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This Book "Priestley's Navigable Rivers and Canals" by Joseph Priestley was previously published in April 1831. NOTE: Oringinally called "Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways, of Great Britain".
For more information see About this Book

Index Page Link to Previous Page 401

page 402

When this Company shall receive what will produce a Nett Income of £5 per Cent. per Annum, then the additional Rates are to be taken off Coals which pass on the Leicestershire and Northamptonshire Union Canal beyond Ayleston Mill. Coals passing through the Oakham Canal are also exempt from the additional Tolls.

The Proprietors of this Navigation are directed to guarantee £2,000 per Annum to the Loughborough Canal Company, on Condition of their taking any Sum not more than One Shilling and Sixpence, nor less than Ten-pence per Ton on Coals passing from Loughborough to the Trent.

The Leicester Canal or Navigation commences, as we have before stated, at the basin of the Loughborough Canal on the north side of that town, at an elevation of 125 feet above the sea; passing the town it proceeds in a south-west direction to near Barlow-upon-Soar, leaving Beaumanor Park on the west, and falling into the Soar at Quorndon. Here the River Soar becomes navigable and continues so to its junction with the Wreak River near Wanley Hall; the united rivers being navigable to Turnwater Meadow. In this meadow the navigation is joined by the Leicester and Melton Mowbray Navigation, of which we shall have to speak below; here also a cut is made across the meadows to avoid the shallows, and passing through the parishes of Syston, Barkley and Thurmanston, and leaving Wanlip Hall and Birstal Hall on the east and Beaumont Lees on the west, it terminates at Leicester in the Soar, thus communicating with the Leicestershire and Northamptonshire Union CanaL

From the basin at the Loughborough end of the line there is a railway two miles and a half long, with 185 feet rise to a basin at Forest Lane, at the east end of the Charnwood Forest Water Level. This level extends to Barrow Hill, a distance of nearly nine miles, having a side cut of a quarter of a mile long to Thringstone Bridge. At the west end of the Great Level there is a railway to the Clouds Hill Lime Works, effecting by these means a communication with the Ashby-de-la-Zouch Canal; here also is a railroad to the Barrow Hill Lime Works; the Thringstone Branch also extends a mile and a half to Coal Orton, and by a diversion of half a mile to Swannington Common Coal Works.

From Loughborough to its junction with the Leicester and Melton Mowbray Navigation, this navigation is level for three miles, and from that point, to its termination in the Leicestershire and Northamptonshire Union Canal, the distance is eleven miles, with a rise of 45 feet.

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At Leicester there is a basin, and on Charnwood Forest a reservoir for supplying the water-level with a feeder for the same, to which water-level the company are empowered to make railways from coal works two thousand yards distant therefrom; and since the commencement of the Ashby Canal, this company has had power to charge a toll of 2s. 6d. per ton on all coals dug in Swannington, Coal Orton or Thringstone, if carried through Blackfordby or the last named canal.

This navigation was laid down by Mr. William Jessop, and in December, 1793, the line from Loughborough to near Mount Sorrel was opened, the remainder not being completed till February of the succeeding year.

The work is of considerable utility, affording an easy transit for the coal, limestone and granite of its neighbourhood, and supplying Leicester and other places on its line with timber, deals and various articles of home consumption.

LEICESTER AND MELTON MOWBRAY NAVIGATION.

(SEE WREAK AND EYE NAVIGATION.)

LEICESTERSHIRE AND NORTHAMPTONSHIRE UNION CANAL.

33 George III. Cap. 98, Royal Assent 30th April, 1793.

45 George III. Cap. 71, Royal Assent 27th June, 1805.

WE have mentioned in the preceding article, that the Leicester Navigation communicates with the present work at or near the West Bridge in the town of Leicester, and we have now to describe the extent of this undertaking, and the acts under which it was commenced.

The first enactment, for the formation of the Leicestershire and Northamptonshire Union Canal, obtained the royal assent in April, 1793, under title of 'An Act for making and maintaining a Navigation from the town of Leicester to communicate with the River Nen, in or near the town of Northampton, and also a certain collateral Cut from the said Navigation.' By this act the proprietors were

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incorporated under the style of " The Company of Proprietors of the Leicestershire and Northamptonshire Union Canal," with powers to make navigable the River Soar, from the West Bridge in the parish of St. Mary, Leicester, to Ayleston Bridge in the county of Leicester, and from thence to make a navigable canal to the parish of Hardingstone in the county of Northampton, to communicate with the River Nen or Northern River, and to proceed along the said river to the town of Northampton, and from that town to make a navigable canal to and into another part of the River Nen, and after crossing the said river to communicate with an intended branch from the Oxford Canal at Braunston, to join the Thames at New Brentford; also to make a collateral cut from the before-named canal in the parish of Lubenham, in Leicestershire, to Market Harborough. For executing these plans the sum of £200,000 was directed to be raised in shares of £100 each; and should this prove insufficient, a further sum of £100,000. With these powers the proprietors commenced the work; but after having rendered the River Soar navigable as far as Ayleston Bridge, and after completing part of the canal from that place, they found that great advantages would be gained by varying the original line of the projected cut to Market Harborough, they therefore applied to parliament for a second act, which was obtained in 1805, under the title of 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Leicestershire and Northamptonshire Union Canal, to vary the Line of the said Canal, and to alter and amend the Powers of the Act passed for making the said Canal.'

