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This Book "Priestley's Navigable Rivers and Canals" by Joseph Priestley was previously published in April 1831. NOTE: Oringinally called "Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways, of Great Britain".
For more information see About this Book

Index Page Link to Previous Page 361

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would be greatly benefited by the forming of Counter's Creek into a canal, for the conveyance of goods through the same to the Thames. Commissioners were, therefore, appointed to take measures for executing the same, with powers to make tunnels, erect steam engines, take down bridges and divert roads for this purpose; and in order to meet the cost of the undertaking, the proprietors were to raise amongst themselves the sum of £10,000, in one hundred shares of £100 each. In case this should not prove sufficient, they may raise a further sum of £5,000, either of which sums may be borrowed on mortgage of the tolls, and the £5,000, last directed to be raised, may be obtained on promissory notes, or by such other means as shall appear most eligible.

For paying interest and other expenses, the proprietors, who are by the act called "The Kensington Canal Navigation Company," are to collect the following


For all Dung or Manure conveyed between the Thames and Fifty Yards Northward of Stamford Bridge ½d per Ton.
For ditto between the Northern Extremity of the said Fifty Yards and the Hammersmith Road 3d ditto.
For all Coals, Cinders, Culm, Lime, Slate, Stone, Alabaster, Potatoes, Pig-iron, Bricks, Peat, Gravel, Sand, Clay, Marl, Timber. Deals, Malleable and Wrought or Manufactured Iron, Lead and other Unwrought Metals, Corn, Grain, Malt, Peas and Beans, Wool, Cotton Wool and Yarn, Cotton Linen, and Woollen Manufactured Goods, Hemp, Flax, Groceries, and all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize whatsoever, carried between the Thames and Fifty Yards Northward of Stamford Bridge 1d ditto.
For all the above-named Description of Goods carried between the Northern Extremity of the said Fifty Yards and the Hammersmith Road 6d ditto.

Fractions of a Ton to be taken as the Quarters therein, and of a Quarter as a Quarter.

The company may erect wharfs and cranes, and charge as


For all Goods, Wares and Merchandize remaining on the Wharfs Seventy-two Hours 9d per Ton.
For ditto after the Seventy-two First Hours 6d ditto, per Day.

The canal was to be completed in three years after the passing of this act, or the powers thereof were to cease, and the company was directed to pay a fine of £5, with an annual rent of the same sum to the Mayor and Commonalty of London, for the liberty of opening and enlarging the communication with the Thames.

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The work was commenced immediately on obtaining the act; but it having been found expedient to make the canal of a greater width than at first proposed, and this alteration costing more than was originally estimated, a second act was obtained in 1826, bearing the title of 'An Act to amend an Act for making a Canal from Counter's Bridge, on the Road from London to Hammersmith, to the River Thames, in the county of Middlesex, and to enable the Kensington Canal Company to raise a further Sum for the completing of the said Canal.' By this act the company were authorized to raise a further sum of £30,000 by the usual means, and the term of completing the canal was prolonged for three years.

Mr. Thomas Hollinsworth was the engineer employed, and his estimate for the canal, to be 9,000 feet long, was, for completing the same, with

Lock and Coffer Dam£8,000
Draw Bridge and Lock13,000

This canal, though of limited extent, is of great service for the purposes which gave rise to its projection.


10 George IV. Cap. 36, Royal Assent 14th May, 1829.

THE Kenyon and Leigh Railway was projected with a view to connect the Bolton and Leigh Railway with that of the Liverpool and Manchester, and the act for completing the same obtained the sanction of the legislature as above, under the title of 'An Act for making a Railway from the Bolton and Leigh Railway in the township of West Leigh, to the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, in the township of Kenyon, with a Branch therefrom, in the county of Lancaster.' By this act the company, under the title of "The Kenyon and Leigh Junction Railway Company," are empowered to make a railway from the Bolton and Leigh Railway, within the township of West Leigh, and extending to or passing through Leigh, Winwich, Pennington and Kenyon, or some of them, and terminating at the Liverpool and Manchester

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Railway, five hundred yards to the west of Broseley Lane, in the said township of Kenyon, together with a branch from a certain field in the said township of Kenyon, belonging to the Earl of Wilton, and extending from thence in a curved line eastwardly, terminating at or near the said Liverpool and Manchester Railway, four hundred yards to the eastward of the said Broseley Lane; and also, to make inclined planes, if necessary, on any part of the line. The distance between the inside edges of the rails of this railway to be not less than 4 feet 8 inches, and that between the outside edges not more than 5 feet 1 inch; and at the crossings of turnpike-roads or highways, the guiding flanch or ledge shall not rise above or sink below the level of such road more than 1 inch. Bridges for carrying the same over highways, shall leave a clear width of 15 feet under the arch, and a height of 16 feet above the surface of the road; but the bridge over the Leeds and Liverpool Canal shall not be less than 25 feet in span; width of towing-path 6 feet, and breast wall of the same 12 feet in height above the level of the top water in the canal. The proprietors are empowered to raise £25,000, in shares of £100 each, for the purposes of this act; £22,946, being the estimate of the work, is to be raised before the act is put in force. But should the sum of £25,000 prove insufficient, the proprietors may raise £6,000 more in the usual way. The following are directed to be collected as


