroad, for carriages to be moved by stationary or locomotive steam engines or other power, commencing in St. George's Road, Manchester, and passing through Manchester, Newton, Failsworth, Prestwich-cum-Oldham, Woodpark and Knott Lanes in the parish of Ashton-under-Lyne, and terminating at the Manchester and Austerlands Turnpike Road, at Mumps Brook, in the parish of Oldham. Also a branch from Failsworth Pole to Dry Clough in the township of Royton, and all inclined planes, steam engines, wharfs, warehouses and all other buildings, &c. necessary for the same. For executing these powers, the company may raise a capital of £75,000, in shares of £100 each, together with a further sum of £20,000 on mortgage, should the former amount prove insufficient to complete the work. The following are to be collected as

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Lime, Dung, Earth, Compost. Manure, Materials for Roads drawn and carried by the Company 2d per Ton, per Mile.
For ditto only drawn or propelled by their Engines 1½d ditto. ditto.
For ditto drawn or propelled by the Company's Engines, but in the Waggons of other Persons 1d ditto. ditto.
For all Coal, Cuim, Coke, Charcoal, Cinders, Stone, Clay, Lime, Marl, Sand, Building, Pitching and Paving-stones, Flags, Bricks, Tiles, Slates, Earth, Staves, Deal, Lead, Iron in Pigs and other Metals drawn or propelled and carried by the Company 3d ditto. ditto.
For ditto only drawn or propelled by their Engines 2½d ditto. ditto.
For ditto drawn by their Engines in Waggons of other Persons 2d ditto. ditto.
For all Timber, Cotton, Wool, Hides, Drugs, Dye Woods, Sugar, Corn, Grain, Flour, Manufactured Goods, Lead in Sheets, Iron in Bars, and all other Wares, Merchandizes, Matters or Things drawn or propelled and carried by the Company 3½d ditto. ditto.
For ditto only drawn or propelled by their Engines 3d ditto. ditto.
For ditto drawn by their Engines in Waggons of other Persons 2½d ditto. ditto.
For all Goods, wares and Mercbandize, and all other Commodities, Matters and Things, and for all Carriages conveying Passengers or Cattle, carried upon any Inclined Plane where the same shall be conveyed by Steam Power 6d ditto, at each Plane.
For ditto when not conveyed by Steam Power 3d ditto. ditto.
For every Person passing in or on any Carriage on the Railway, Branches or Parts thereof 2½d per Mile each.
For every Horse, Mule, Ass or other Beast of Burden, and for every Ox, Bull, Cow or Cattle carried in such Carriage 1½d ditto.
For every Calf, Sheep, Lamb or Pig ditto ¼d ditto.

Fractions of a Ton and of a Mile as the Quarters in them, and of a Quarter as a Quarter.

Parcels not exceeding Five Hundred Weight, to pay Rates to be fixed by the Company.

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The company are to build, at their own cost, a sufficient bridge over the Rochdale Canal in Failsworth, and another over the Ashton-under-Lyne Canal from Manchester to Hollinwood. Lords of manors may erect wharfs and warehouses, and if they refuse, the company may do so, and charge the following

WHARFAGE AND WAREHOUSING RATES.

For all Coals, Culm, Lime, Lime-stone, and other Minerals, Timber, Stone, Clay, Tiles, Bricks, Slate, Goods, Merchandize or other Things, not remaining more than Seventy-two Hours on the Wharfs 0s 1d per Ton.
For ditto beyond Seventy-two Hours on the Wharf 0s 1d ditto, per Week.
For ditto Warehousing 0s 6d ditto. ditto.
For the use of Cranes, at One Lift under Two Tons 0s 6d ditto.
For ditto under Three Tons 1s 0d ditto.
For ditto under Four Tons 1s 6d ditto.

And so on, advancing Sixpence per Ton additional.

This railway which was expected to be of great utility in conveying coals from Greenacre Moor to Manchester, and merchandize throughout the populous district on its line, turns out not to answer the expectations of the proprietors; and it is reported that all or a considerable part of it will be abandoned. It is to commence, as before stated, in St. George's Road, Manchester; thence pursuing a north-easterly course and running nearly parallel with the turnpike-road, is to terminate at Mumps Brook, about half a mile on the east side of Oldham.

MANSFIELD AND PINXTON RAILWAY.