The second act being obtained, the proprietors continued the execution of their plan as far as Foxton, and the collateral cut to Market Harborough was completed. The remainder of the work was rendered unnecessary by the junction with the Grand Union at Foxton as above-mentioned. By the first act the company had authority to collect the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Coal and Coke 2½d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Lime, Lime-stone, Dung and Manure 1½d ditto, ditto.
For all Live Cattle, Stones, Bricks, Tiles, Sand, Iron-stone, Pig-iron and Pig-lead 2d ditto, ditto.
For all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize whatever 3d ditto, ditto.

Materials for Roads, Manure for the use of Proprietors of Land on the Line, Troops, and Government Stores are exempt from all these Rates.

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This navigation, commencing at the junction with the Leicester Navigation at 175 feet above the level of the sea, proceeds to Ayleston Bridge in the bed of the Soar River, in a south-westerly direction; at Ayleston Bridge the cut commences, and pursues the same course as the river to a short distance beyond Enderby Hall, where the Soar divides into two branches; from this point it runs parallel to the eastern branch as far as Wistow Hall, having that mansion on its western bank and an aqueduct opposite to it on the eastern. From Wistow Hall it runs in a circuitous easterly course of twelve miles and three quarters, with 160 feet rise to the tunnel at Saddington, where it is 295 feet above the level of the sea. Leaving Saddington Tunnel, it proceeds in a sinuous line on the same level to Foxton and Gumley Hall, where it falls into the Grand Union Canal, having completed a line of seventeen miles. At this point also the branch to Market Harborough commences, running at first in an easterly course for about half its length and afterwards to the south, the whole distance being nearly four miles on one level.

There are warehouses and a basin at Gumley, and the tunnel at Saddington is eight hundred and eighty yards in length; this tunnel was completed in 1800, and the line from Leicester to Gumley opened soon after.

The work, which was executed under the management of Mr. John Varley, Sen. and Mr. C. Staveley, Jun. is of great utility in the supply of timber, deals, &c. and the export of the agricultural produce of the district through which it passes.

LEICESTER AND SWANNINGTON RAILWAY.

11 George IV. Cap. 58, Royal Assent 29th May, 1830.

THIS railway commences from that part of the River Soar near West Bridge, in the town of Leicester, called the Leicestershire and Northamptonshire Union Canal, whence it takes a northwardly course by Freaks Grounds, where it enters a tunnel one mile and three quarters in length; thence in a westwardly course, running parallel with and on the south side of the turnpike-road leading

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from Leicester to Ashby-de-la-Zouch; thence across a small rivulet north of the village of Glenfield, along the western bank of which it pursues its course by the villages of Ratby and Newton-Unthank to Desford, where it again takes a northwardly course by Merry Lees, Thornton and Bagworth; thence by the Birch Tree Inn, on the above-mentioned road, and westward by the Red House to the turnpike-road leading between Hinchley and Melbourne, at the north end of the village of Swannington, where it terminates. It is fifteen miles and three quarters in length, and the various inclinations which are rendered necessary by reason of the irregularities of the ground, over which it is intended to be made, are as follows; from the Leicester end of the railway it ascends 2 feet 10 inches in the distance of five furlongs; in the next six furlongs and one chain it rises 38 feet 9 inches; there is a rise of 5 feet 3 inches only, in one mile, three furlongs and two chains; then a long stretch of four miles, five furlongs and seven chains gradually rising 79 feet, and a further ascent of 57 feet 2 inches in the next distance of one mile, two furlongs and nine chains. From this point the railway gradually ascends 65 feet 7 inches in three quarters of a mile, and 22 feet further in the next one furlong and five chains; then a rapid ascent of 72 feet 3 inches in the short distance of three furlongs and seven chains. It is then level for the space of one furlong and three chains; but in the next seven furlongs and two chains there is a rise of 49 feet; from which point it descends 43 feet in one mile, six furlongs and four chains, and at the foot of this plane is a level course of five furlongs; then a further fall of 28 feet in the next one mile and two furlongs; and at the end of that another level course of two furlongs and one chain. From this point the line descends 133 feet in the short space of two furlongs and seven chains; whence, the remaining portion of the line, viz. one furlong and two chains, is level.

There are four branches from the main line above described, viz, one, in a distance of two furlongs and seven chains, extending eastward from the Freaks Grounds to the River Soar, near the North Bridge, Leicester; another of the same length to the collieries belonging to Lord Viscount Maynard, at Bagworth; and a short distance beyond which there is a third branch of one mile, four furlongs and eight chains in length, extending to Ibstock

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Collieries; and within three quarters of a mile of Swannington there is a fourth branch, three furlongs and two chains in length, extending westward to Long Lane Colliery.

These proposed works were designed by Mr. Robert Stephenson, who estimated the cost at £75,453, of which sum it appears that £61,950 was subscribed before the application to parliament.