For every Person passing on the Road in any Coach, Cart, Waggon, or other Carriage 0s 6d each.
For every Horse, Mule, Ass or other Beast of Draught or Burthen, and for every Ox, Cow, Bull or Neat Cattle, ditto, ditto 0s 6d ditto.
For every Calf, Sheep, Lamb, or Pig ditto, ditto 0s 1d ditto.
For all Lime-stone and Lime, Coal, Coke, Culm, Charcoal, Cinders, Stone, Sand, Clay, Building, Pitching and Paving-stones, Flags, Bricks, Tiles, Slates, Dung, Compost, and all Sorts of Manure and Materials for repairs of Roads 0s 6d per Ton.
For all Sugar, Corn, Grain, Flour, Dye Wood,Timber, Staves, Deals, Lead, Iron and other Metals, Cotton and other Wool, Hides, Drugs, Manufactured Goods, and all other Wares, Merchandize, Matters or Things 1s 0d ditto.

Fractions of a Ton to be taken as the Quarters therein, and of a Quarter as a Quarter.

The Company to fix the Rates for Parcels not exceeding Five Hundred Weight.

This Railway is not to be used as a Foot Path, under Penalty of Forty Shillings, to be paid by the Offender, but Owners or Occupiers of Lands adjoining may pass thereon without paying Toll. No carriage to carry more than Four Tons, including its own Weight, except any one Piece of Timber, Block of Stone, Boiler, Cylinder, Bob or Single Piece of Machinery, which may, with the Carriage, weigh Eight Tons, and pay Four-pence per Ton per Mile.

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The railway must be completed in seven years, or the powers of the act cease. The length thereof is about four miles, in a southerly direction from Leigh; in its course it passes not far from Pennington Hall and Haydock Lodge; and, connecting the Bolton and Leigh Railroad with that of the Manchester and Liverpool, it adds considerably to the facilities for conveying coal, iron and lead from various mines within reach of Bolton, Leigh, and other places, with which a communication is thereby opened. The engineering department is under the direction of Mr. Vignolles.




6 George III. Cap. 55, Royal Assent 19th February, 1766.

52 George III. Cap. 173, Royal Assent 20th June, 1812.

58 George III. Cap. 75, Royal Assent 28th May, 1818.

THE first commencement of this undertaking was an act obtained in 1766, by Thomas Kymer, Esq. to make a canal from the tideway in Kidwelly Harbour to his coal and lime works, about three miles and a half from that place. This act is entitled, 'An Act to enable Thomas Kymer, Esq. to make a navigable Cut or Canal,from Little Gwendraeth River, near the town of Kidwelly, to the Great Forest and Pwll Llygod, in the county of Carmarthen.' it may be strictly considered a private act, as it was for the sole purpose of affording conveyance for the produce of Mr. Kymer's estate; and the canal which was entirely cut through his own land was called Kymer's Canal. The utility of the work, however, was proved to be so great, that it was thought desirable to extend its benefits to the neighbourhood, and, in consequence, another act was obtained in 1812, entitled, 'An Act for the improving of the Harbour of Kidwelly, and for making and maintaining a navigable Canal, or Tramroads, in Kidwelly, and Llanelly and other parishes therein mentioned, in the county of Carmarthen.' By this act powers were given for a company to improve the harbour at Kidwelly, and to make a canal and

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tramroads in Kidwelly, Lianelly, and other parishes of the vicinity. The company was by this act incorporated under the name of "The Kidwelly and Llanelly Canal and Tramroad Company," with the usual powers. They were also authorized to restore or make a cut or channel from Salmon Scarr, on the south side of the River Towey, to the united rivers of Great and Little Gwendraeth, near Bertwyn House. For all the purposes of this act the company may raise £60,000, in shares of £100 each; and should that prove insufficient, they may raise a further sum not exceeding £20,000 in like manner, or on mortgage. For enabling them to keep up the works, and to pay the interest of money advanced, the proprietors are authorized to demand as under for


For all Goods, Wares, Merchandize and other Things, navigated, carried or conveyed on the said Canal, Collateral Cuts, Railways or Tramroads, except the Articles mentioned below 4d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Iron Castings, navigated and carried on ditto 3d ditto. ditto.
For all Pig-iron,ditto 2½d ditto. ditto.
For all Calcined Iron-ore, Rotten-stone, Coals, CuIm, Stone-coal, Cokes, Cinders. Charcoal, Timber, Deals, Stones, Tiles, Slates and Bricks, ditto 1¾d ditto. ditto.
For all Iron-stone, Iron-ore, Lime-stone, Lime, Sand, Clay, and all Kinds of Manure, ditto 1d ditto. ditto.

And so on in Proportion for a greater or less Weight than a Ton, and for a longer or shorter Distance than a Mile. Parcels of less than Five Hundred Weight to be paid for according to Rates which shall be fixed by the Proprietors.