57 George III. Cap. 37, Royal Assent 16th June, 1817.

THE Mansfield and Pinxton Railway, commencing in the town of Mansfield, proceeds from thence in a westerly direction, leaving Skegby Hall, Unwins Hall and Brook House on the north, to Pinxton Basin near to Pinxton Mills, and not far from Alfreton in the county of Derby, where it communicates with a branch of the Cromford Canal; about a mile and a half from this point a branch passes easterly towards Codnor Park Works, which it passes, and communicates again with the Cromford Canal at a short distance from those works, at 278½ feet above the level of the sea.

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The act for this undertaking was passed in 1817, as 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway or Tramroad from Bull's Head Lane, in the parish of Mansfield, in the county of Nottingham, to communicate with the Cromford Canal, at Pinxton Basin, in the parish of Pinxton, in the county of Derby.' By it the proprietors, who are styled "The Mansfield and Pinxton Railway Company," are empowered to make the road and to alter, repair, and manufacture materials for the same; for doing which they are to raise the sum of £22,800, in shares of £100 each; and in case that should not prove sufficient for completing the same, they may raise an additional fund of £10,000 amongst themselves, or by creating new shares, or by mortgage of the work and tolls. The following are to be demanded as

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Stone for repairing Roads and for all Manure 0s 2d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Stone, Cinders, Chalk, Marl, Sand, Lime, Clay, Ashes, Peat, Lime-stone, Iron-stone and other Materials, Building-stone, Pitching and Pavinig-stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slates, Timber, Lead in Pigs or Sheets, Bar-iron, Waggon-tire, all Gross and Unmanufactured Articles and Building Materials 0s 3d ditto. ditto.
For all Coal, Coke and Slack carried into the parish of Mansfield along any Part of the Railroad 0s 2d ditto.
For ditto in that Direction but not into that Parish 0s 3d ditto. ditto.
For ditto towards or to the Cromford Canal at Pinxton Basin 0s 3d ditto. ditto.
For all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize 0s 6d ditto. ditto.

Fractions of a Ton and of a Mile to pay as the Quarters therein, and of a Quarter as a Quarter.

Carriage of Parcels, not exceeding Five Hundred Weight, to be fixed by the Proprietors.

Owners of land on the line, and lords of manors are to erect wharfs, on their own lands, if required by the company; and in case of refusal the company may do so. The company is also directed by the act to build sufficient wharfs, warehouses and landing places at Pinxton, for the reception of goods; and for the expenses so incurred they are to demand as

WHARFAGE RATES.

For all Packages not exceeding Fifty-six Pounds in Weight 1d each.
For ditto Five Hundred Weight 2d ditto.
For all above the last quoted Weight 6d per Ton.

Private individuals building wharfs and warehouses are authorized to claim the following as wharfage rates,

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WHARFAGE RATES.

For all Coals, Culm, Lime-stone, Clay. Iron, Iron-stone, Lead-ore or other Ores, Timber, Stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slates and Gravel 1d per Ton.
For all other Goods and Merchandizes 2d ditto.

If the said Goods shall remain above Twenty-one Days, then One Penny per Ton additional is to be paid for the succeeding Ten Days, and a further Sum of One Penny per Ton per Day for every Day afterwards.

The railway is double; the length, eight miles, two furlongs and four chains. At the commencement in Mansfield it is 101 feet 8 inches above the level of the Cromford Canal at Pinxton Basin; from Mansfield to the summit level there is a rise of 88 feet 10 inches; from the summit to the Pinxton Basin, a distance of four miles and nine hundred and twenty yards, there is a fall of 80 feet 10 inches; the railway at its termination there, being 8 feet above the level of the canal.

This work cannot fail of being useful, passing as it does through a country abounding with minerals, and where no other line of conveyance exists.

MARKET WEIGHTON CANAL.

12 George III. Cap. 37, Royal Assent 21st May, 1772.

THE Market Weighton Canal is of a two-fold benefit to the country through which it passes, affording an easy mode of conveying agricultural and other produce, more especially that beautiful fine white durable brick, usually called Walling Fen Brick; and at the same time draining the low lands and fens which abound in its vicinity. Its length is rather more than eleven miles, commencing at a point called New River Head, near Market Weighton, and pursuing an almost straight line from north to south, and passing through the parishes of Blacktoft, Everingham, Seaton, Ross, Holme-upon-Spalding Moor, Froggathorp, Hootham, and other places of minor importance, to the extensive fen, which is called Walling Fen, and contains twenty thousand acres of land; it then terminates by locking down into the Humber, at Fossdike Clough, opposite the mouth of the Trent. The whole line, as may be concluded from the nature of

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