The act authorizing the execution of this railway received the royal assent on the 29th May, 1830, and is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway or Tramroad from the River Soar near the West Bridge, in or near the borough of Leicester, to Swannington, in the county of Leicester, and four Branches therefrom.' The subscribers were by this act incorporated as "The Leicester and Swannington Railway Company," with power to raise amongst themselves the sum of £90,000, in eighteen hundred shares of £50 each; and if this is not sufficient, they may borrow on mortgage the further sum of £20,000; but previous to commencing the works, the amount of the original estimate is to be subscribed.

The distance between the inside edges of the rails to be not less than 4 feet 8 inches; and between the outside edges not more than 5 feet 1 inch.

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Dung, Earth, Compost, Manure and Materials for Roads, which shall be drawn or propelled and carried by and at the expense of the Company 2d per Ton, per Mile.
If only drawn or propelled at the expense of the Company 1¾d ditto, ditto.
If drawn or propelled by Engines or other power, and not carried in the Waggons of the Company 1½d ditto, ditto.
For all Coal, Coke, Cuim, Charcoal, Cinders, Lime, Stone, Slate, Marl, Sand, Clay, Building, Pitching and Paving-stones, Flags, Bricks, Tiles, Deals, Lead and Iron in Pigs, or other Metals, which shall be drawn or propelled and carried by and at the expense of the Company 3d ditto, ditto.
If only drawn or propelled at the expense of the Company 2½d ditto, ditto.
If drawn or propelled by Engines or other power, and not carried in the Waggons of the Company 2d ditto, ditto.
For all Timber, Wool, Corn, Grain, Flour, Manufactured Goods, Lead in Sheets or Iron in Bars, and all other Wares or Merchandize which shall be drawn or propelled and carried by and at the expense of the Company 4d ditto, ditto.
If only drawn or propelled at the expense of the Company 3½d ditto, ditto.
If drawn or propelled by Engines or other power, and not carried in Waggons belonging to the Company 3d ditto, ditto.
For all Goods and Merchandize whatever, (except Lime) and also except all such Goods in respect of which the Mile Tonnage shall be paid for passing Twelve Miles at least on the Railway, over and above the respective Rates and Tolls 6d ditto, ditto.

page 408

TONNAGE RATES CONTINUED.

For all Goods, Wares and Commodities whatsoever, and for all Carriages which shall pass any of the Inclined Planes, (by Steam Power) over and above the preceding Rates, upon each of the Inclined Planes 4d per Ton.

This last-mentioned Toll upon the Inclined Planes is not to be levied, If the other Rates produce £10,000 per Annum.

TOLL FOR COACHES OR OTHER CARRIAGES,

For every Person passing in any Carriage not drawn or propelled, and provided by and at the expense of the Company 2½d per Mile.
For every Person passing in any Carriage drawn or propelled and provided by the Company 3d ditto.
For every Horse, Mule, Ass or other Beast of Draught or Burden, and for every Ox, Cow, Bull or other Cattle carried in or upon such Carriage, not drawn or propelled or provided by the Company 2d ditto.
But if provided by the Company 3d ditto.
For every Calf, Sheep, Lamb or Pig passing in any Carriage, not drawn or propelled or belonging to the Company ½d ditto.
But if provided by the Company 1d ditto.

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Mile and Quarter of a Ton.

The Company are not compelled to receive less than Sixpence per Ton for short Distances, and have power to regulate and fix the Prices of small Parcels of less than Five Hundred Pounds Weight.

WHARFAGE RATES.

For every Description of Goods loaded, landed or placed upon any of the Wharfs of the Company, which shall not remain more than Seventy-two Hours 1d per Ton.
But if more than Seventy-two Hours, the further Sum of 1d ditto.
And for the Warehousing for the next so succeeding Week 6d ditto.

And the like Sum of One Penny and Sixpence per Ton respectively, for every further and subsequent Week such Articles shall remain upon the said Wharfs or Warehouses.

CRANAGE TOLL.

At one single Lift of the Crane, being less than Two Tons 0s 6d per Ton.
Ditto of Two Tons and less than Three 1s 0d ditto.
Ditto of Three Tons and less than Four 1s 6d ditto.

And so progressively advancing Sixpence per Ton.

Lords of manors and others may erect wharfs, and charge the same rates as the company of proprietors. The railway to be completed in five years or the powers to cease.

The object sought by the execution of this railway and branches, is a cheap and expeditious conveyance of the coal, lime and other minerals which abound at the upper portion of the railway, to the town of Leicester, and thence by the canals and navigable rivers with which it will immediately communicate to other districts.

page 409

LEOMINSTER, OR KINGTON AND LEOMINSTER CANAL.