Ships, Barges, and other Vessels entering and using the Harbour of Kidwelly, to pay, as Harbour Dues, One Penny per Ton on their registered Burthens, which Dues shall be appropriated solely to maintaining and improving the said Harbour. His Majesty's Vessels of War, Post-Office Packets, Transports employed on his Majesty's Service, Vessels carrying Salt for the Fisheries, Ships carrying Stones or other Materials for the Works, and Custom-House Vessels are all exempt from paying these Dues. Vessels resorting to any Shipping Places to be hereafter erected by the Company, shall pay One Penny per Ton on all exported Goods, and One Half-penny per Ton on all imported Goods. The Company may also demand the following


For every Horse, Mare, Gelding, Mule or Ass, Cow or other Neat Cattle, travelling on the Railways or Tramroads, and not drawing any Waggon, nor passing from one Farm to another on the Line 1d each.
For all Sheep, Swine or Calves, except when passing from one Farm to another 8d per Score.

Fishing Boats, Boats or Vessels carrying Coals to other Vessels in the Harbour, or bringing Supplies of Flesh or Vegetables to the Town of Kidwelly, are exempt from Duties. Goods or Merchandize are not to remain on any Quays or Wharfs of the Company for a longer Time than Twenty-four Hours; if they do, they are to be charged a Wharfage Rate of One Half-penny per Ton per Day.

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In 1818 a third act was obtained to alter and enlarge the powers of those previously granted, and is entitled, 'An Act to explain and amend an Act of the Fifty-second of his present Majesty, entitled, An Act for the improving of the Harbour of Kidwelly, and for making and maintaining a navigable Canal, or Tramroads, in Kidwelly and Llanelly, and other parishes therein mentioned, in the county of Carmarthen, and to alter and enlarge the Powers thereof.' By this act the company are enabled to raise the harbour dues of Kidwelly, from one half-penny to one penny per ton, on the registered burthen of all vessels entering and using this harbour.

If the works are not completed in six years from the date of the act, then its powers are to cease; and if any persons, desirous of making any collateral cut, branch or railway, authorized by this or the former acts, shall advance to the company a sufficient sum of money for making the same, then they may call upon the company to complete the same, and in case of refusal, the parties themselves are authorized to make it, and shall be accounted proprietors of one £100 share, for every hundred pounds bonafide expended on the making of the said branch, cut or tramroad. There are two small detached tramroads, one at Machynis Pool, the other at the Loughor Mines.


48 George III. Cap. 46, Royal Assent 27th May, 1808.

THIS railway, commencing near the town of Kilmarnock, in the county of Ayr in Scotland, pursues a westerly course for about half its length; it then turns at almost right angles to the south, and terminates at the Troon, having traversed between its two points, Kilmarnock and the Troon, a distance of nine miles and six furlongs, and passing, in its way, by the estates of Fairlie and Robertland, both belonging to the family of Sir William Cunningham.

The design, for which it was projected, was to open a cheaper and easier conveyance than heretofore, for coal, lime and minerals, as well as for the goods, wares and merchandize used and manu-

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factured by and in the large works of the county of Ayr. The act for executing it was passed in 1808, and has for title, 'An Act for making a Railway from or near to the town of Kilmarnock, in the county of Ayr, to a Place called the Troon, in the said county.' By this act the proprietors are incorporated under the style of " The Company of Proprietors of the Kilmarnock and Troon Railway," and are empowered to raise in shares of £500 each, the sum of £40,000, for the purposes of the act; and should need be, they may raise a further sum of £15,000 amongst themselves, or by borrowing on security of the undertaking. The following are also directed to be paid as


For all Goods, Wares, Merchandize and other Things whatsoever 3d per Ton, per Mile.

Fifty Cubic Feet of Round, and Forty Cubic Feet of Square Oak, Ash, Elm or Beech Timber, and Fifty Cubic Feet of Fir or Deal, Balk, Poplar, Birch or other Timber or Wood not cut into Scantlings, to be considered as One Ton Weight. One Hundred and Twelve Pounds Avoirdupois of Coal, Coke, Lime and all other Goods, Commodities, Matters or Things to be rated as One Hundred Weight; and Two Thousand Two Hundred and Forty Pounds Weight as one Ton.

Fractions of a Ton to be reckoned as the Numbers of Quarters in it, and of a Quarter as a Quarter.

Fractions of a Mile as the Quarters in it, and of a Quarter as a Quarter.

If the yearly dividends exceed £20 per cent, on the sums expended, for three years, the rates may be reduced by order of two justices of the peace; and if, after such reduction, the dividends for any two years shall not amount to £20 per cent, per annum on the sums expended, the rates may be raised to their former amount, by order of two justices as aforesaid.

Owners of land on the line may erect wharfs and warehouses, but if they refuse after twelve months' notice, the company may erect such wharfs, &c. and demand a rate for all goods left on their wharfs or in their warehouses above twenty-four hours; such rate to be regulated at a quarter sessions of the county.

The line of this useful undertaking was laid down by Mr. William Jessop, who estimated the expense of making the same at £38,167, l0s. The whole length is, as we have before stated, nine miles and six furlongs. At a distance of seven miles, two furlongs and five chains, there is a branch to Sir William Cunningham's Coal Works at Peatland, which is four furlongs and five chains in length. There were originally only four subscribers to the work, who took shares as follow, viz.