31 Geo. III. C. 69, R. A. 13th May. 1791.

36 Geo. III. Cap. 70, R. A. 26th April, 1796.

43 Geo. III. C. 141, R. A. 11th Aug. 1803.

7 Geo. IV. Cap. 94, R. A. 26th May, 1826.

THE Leominster, or as it has sometimes been called the Kington and Leominster Canal, commences at the town of Kington, 505½ feet above the sea, where it meets the Kington Railway; from that place, pursuing an easterly direction, it passes by the seats of Eywood, Titley, Staunton Park and Shobdon Court to the aqueduct over the River Lugg at Kingsland, from which point it bends towards the south to near the town of Leominster; from Leominster it runs almost due north for a considerable distance past Berrington House, then making a detour to the east, it continues its course in that direction, with many windings, past Tenbury to the aqueduct over the Rea River, and the adjoining tunnel at Sousant; from the tunnel, which is 264½ feet above the level of the sea, it pursues an easterly direction to Stourport, where it unites with the Severn and the Stafford and Worcester Canal, having traversed a distance of forty-six miles. From Kington to Staunton Park it is level for four miles; from Staunton Park to Milton two miles and a half with a fall of 152 feet; from that place to Kingsland Aqueduct three miles and a half with 37 feet fall; from the aqueduct to Leominster four miles and a half with 64 feet fall; in one mile and a half from Leominster there is a rise of 18 feet; the next five miles and a half to Wiston is level; from Wiston to Letwich Brook four miles and a half with a fall of 36 feet; from Letwich Brook to the Rea there is a level of seven miles; from this point to the Sousant Tunnel there is a rise of 35 feet in the length of a mile; from this tunnel to the east end of the Great Pensax Tunnel nine miles and level; from the east end of this tunnel to the junction of the Severn and the Stafford and Worcester Canal, being above three miles, there is a fall of 207 feet. The total length therefore, as above stated, is forty-six miles, and the lockage 544 feet, being 496 feet of fall and 48 of rise. In the line there are two considerable tunnels; the one

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near Sousant is twelve hundred and fifty yards long; the other at Pensax three thousand eight hundred and fifty yards. There are also two collateral cuts near Tenbury for the use of the mills there.

The first act obtained for the formation of this canal, was passed in the year 1791, under the title of 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from Kington in the county of Hereford, by or through Leominster, to join the River Severn near Stourport Bridge, in the county of Worcester.' By this act the proprietors are incorporated as "The Company of Proprietors of the Leominster Canal Navigation," and are empowered to raise the sum of £150,000, in shares of £100 each, with the option of obtaining £40,000 more if needful. They are also authorized to demand the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Timber, Stone, Marble, Lime, Lime-stone for Manure, Iron-stone, Raw Materials, Bricks, Brick-tiles, Slate, Gravel, Sand, Clay, Manure and Rubbish, navigated between the Severn and Milton Cross 0s 1½d per Ton, per Mile.
For ditto from Milton Cross to Kington 0s 3d ditto. ditto.
For Coke and Charcoal 0s 4d ditto. ditto.
For all Coal carried on any part between the River Rea and Leominster, or between the Teme and Leominster 3s 4d ditto.
For ditto on any part between the Severn and Rea to Leominster or between the Teme and Leominster, in addition to the above 0s 11d ditto.
For ditto conveyed out of the Severn and navigated to Leorninster or between that place and the Teme in addition 1s 2d ditto.
For ditto navigated between Leominster and Milton Cross 0s 2½d ditto, per Mile.
For ditto between Milton Cross and Kington 0s 6d ditto. ditto.
For ditto between the Rea and Teme 0s 2½d ditto. ditto.
For ditto eastward between the Rea and Severn 1s 9d ditto. ditto.
For ditto westward between the Severn and Rea 0s 2½d ditto. ditto.
For Merchandize in general navigated between the Severn and Milton Cross 0s 2½d ditto. ditto.
For ditto from Milton Cross to Kington 0s 6d ditto. ditto.

Slack Coal for the Purpose of burning Lime for Manure is to be charged only Half the usual Rates, and the Proprietors have authority to lower the Rates, when able so to do.

By this act power was given for taking supplies of water from springs, &c. within two thousand yards of the line; there was also a power of constructing inclined planes instead of locks upon some parts.

In less than five years after the passing of the first act, this company obtained another, entitled, 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Leominster Canal Navigation to finish and complete the same.' By this act the proprietors are authorized

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to raise a further sum of £180,000 by new shares of the same value as those created under the former act; or if the proprietors think it more advisable, they may borrow the said sum on mortgage of the canal and rates.

The means of increasing their funds, thus afforded, did not prove effectual, and accordingly in 1803, a third act was obtained under the title of 'An Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the Leominster Canal to raise Money to discharge their Debts, and to complete the Canal, and for explaining and amending the Acts for making and maintaining the said Canal, and for granting to the said Company further and other Powers.'

From this act it appears that only £68,582 had been raised under the last, and that sundry new debts had been incurred in the prosecution of the work, amounting to £25,000 and upwards, and that the canal was still unfinished; the proprietors of the new shares already subscribed and paid for, are therefore protected from any disadvantage which might happen from their being liable to additional calls, by reducing the number of shares to the same number as the holders of the present shares, viz, six hundred and eighty-six, and the said six hundred and eighty-six share holders are hereby declared to be the company. The company are empowered, over and above the tolls granted by the first act, to demand the following

TONNAGE RATE.

For all Coal, Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Things whatsoever, passing through the Locks intended to be made between the River Severn and the Canal Basin 1d per Ton.
They have also authority to make a railway from the canal at or near Stockton in the county of Worcester, to the basin at or near Stourport Bridge in the same county; and also one from Milton Cross to the town of Kington. And certain commissioners are appointed to superintend the works from Sousant Tunnel to the Severn, By this act also the proprietors have authority to raise by additional calls £50,000, and by mortgage, if necessary, £30,000; and the select committee may, if requisite, raise a still further sum of £10,000 by mortgage as aforesaid. All debts now due are to be secured by bonds payable with interest in five years.