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The Marquis of Tichfield, seventy-four shares £37,000
Lord Montgomerie, one ditto 500
Lord Montgomerie Eglington, one ditto 500
John Boyle, Esq. one ditto ___500


14 Geo. III. C. 56, R. A. 20th May, 1774.

23 Geo. III. C. 55, R. A. - - - - - 1783.

42 Geo. III. C. 91, R. A. 22nd June, 1802.

45 Geo. III. C. 42, R. A. 5th July, 1805.

6 Geo. IV. C. 107, R. A. 5th July, 1825.

THIS article is merely inserted as serving to inform our readers, that the powers of demanding various dues and customs relating to the Hull River and the port of Kingston-upon-Hull, together with the building of quays, wharfs, &c. for the securing the revenues of his Majesty's customs there, were legalized by an act of 14th George III. entitled, 'An Act for making and establishing public Quays or Wharfs at Kingston-upon-Hull, for the better securing his Majesty's Revenues of Customs, and for the Benefit of Commerce in the Port of Kingston-upon-Hull; for making a Basin or Dock, with Reservoirs, Sluices, Roads and other Works for the Accommodation of Vessels using the said Port; and for appropriating certain Lands belonging to his Majesty, and for applying certain Sums of Money out of his Majesty's Customs at the said Port for those Purposes, and for establishing other necessary Regulations within the Town and Port of Kingston-upon-Hull.' The other acts above-noticed relate principally to making a new dock and other regulations.

For the extent of the port we refer to the map, and for the various dues to the acts, those particulars not coming within the design of a work on inland navigation.



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58 George III. Cap. 63, Royal Assent 23rd May, 1818.

THIS railway was projected for the purpose of opening a communication between the Hay Railway near Eardisley in Herefordshire, to Kington in the said county, and from thence to the Burlinjob Lime Works, in the county of Radnor, and thereby facilitating and cheapening the conveyance of coal, iron and other commodities from the county of Brecon, to the said town and lime works; and, in return, to facilitate the export from thence of lime, corn and other products, all which objects were not feasible by the turnpike and other roads, in consequence of their ruinous state.

The necessary powers were obtained in an act, entitled, 'An Act for making a Railway from the Hay Railway, near Eardisley, in the county of Hereford, to the Lime Works near Burlinjob, in the county of Radnor;' by which the subscribers were incorporated under the name of "The Kington Railway Company," and empowered to make the said railway from the Hay Railway near Eardisley, through the townships of Almeley, Lyonshall, Kington and Old Radnor, in the counties of Hereford and Radnor. For accomplishing this work, the proprietors are empowered to raise £18,000, in shares of £100 each; and in case that sum should not be sufficient, they may raise £5,000 more. Any part of the said £18,000 which was not subscribed before the passing of the act, or of the additional £5,000, may be raised on promissory notes under the common seal, or by mortgage. For paying interest and maintaining the railway, they are authorized to demand the following


For all Lime, Stone, Materials for the repairing of Turnpike Roads or Highways, all Dung, Compost and Manure, except Lime 3d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Coal, Coke, Culm, Stone, Cinders, Marl, Sand, Lime, Clay, Pier, Iron-stone and other Minerals, Building-stone, Pitching and Paving-stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slates, Timber, Lead in Pigs or Sheets, Bar-iron, Waggon-tire, and all Gross and Unmanufactured Articles and Building Materials 5d ditto. ditto.
For all other Goods, Commodities, Wares, and Merchandize whatsoever 6d ditto. ditto.

Fractions of a Ton and a Mile as the Quarters in each respectively, and of a Quarter as a Quarter.

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The company are to fix the Rate for Parcels not exceeding Five Hundred Weight.

The Railway is not to be used as a Passage for Horses or Cattle, except those crossing it to the Farms on its Line.

Wharfs and warehouses may be erected by owners of land or lords of manors, on their own lands; but if such erections are not made within three calendar months after notice given, then the said company may themselves erect them, and at such wharfs may be taken the following


For all Coals, Cuim, Lime, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, Iron-stone, Lead or other Ores, Timber, Stone, Brick, Tiles, Slates, Gravel or other Things 1d per Ton, per Mile.
For every Package not exceeding Fifty~six Pounds in weight 1d each. ditto.
For ditto above Fifty-six Pounds and not exceeding Five Hundred Weight 2d ditto. ditto.

All Articles remaining above Forty-eight Hours, shall pay in addition for the next Ten Days, for Wharfage, One Penny per Ton; for Warehousing, Three-pence per Ton; and the like Sums of One Penny and Three-pence for every Day after the Expiration of the said Ten Days.

A loan of Exchequer Bills is to be deemed equivalent to a subscription, as being provided for under the clauses of an act of the 57th George III. entitled, 'An Act to authorize the Issue of Exchequer Bills, and the Advance of Money out of the Consolidated Fund to a limited Amount, for the carrying on of Public Works and Fisheries in the United Kingdom, and Employment of the Poor in Great Britain.'

This railway is about fourteen miles long, in a direction from Burlinjob to Castle Weir, west, and from thence to the Hay Railway, south. It is 505½: feet above the level of the sea, and well calculated for the purposes for which it was projected.


5 George IV. Cap. 49, Royal Assent 17th May, 1824.

THIS useful work was undertaken in the year 1824, under the authority of 'An Act for making a Railway from Palace Craig, in the parish of Old Monkland, in the county of Lanark, to the Forth and Clyde Canal, near Kirkintilloch, in the county of Dumbarton.' The design of the projectors was to open a communication between the iron works at Palace Craig, near Old

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Monkland, and the Forth and Clyde Canal, for the purpose of exporting the minerals and manufactures of that place and vicinity, and it has fully answered the end proposed. It traverses a distance of more than ten miles, in a northerly direction from Monkland to Kirkintilloch. Taking the surface water of the Forth and Clyde Canal as a level, there is a rise, from the basin where the railway communicates with that work, to its termination at Palace Craig, of 133 feet 11 inches. In its way it passes by Howes, at which place there is a branch of three quarters of a mile in length, with a rise, from the aforesaid level, of 161 feet 3 inches to Kipps' Colliery. It connects with the Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway, and with the Ballochney Railway, and also with the Wishaw and Coltness Railway; besides connecting the Monkland Canal with the above railroads and the Forth and Clyde Canal, thus giving facility to the export of immense quantities of coal, ironstone and limestone, with which this district abounds.

Mr. Thomas Grainger was the engineer employed, whose estimate for the whole, including the basin at the Forth and Clyde Canal of one hundred yards square, was £24,953, ls. 5d.; the necessary funds for which were raised by shares of £50 each.


32 Geo. III. C. 101, R. A. 11th June, 1792.

33 Geo. III. C. 107, R. A. 10th May, 1793.

36 Geo. III. C. 97, R. A. 14th May, 1796.

40 Geo. III. C. 57, R. A. 20th June, 1800.

47 Geo. III. C. 113, R. A. 13th Aug 1807.

59 Geo. III. C. 64, R. A. 14th June, 1819.

THIS stupendous undertaking commences, at 144 feet 9 inches above the level of the sea, near Kirkby Kendal, to the north of which place it has a feeder from the Mint Beck; it proceeds in a southerly direction to the tunnel at Hincaster Green; from this tunnel it turns directly eastward till it crosses Stainton Beck, where it again bends to the south and continues a sinuous course in that direction past Beetholme, Milthorp and Burton-in-Kendal, near the division of the counties of Westmoreland and Lancaster; it then locks down 75 feet by nine locks, in a place named Tewit Field; here a branch was intended to run off westward to the lime rocks of Warton Cragg, the main line proceeding in a south-easterly direction to Barwick, not far from which place it crosses the River

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Keer; from Barwick, passing near Over Kellet, it runs south-west to Bolton-by-the-Sands and Hest; bending to the east from this place and winding round Lancaster, where it crosses the Lune or Loyne by a magnificent aqueduct, it proceeds to Galgate, leaving Quern Moor Park on the east. From Galgate a branch 79 feet 4 inches above low water goes off westerly by Thornham to Glasson New Dock, locking down 51 feet to the sea lock at Glasson, the sill of which is 3 feet 10 inches above low-water-mark. Leaving the Galgate Branch the main line comes to Garstang, where it crosses the River Wyre, a branch of which it again passes near Kirkland Hall. From Garstang it runs easterly by Greenhalgh Castle past Myerscough Hall; thence making a detour westward it winds round the estate of Salwick Hall, whence it runs eastwardly to Preston, traversing from Tewit Field to that town a distance of forty miles on one level, generally called the Lancaster Level. Here the canal is interrupted for about four miles and a half: but a railroad crossing the Ribble, and ascending the high ground, connects this part of the line with the continuation thereof at the summit level at Thorpe Green. This railroad rises 222 feet; at its termination, where the head level of the canal commences, there is a commodious basin, and immediately adjoining commences a tunnel three hundred yards in length. From this junction of the railroad and canal, the latter proceeds almost due south to Bark Hill near Wigan, a distance of thirteen miles and a half. The remainder of the projected line to West Houghton was never executed, being rendered unnecessary by the junction of the Leeds and Liverpool with the Lancaster Canal, at Johnson's Hillock, near Shaw Hall, two miles and a half from the tunnel. At this place the Lancaster Company made a short branch or junction on which there are seven locks, with a rise of 67 feet 3 inches, from their summit level into the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, A communication is thus made between Kendal and Manchester, and all the navigations connected with that town, through the Leeds and Liverpool Branch to Leigh, by way of Bark Hill and Wigan. The canal in its progress passes through a noted agricultural district, generally called the Fylde Country.

Having thus given the route of the canal, we proceed to notice the acts of parliament connected with it, in their order. The first

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obtained for this purpose, bearing date in 1792, is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal, from Kirkby Kendal in the county of Westmoreland, to West Houghton in the county palatine of Lancaster, and also a navigable Branch from the said intended Canal at or near Barwick, to or near Warton Cragg, and also another navigable Branch, from, at or near, Galemoss, by Chorley, to or near Duxbury in the said county palatine of Lancaster.' It incorporates the proprietors under the style of "The Company of Proprietors of the Lancaster Canal Navigation," and gives them power to cut the line as we have described to West Houghton, with branches from Barwick Hall to Warton Cragg, and from Galemoss in the parish of Crofton, to or near Duxbury in the parish of Standish. The part to West Houghton was rendered unnecessary as we before stated, and the Duxbury Branch has also been left unexeeuted.

By this act the proprietors were empowered to raise £414,100, in £100 shares, £60,000 thereof to be applied solely to complete the Westmoreland part of the canal, with a power of raising by further subscription amongst themselves, or by mortgage, the additional sum of £200,000, if required. This act also established the following rates.