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Notwithstanding all these additional means of raising money, the funds still proved inadequate to the completion of the work, and the aid of parliament was again applied for in 1826, this application was answered by an act, entitled, 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Leominster Canal to raise further Sums of Money to discharge their Debts, and to complete the Canal, and for amending the Acts for making and maintaining the said Canal, and for granting to the said Company further and other Powers.' By this act the proprietors may raise £60,000 by creating six hundred new shares of £100 each, such sum to be applied to the liquidation of debts already incurred. This and one or two clauses relating to the election of committees, and the compensation to be made for lands, &c. taken for the use of the company, comprize the substance of the act last obtained.

Mr. Thomas Dadford, Jun. was the engineer, under whose able superintendence the work has been put into execution. The tunnel at Sousant was finished in 1796, and in November of the same year twenty miles of the canal, from Leominster to Mamble Coal Works, were opened; the consequence of which was an immediate reduction of the price of coal from 1s. 6d. to 9d. per cwt. In 1797 the entrance into the canal from the Severn was opened and the work has gone on progressively since that time.

The design for which it was projected was the transit of stone, lime and iron-ore, and the agricultural produce of the country on its line to London, Liverpool, Hull and Bristol, and also the supply of Leominster and its vicinity with coal and coke. These purposes, it is hardly necessary to state, have been fully answered.

LEVEN CANAL.

41 George III. Cap. 32, Royal Assent 21st May, 1801.

45 George III. Cap. 43, Royal Assent 5th June, 1805.

THIS canal which is little more than three miles in length, was undertaken, at the sole charge of Mrs. Charlotte Bethell, of Rise, for the purpose of opening a Communication between Leven and the port of Kingston-upon-Hull, and of thus affording an easier conveyance for goods and agricultural produce. Its direction is

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due west from the village of Leven to the Hull River Navigation near Ayke Beck Mouth, and the expense of making it, as estimated by Mr. William Jessop, was £4,041. Mrs. Bethell also consulted Mr. Rennie and Mr. Creassy as to the practicability of the undertaking.

An act for its execution was obtained in 1801, entitled, 'An Act for enabling Charlotte Bethell, Widow, to make and maintain a navigable Canal from the River Hull, at a point in the parish of Leven, near the Boundary between Eske and Leven Carrs, in the East Riding of the county of York, to Leven Bridge in the said Riding.'

By this act Mrs. Bethell was authorized to demand the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Lime and Lime-stone, Dung, Soot, Rape-Dust and other Manure 1s 6d per Ton.
For all Coal and Coke 0s 9d ditto.
For all Wheat, Rye, Beans, Peas, Malt, Oats, Barley, Rapeseed, Mustard-seed, Linseed and other Grain and Seeds of all Sorts, Bricks, Stones, Tiles, Slate and Sand, and all other Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Things whatsoever 1s 0d ditto.

The proprietor is also empowered to erect wharfs and quays, and to charge a wharfage rate for all goods left thereon above twenty-four hours; such rate to be determined between the parties.

The cost of this canal appears to have exceeded the estimate, for in 1805 Mrs. Bethell obtained a second act, entitled, 'An Act for altering and amending an Act passed in the Forty-first of his present Majesty for enabling Charlotte Betlhell, Widow, to make and maintain a navigable Canal from the River Hull to Leven Bridge, in the East Riding of the county of York;' whereby, in consideration of the great expense she had incurred in completing the same, she is empowered to receive the following additional tolls as

WHARFAGE RATES.

For every Barge or Boat, using the Canal and laden with Lime, Lime-stone, Dung, Soot, Rape-Dust and other Manure, Coke, Coal, Wheat, Rye, Beans, Peas, Malt, Oats, Barley, Rapeseed, Mustard-seed, Linseeed and other Grain and Seeds of all Sorts, Stones, Bricks, Tiles, Slate and Sand 7s each.

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The work as far as it extends is useful, and answers the design for which it was projected, by supplying lime and manure, and conveying of corn and other produce of the land to Hull, Beverley, and other places.

LEWES NAVIGATION.

(SEE OUZE RIVER, SUSSEX.)

LIDBROOK AND LYDNEY RAILWAY.

(SEE SEVERN AND WYE RAILWAY.)

LISKEARD AND LOOE CANAL.

6 George IV. Cap. 163, Royal Assent 22nd June, 1825.

THE Liskeard and Looe Canal commences 'at Tarras Pill, and proceeds from thence in a northerly direction to the parish of Liskeard, terminating at Moorswater, 156 feet above the level of the sea. The distance which it passes over is five miles and seven furlongs, and in its course there are twenty-five locks. The estimated cost of completing the works, as made by Mr. John Edgecumbe, was £12,577, 6s. There is a short branch of about a mile in length to Sand Place.