For Coals navigated on the Canal 0s 1½d per Ton, per Mile.
For Lime-stone, Slate, Salt-ores, Salt-rock, Bricks, Stone, Flags, Iron-stone, Coal-sleek, Black-bass, Iron-Cinders, Gravel, Sand, Clay, Marl and Manure 0s ½d ditto. ditto.
For Lime, Pig-iron, Cast-iron, and Bar-Iron 0s 1d ditto. ditto.
For Timber, Dying-woods, and all other Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Conimodities not before-enumerated 0s 2d ditto. ditto.
For Coals passing the Locks on the South Side of the River Ribble, if they do not pass more than Eighteen Miles North of Chorley on this Canal 2s 3d per Ton.
For the Wharfage of Coal, Lime, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, Iron-atone, Timber, Stone, Brick, Tiles, Slate or Gravel 0s 1d ditto.
For all other Goods or Things whatever 0s 3d ditto.

Coal, Iron and Lime-stone may remain on tbe Wharfs Twenty-one Days; Timber, Clay, Lime, Iron-stone, Stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slate and Gravel, Thirty Days all other Goods Six Days; an additional Charge of one Penny per Ton for every Ten Days after this Period.

And so on in Proportion for more or lees than a Ton or a Mile.

Forty Feet of Round, or Fifty Feet of Square Oak, Ash or Elm Timber, and Fifty Feet of Fir or Deal, Balk, Poplar, Beech or Birch cut into Scantlings, and Forty Feet of Light Goods to be deemed One Ton.

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In the following year a second act, the title of which sufficiently explains its purport, was granted, as 'An Act to alter and amend an Act passed in the last Session of Parliament, entitled, An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal, from Kirkby Kendal in the county of Westmoreland, to West Houghton in the county palatine of Lancaster, and also a navigable Branch from the said intended Canal at or near Barwick, to or near Warton Cragg, and also another navigable Branch, from, at or near, Galemoss, by Chorley, to or near Duxbury in the said county palatine of Lancaster; and also for making a navigable Branch from the said Canal at or near Galgate, to Glasson Dock, in the said county palatine of Lancaster.' The next act, obtained in 1796, and entitled, 'An Act to enable his Majesty, in Right of his Duchy of Lancaster, to make a Grant of certain Lands,for the Purpose of carrying into Execution an Act passed in the Thirty-second of his present Majesty, entitled, An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal,from Kirhby Kendal in the county of Westmoreland, to West Houghton in the county palatine of Lancaster, and also a navigable Branch from the said intended Canal at or near Barwick, to or near Warton Cragg, and also another navigable Branch, from, at or near, Galemoss, by Chorley, to or near Duxbury in the said county palatine of Lancaster,' was merely to enable his Majesty, as Duke of Lancaster, to grant the company certain lands in that duchy. The fourth act, entitled, 'An Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the Lancaster Canal Navigation to complete the same,' was obtained in 1800, for the purpose of enabling the proprietors to raise the additional £200,000, mentioned in the first act, by creating new shares.

An act, entitled, 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Lancaster Canal Navigation, to vary the Course of the said Canal, and to make Railways or Roads, and to amend and render more effectual Two Acts relating to the said Navigation,' was obtained in 1807, whereby the proprietors were empowered to vary the line between Tewit Field in the parish of Warton and a place called the World's End, in the parish of Hincaster; also to make a railway from Farlton Knott in the parish of Beetham, to communicate with the said variation in Kelnhall

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Close in the township of Farlton, and another from the limestone rock at Kellet Seeds in the parish of Bolton-by-the-Sands to Over Kellet and Carnforth. By this act the power of taking water from the River Mint, is repealed.

The last act received the royal assent in 1819, under the title of 'An Act to alter and amend the several Acts passed for making and maintaining the Lancaster Canal Navigation.' It grants to the company the power of making reservoirs and feeders in the townships of Killington, New Hutton, Kirkby Lonsdale, and Kirkby-in-Kendal, and to convey the water from Crookland's Beck into the said canal; and to make a navigable branch from the said canal in the township of Whittle-le-Woods, at a place called Johnson's Hillock, to join and communicate with the present southern termination of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, which said branch shall be accounted part of the said Lancaster Canal Navigation. By this act is repealed a clause of the 32nd George III. authorizing the proprietors to take 2s. 3d. per ton for all coals passing the locks on the said canal on the south side of the Ribble. The proprietors are also empowered to raise £270,000, on mortgage of the rates and dues of the said canal, for the purpose of completing the said navigation and works. The proprietors of the Lancaster and the Leeds and Liverpool Canals are not to take water either from other of these works, when the depth shall be reduced to 5 feet upon the sill of the upper gates of the locks on the said Leeds and Liverpool Canal, adjoining the said Lancaster Canal, which sill is not to be lower than the bottom level of the said Lancaster Canal. We have before mentioned, that by uniting the two canals at Johnson's Hillock, a length of eleven miles was common to both canals; this length is actually part of the Lancaster Canal, but that company is confined by a specific agreement, not to charge more for goods passing out of the Leeds and Liverpool on it, than they would be liable to for the same distance, taking it as part of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. On the line of this canal there are two tunnels, one at Hincaster eight hundred yards long; the second at the Whittle Hills, not far from the junction with the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, three hundred yards long; there is also a remarkable piece of deep cutting at Ashton, near Lancaster.