An act for executing this canal was obtained in 1825, under the title of 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from Tarras Pill, in the parish of Duloe, in the county of Cornwall, to or near Moorswater, in the parish of Liskeard, in the said county, and for making several Roads to communicate therewith.' By this act the proprietors are incorporated as "The Liskeard and Looe Union Canal Company," and have power to cut the canal, roads and other works connected therewith, to take water from the River Looe and Crylla Rivulet, and to use part of the latter as a feeder, under certain restrictions; and that no injury may be done to the navigation of the Fowey, of which river the Crylla is a tributary stream, two engineers are to be appointed, one by the company, the other by the Mayor and Corporation of Lostwithiel, to inspect the same. The company are also empow-

page 415

ered to make rollers and inclined planes, and to dig the canal 4 feet deep, with a width of 14 feet at the bottom and 26 feet at the surface. For accomplishing these purposes, the act directs a sum of £13,000 to be raised in shares of £25 each; and in case that sum should prove insufficient, the company may raise £10,000 in addition, by mortgage. For paying interest and contingent expenses the following are to be received as

TONNAGE AND WHARFAGE RATES.

For all Lime-stone, Culm or Coal for burning Lime, Sand, Oreweed, Dung or any other Manure, except Salt and Burnt Lime, Building-stone, Free-stone, Granite, Clay and Stone for making Roads 0s 3½d per Ton, per Mile.
For Lime 0s 7d ditto. ditto.
For all Wheat, Barley, Oats, Bran, Flour, Meal and Potatoes 0s 10d ditto. ditto.
For all Tin-ore, Copper-ore, Lead-ore, Iron-stone, Antimony, Manganese, and all other Metals, Semi-Metals and Minerals not smelted, Coals and Culm not used for burning Lime 0s 7d ditto. ditto.
For all Tin, Copper, Lead, Iron, and all other Metals having been smelted, Bricks, Tiles, Timber, Charcoal, Deals, Wood, Faggots, Bark, Seeds, Vetches, Peas,Paper, Old Junk or Rags, Salt and all other Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Things whatever, Hay, Straw, Cattle, Calves, Sheep, Swine and other Beasts 1s 1½d ditto. ditto.
For all Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Things landed on any Wharf, but not remaining more than Seventy-two Hours 0s 9d per Ton.
For ditto after the first Seventy-two Hours 0s 6d ditto, per Day.

Fractions of a Ton to be taken as the Quarters therein, and of a Quarter as a Quarter.

Fractions of a Mile as the Quarters, and of a Quarter as a Quarter.

Lords of manors and others may erect wharfs and warehouses on the line, having first obtained the company's consent. And should the work not be completed in five years from the date of the act, the powers thereof are to cease.

This canal was projected for the purpose of facilitating the transport of coals, timber, stone, minerals and other products of the mines and lands on its line and in the vicinity, and of various composts and manure for the use of the farmer, and it fully answers the intention of the projectors.

LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY.

7 Geo. IV. C. 49, R. A. 5th May, 1826.

7 & 8 Geo. IV. C. 21, R. A. 12th April, 1827.

9 Geo. IV. 0. 7, R. A. 26th Mar. 1828.

10 Geo. IV. C. 35, R. A. 14th May, 1829.

AFTER various disappointments, and at above £30,000 expenditure, this company succeeded in their application to parliament,

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and obtained an act in the year 1826, under the title of 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway or Tramroad from the town of Liverpool to the town of Manchester, with certain Branches therefrom, all in the county of Lancaster.' By this act, obtained for constructing this magnificent work, certain subscribers were incorporated as "The Liverpool and Manchester Railway Company," with powers to make and maintain a railway or tramroad with collateral branches, commencing on the east side of Wapping in the town of Liverpool, and passing through the several parishes of Liverpool, Walton, Childwall, Huyton, Prescot, Winwick, Warrington, Leigh, Eccles and Manchester, in the county palatine of Lancaster; and extending to or passing through the townships of Liverpool, West Derby, Wavertree, Much Woolton, Thingwall, Roby, &c. &c. to Salford and Manchester, terminating near the south-west side of the New Bailey Prison in Salford, in the parish of Manchester, near the New Bailey Bridge over the Irwell. The branches mentioned in the act are one from certain closes called the Ridings, in the parish of Prescot, running northwardly to Whiston Potteries; the other running southwardly from the same place and terminating in the Lower Houghton Hays in Whiston aforesaid. The proprietors have power also to make inclined planes on any part of the work; they are likewise directed to make that part of the line, which shall be in the town of Liverpool by means of a tunnel under the same, in a direction laid down on the original plan, subject to the inspection and approval of the corporation surveyor, and to purchase houses undermined, if the owners require it. Locomotive engines are not to be used in the town, nor are steam engines to be set on certain lands therein specified. Not more than twenty-two yards in breadth to be taken, except in certain cases.

For completing the work the company are authorized to raise £510,000, in shares of £100 each, of which the Marquis of Stafford shall hold one thousand, and which shall be subscribed for before the work commences; and should that sum prove insufficient, they may raise £127,500 additional, on mortgage of the works.