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The Leeds and Liverpool Canal was to have crossed this canal by an aqueduct 60 feet high at Bark Mill near Wigan; and the Lancaster Canal itself was to have been conducted by an aqueduct over the Ribble at Preston; there is one over the Wyre at Garstang, the Beeloo near Bethorn, and the Lune near Lancaster, the last of which is a most wonderful piece of workmanship, being 51 feet high above the river, having five arches of 70 feet span each, and is supposed to be the largest aqueduct of the kind in England.

Mr. Brindley surveyed part of the line of the Lancaster Canal in 1772, and Mr. Whitworth soon after completed the survey. But it was not till 1791, that the promoters of the scheme resumed the subject; when they appointed Mr. Rennie engineer to the undertaking, and this was the first great work of the kind in which he had taken the direction; the magnificent aqueduct over the Lune at Lancaster, and other immense works upon this canal, established his reputation as a civil engineer.

It would be almost impossible to enumerate all the advantages accruing to the public from the execution of this undertaking. The interchange of the coals and cannel of Wigan and the southern extremity of the line, with the stone, lime and slate of its northern parts, is not amongst the least beneficial effects of its completion; whilst liquors and various other articles of foreign merchandize introduced at the port of Lancaster, are by its means conveyed with expedition and at a trifling expense to the various populous manufacturing places on its line.




11 & 12 William III. Cap. 22, Royal Assent 11th April, 1700.

57 George IlL Cap. 71, Royal Assent 10th July, 1817.

THE navigation of the River Larke or Burn extends for the distance of about fourteen miles from a place called Long Common, a little below Milden Hall Mill, to Eastgate Bridge in

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Eastgate Street Bury St. Edmunds, in the county of Suffolk; its level from its situation in the flat part of the county is in no part greatly above the tideway.

The first step towards the rendering this river navigable, was an act of parliament in the year 1700, bearing as title, 'An Act for making the River Larke, alias Burn, navigable.' By this act power was granted to Henry Ashley, Esq. of Eaton Socon, in Bedfordshire, his heirs and assigns, to cleanse, enlarge or straighten the said river, and to construct all necessary works on the same. He was empowered to demand certain rates, and a number of commissioners were appointed to settle disputes, which commissioners were from time to time to elect others on vacancies. After the lapse of several years, the property became vested in Mrs. Susanna Palmer, and great inconvenience arose from the neglect of the commissioners in not filling up vacancies. A second act was therefore obtained in 1817, entitled, 'An Act for amending and rendering more effectual an Act of his late Majesty, King William the Third, for making the River Larke, alias Burn, navigable;' by which new commissioners were appointed with the necessary powers, and the following determined upon to be paid to Mrs. Palmer, in lieu of former tolls as


For Coals, by Lynn Measure 4s 2d per Chaldron.
For Deals 2s 7½d per Half Hundred.
For Timber (accounting Forty Feet to the Load) 2s 7½d per Load.
For Wool, (accounting Ten Tod to the Pack) 3s 3½d per Eight Packs.
For Salt 3s 3½d per Weigh.
For Wheat or Barley, (reckoning Ten Coombs to the Load) 2s 7½d per Load.
For Oats 3s 3½d per Last.
For Beans or Peas, (reckoning Ten Coombs to the Load) 3s 3½d per Load.
For Grocery Wares or Commodities 3s 3½d per Ton.
For Oil or Wine 5s 0½d ditto.
For Turf 4s 2d per Thousand.
For Reed, Sedge, or Hay, (reckoning Twenty Hundred Weight to a Load) 4s 2d per Load.
For Hemp, (reckoning Twenty Hundred Weight to a Load) 4s 2d per ditto.
For Malt 3s 3½d per Last..
For Bricks, (reckoning Five Hundred to the Load) 2s 7½d per Load.
For Tiles 2s 11d per Thousand.
For all other Goods, Wares, Merchandize or Commodities whatsoever 2s 7½d per Ton.

All these Rates to be considered as payable for Goods passing between the Sluice next above Milden Hall Bridge and Bury St. Edmunds, and in Proportion for a greater or less Weight and for a less Distance; and the Proprietor may lower or raise all or any Part of the said Tolls from time to time. And the Commissioners are empowered to raise the Tolls for the Payment of Expenses incurred by making new Works, application being made to them by the Proprietor for that Purpose.

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This is a very useful navigation, and beneficial to the agriculturists of the district about Bury, as besides the advantageous mode it affords of conveying their produce down to Lynn, by its junction with the Ouse near Littleport, it conveys to them in return, and at a much lower rate than by land carriage, fuel and other articles of home consumption which their own neighbourhood cannot supply.