Before any dividends out of the profits are declared, the proprietors are to invest one-tenth part of such profits in government

page 417

securities as a fund to be used in future, instead of making additional calls; and when such fund shall amount to £100,000, then the whole of the profits shall be divided, and until the fund shall amount to the said sum of £100,000, the dividends on the reserved fund shall be added thereto; but when by these means the £100,000 is made up, then the nett profits of the work and the dividends on the fund shall both be divided amongst the subscribers. When the annual dividends on shares amount to £10 per share, the company are bound to lower their tonnage rates £5 per cent. and when the profits do not amount to £10 per share per annum, then the deficiency shall be made up from the reserved fund. The following are to be taken as

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Lime-stone 1d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Coal, Lime, Dung, Compost, Manure, and Materials for Roads 1½d ditto. ditto.
For all Coke, Culm, Charcoal, Cinders, Stone, Sand, Clay, Building, Paving and Pitching-stones, Flags, Bricks, Tiles and Slates 2d ditto. ditto.
For all Sugar, Corn, Grain, Flour, Dye Woods, Timber, Staves, Deals, Lead, Iron and other Metals 2½d ditto. ditto.
For all Cotton and other Wool, Hides, Drugs, Manufactured Goods, and all other Wares, Merchandize, Matters or Things 3d ditto. ditto.

Where the Amount of Tolls from shortness of Distance do not amount to One Shilling per Ton, the Proprietors are empowered to demand that Sum.

Chaises, Gigs, Coaches and Passengers and Cattle, may pass on the Railroads on paying
For every Person travelling thereon, not more than Ten Miles, in any Vehicle 1s 6d.
For ditto exceeding Ten Miles but not above Twenty Miles 2s 6d.
For ditto above Twenty Miles 4s 0d.
For every Horse, Mule, Ass or other Beast of Draught or Burthen, and for every Ox, Cow, Bull or Neat Cattle, carried in or on such Carriage, not exceeding Fifteen Miles 2s 6d.
For ditto exceeding Fifteen Miles 4s 0d.
For every Calf, Sheep, Lamb or Pig, any Distance 0s 9d.

Fractions of a Ton and of a Mile to be reckoned as the Quarters in that Fraction, and of a Quarter as a Quarter.

The proprietors may carry goods, &c. of all descriptions upon the said railroad, and charge for the same, including the before mentioned rates, the following

CARRIAGE RATES.

For all Lime, Lime-stone, Dung, Compost, Manure and Materials for Roads, Stone, Sand, Clay, Building, Pitching and Paving-stones, Tiles, Slates, Timber, Staves and Deals 8s 0d per Ton.

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CARRIAGE RATES CONTINUED.

For all Sugar, Corn, Grain, Flour, Dye Woods, Lead, Iron and other Metals 9s 0d per Ton.
For all Cotton and other Wools, Hides, Drugs, Groceries and Manufactured Goods 11s 0d.
For all Wines, Spirits, Vitriol, Glass and other hazardous Goods 14s 0d.
For all Coal, Coke, Culm, Charcoal and Cinders 0s 2½d.

All shorter Distances in Proportion.

For all Persons, Cattle and other Animals, such Rates as the Company may decide upon.

The Company are not, however, compelled to receive less than Two Shillings per Ton, for short Distances; they may also fix the Rates for Parcels not exceeding Five Hundred Weight, and may from time to time vary and repeal the said Rates.

This act, which is very long, comprising not less than two hundred clauses, contains nothing more of interest to general readers, the parts not mentioned being for the protection of private individuals.

In 1827 another act was obtained under the designation of 'An Act for amending and enlarging the Powers and Provisions of an Act, relating to the Liverpool and Manchester Railway;' by which the former act was amended and enlarged, and leave was given to the company to borrow £100,000 of the Exchequer Bill Commissioners, or of other persons; and it is provided that subscribers who do not pay their calls at the appointed time, shall pay interest on the sums due; it is also provided that the subscribers shall receive interest at five per cent, upon the amount of their subscriptions, besides the £10 per share dividend, without making any deduction from their maximum tonnage rates.

Another act was obtained in 1828, having for title, 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway to alter the Line of the said Railway, and for amending and enlarging the Powers and Provisions of the several Acts relating thereto.' By this act alterations were made in the line of the railway originally laid down; one of the deviations is in the township of Sutton; another alteration from a field in that township to a field in Burtonwood; another in the townships of Newton and Culcheth; and the same was now directed to be made according to an amended plan, the details of which it is unnecessary to enter into.

However, the company still found that their line might be improved, for in the following year a fourth act was passed, as 'An Act for enabling the Liverpool and Manchester Railway

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'Company to make an Alteration in the Line of the said Railway, and for amending and enlarging the Powers and Provisions of the several Acts relating thereto.'

By this act the line was varied again, so as to pass from Oldfield Road across Ordsall Lane and the River Irwell to Water Street, instead of passing over the Bolton, Bury and Manchester Canal to Irwell Street, near the New Bailey Prison; and the proprietors were authorized to build bridges over the Irwell and Water Street in Manchester. The estimate for this part of the line, abandoned for the one substituted by this act, was £11,802, of which £10,216, 16s. was for land purchased. Mr. George Stevenson calculated the expenses of the present line to be £10,229, l0s. in which sum £500 is considered as two years' rent of the land on the line, which, being already contracted for at an annual chief rent, would not be paid for in a gross sum; and the cost of building the bridges at £9,000, leaving together a balance of £729, 10s. for contingent costs. In the former part of this description of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, we have quoted the carriage rates which the company are empowered to take.

In making the estimates of the cost of this work, no contemplation was had of the expense of forming an establishment for the carriage of goods; by this act, therefore, it is provided that a fund of £127,500 shall be raised for that purpose, in shares of £25 each, either amongst themselves or by the admission of new members. The accounts of this department are to be kept separate, and separate dividends are to be made in respect thereof. The raising of this fund is not to prejudice the power of borrowing money for completing the railroad, granted by the first act. The length of the deviated line, as stated by Mr. G. Stevenson, and Mr. Joseph Lock his assistant, according to the plan adopted by the act of 1828, is eleven miles and nine hundred and seventy yards, and the estimate of the deviation £167,009, 4s. 4d.

The whole length of the railway, including the tunnel under Liverpool, is thirty miles and three quarters, in which distance there are three inclined planes, viz, at Sutton, Rainhill and the tunnel at Liverpool. The rise at the tunnel is 110 feet in one thousand nine hundred and seventy yards; the next one thousand yards is level; then in five miles and one furlong, there is a fall of

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24 feet 7 inches; then in one mile and a half up the Rainhill Inclined Plane, there is a rise of 82½ feet; and from Rainhill to Sutton, a distance of one mile and seven furlongs, is level; then a fall of 82½ feet in one mile and a half; in the next two miles and a half there is a fall of 5 feet; and in the following six miles and a half there is a fall of 37 feet; this is the lowest point on the railway; from whence, in the next five miles and a half, is a rise of 21 feet 1½ inches; the last four miles and a half to Manchester, are level. Adjoining the great tunnel at Liverpool there is also constructed another short one, for the accommodation of carriages taking passengers. Mr. George Stevenson has been the engineer to this undertaking, under whose superintendence the work has been ably conducted; Messrs. G. and J. Rennie were also called in upon particular occasions by the promoters of the undertaking.

The utility of the work cannot yet be fairly estimated; but if it should answer the high expectations now entertained, it will be one of the most lucrative concerns in the kingdom, and of the utmost importance to the great trading towns of Liverpool and Manchester, as well as to the district of country through which it passes.

LIVERPOOL DOCKS AND HARBOUR.

8 Anne, C. 12, R. A. - - - - - 1710.

3 Geo. I. C. 1, R. A. - - - - - 1716.

11 Geo. II. C. 32, R A. - - - - - 1737.

2 Geo. III. C. 86, R. A. - - - - - 1762.

25 Geo. III. C. 15, R. A. - - - - - 1785.

39 Geo. III. C. 59, R. A. 21st June, 1799.

51 Geo. III. C. 143, R. A. 10th June, 1811.

59 Geo. III. C. 30, R. A. 19th May, 1819.

6 Geo. IV. C. 187, R. A. 27th June, 1825.

9 Geo. IV. C. 114, R. A. 27th June, 1828.

THE acts for improving the port of Liverpool and for completing and maintaining the docks, quays, basins, works and buildings erected and made there, are of too general a nature to be stated at large in these pages, particularly as they do not form an essential part of a work exclusively on inland navigation. It may therefore suffice to remark, that trustees for the management of these works are incorporated under the title of "The Trustees of the Liverpool Docks," and have powers to purchase land, enlarge such docks as are necessary, to make others with their accompanying buildings, and to raise monies for the execution of the trusts confided to them. To enter more particularly into the precise terms of these acts and the sums of money each directs to

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be raised, would not be of general interest; the works are executed with due regard to the trade and interests of that flourishing town, and the whole are of the most magnificent description. The harbour here, as may be seen from the map, is entirely artificial, being formed within the town and communicating with the river. Few ports in Europe can vie with these works, or with the conveniences for loading and unloading of vessels. There are both wet and dry docks, with graving docks and other requisites for repairing vessels. The warehouses are of uncommon size, comprising several stories, with cranes, &c. to each. Government has here a large warehouse for tobacco, and each part of the docks and buildings is eminently adapted to the purpose for which it is designed.

LLANELLY RAILWAY AND DOCK.

9 George IV. Cap. 91, Royal Assent 19th June, 1828.

THIS work was projected for the purpose of conveying the minerals and other productions of the country near its line to the sea, and the dock was for the readier shipment and landing of the exports and imports to be conveyed thereon.

The scheme met with the approbation of parliament in an act, entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway or Tramroad from Gelly Gillie Farm, in the parish of Llanelly, in the county of Carmarthen, to Machynis Pool in the same parish and county; and for making and maintaining a Wet Dock at the Termination of the said Railway or Tramroad at Machynis Pool aforeiaid.' By this act the proprietors are incorporated under the style of " The Llanelly Railroad and Dock Company," and have authority to complete the projected railway and dock, the cost of which is estimated at the sum of £14,000, to be raised in shares of £100 each; and in case the said £14 000 should prove to be insufficient for the completion of the works they are empowered to raise, on mortgage or by annuity, a further sum of £6,000. The dock to be so constructed as to be large enough for ships of three hundred tons burthen, with slips, poles, beacons, warping and

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