3 Hen. VI. C. 5, R. A. - - - - - 1425.

9 Hen. VI. C. 9, R. A. - - - - - 1430.

13 Eliz. C. - - R. A. - - - - - 1561.

13 Geo. II. C. 32, R. A. 14th June, 1739.

7 Geo. III. C. 51, R. A. 29th June, 1767.

19 Geo. III. C. 58, R. A. 31st May, 1779.

45 Geo. III. C. 69, R. A. 27th June, 1805.

5 Geo. IV. C. 47, R. A. 17th May, 1824.

THE Lea or Lee Navigation commences at the county town of Hertford, at 111 feet 3 inches above the level of the sea; passing thence in an easterly direction by a bending course and leaving Ware Park on its northern bank, it arrives at Ware; from this town it proceeds in a south-easterly direction to its junction with the Stort River Navigation at no great distance from Hoddesden. From the junction, verging a little to the west, it directs its way southerly to Waltham Abbey; the line is now nearly straight in the same direction to Oil Mill; here again diverging to the east, it comes to Temple Mills, passing on its way Wanstead and Aldersbrook; a little above Temple Mills there is a cut, making a communication between this navigation and the Regent's Canal; from Temple Mills it proceeds to its fall into the Thames at Bow Creek, not far from the East India Docks; at Bromley there is a cut from this navigation into the Thames at Limehouse, which is about a mile and a half in length, with a fall of 17½ feet. This cut, by avoiding the circuit of the Isle of Dogs, makes a ready communication with the port of London. It was cut at the expense of the city of London, and is known by the name of the Lea Cut or Limehouse Canal.

The first parliamentary enactment having reference to the Lea or Lee, bears date in 1425, under the title of 'An Act for the Preservation of the River Lea;' another act was passed in 1430,

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entitled, 'To scour and amend the River Lea.' This, according to the custom at that time, is written in the Old Norman French, and therefore need not be recited here.

In the 13th of Elizabeth, 1561, another act was sanctioned by the legislature, entitled, 'An Act for the bringing of the River Lea to the North Side of the city of London,' whereby the whole jurisdiction, rule and government of the said river or new cut, mentioned to have been made by the Mayor, Commonalty and Citizens of London, are vested in the said persons. The next parliamentary enactment which received the royal assent was obtained in 1739, and is designated, 'An Act for ascertaining, preserving and improving the Navigation of the River Lea, from the town of Hertford, to the town of Ware, in the county of Hertford; and for preserving and improving the said River,from the said town of Ware to the New Cut, or River, made by the Mayor, Commonalty and Citizens of London, and for enabling the Governor and Company of the New River, the better to supply the cities of London and Westminster, and the liberties of the suburbs thereof with good and wholesome Water.'

As the New River, which supplies the city of London with water, is mentioned in the last-recited act, it may be proper here to state that that useful work was projected and begun by Sir Hugh Middleton, in 1608; and that in 1773 Mr. James Sharp suggested the practicability of rendering that river navigable. The New River has its rise in the Chalk Hills between Hertford and Ware, and has also a feeder near that point from the River Lea.

By the act just recited, the governor and company of the New River were directed to pay the company of the Lea River £350 per annum, in consideration of the water supplied by that company, such yearly rent or fine to be applied to the improvement and preservation of the said River Lea or Lee. But it having appeared that the powers of this act were imperfect, and that the authority vested in the Mayor and Commonalty of London by the act of Elizabeth, interfered with the powers granted to this company, to the injury of both, a further act was obtained in 1757, which is designated, 'An Act for improving the Navigation of the River Lea, from the town of Hertford to the River Thames, and for extending the said Navigation to the Flood-Gates belonging to the Town

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'Mill, in the said town of Hertford.' As there are many clauses in this act for directing new cuts or canals to be made on various parts of the line, we shall here consolidate them. The River Lea or Lee is to be made navigable to the Flood-gates of the Town Mill at Hertford; and the proprietors are authorized to make at any time the following new cuts or canals, viz, one from the said river at a place called The Folly, into and down part of Dicker Mill Stream, to return into the said river at any point they may think best above Dicker Mill and between Constant's Weir and Manifold Ditch; one from the lock above Ware Mill into the said river on the south, near Priory Orchard; one from above Ware Weir into the same on the south-west near Stansted Bridge; one from below Stansted Bridge into the said river above Stansted Mill; one from above Field's or Rye Bridge Weir to any part between Archer's Weir and Field's Weir on the north-west; one from Dobb's Weir or the New Turnpike to the head of Broxbourn Mill; one from above Carthagena Turnpike to a little below the same; one from above King's Weir over Cheshunt Mill Stream, into the river near the west tail stream of Waltham Abbey Powder Mills; one from above Sotheby's Upper Weir, or Newman's Weir, to Enfield Mill Stream one hundred yards southwards below Enfield Lock, and thence to run through Enfield Mill Stream, to within three hundred and forty yards northward of and above Enfield Corn Mill; thence another cut to the eastward of the said mill stream, again communicating with the river two hundred and four yards below Enfield Mill, from thence to run through as much of the said mill tail stream as shall be necessary; one through part of Enfield and Edmonton Marshes, across the ditch parting Edmonton and Tottenham Marshes, and through part of Tottenham Marsh into and through the tail stream of Tottenham Mill into the said river again; one from below Flander's Wharf to above the tail stream of Walthamstow Mill; one from between Lea Bridge and the buildings of the Hackney Water Works, through part of Hackney Marsh, into the said river between Padding Mill Stream and Hackney Brook, on the east of Jones's Calico Grounds at Old Ford; and one from between Bromley Lock and Bromley Hall, through the parishes and hamlets of Bromley St. Leonard's, Blackwall, Poplar, St. Dunstan

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