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This Book "Priestley's Navigable Rivers and Canals" by Joseph Priestley was previously published in April 1831. NOTE: Oringinally called "Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways, of Great Britain".
For more information see About this Book

Index Page Link to Previous Page 321

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The direction of the canal is nearly north-east; the length about thirty-five miles, crossing the south-west branch of the Grand Ridge.

When it is considered, that by its means, particularly if connected with the projected Bristol Ship Canal, those populous places, Exeter, Wellington, Tiverton, Taunton, &c. will be enabled to import and export articles of commerce and produce, it will be evident that the completion of this undertaking must be of general utility.

GRANTHAM CANAL.

33 George III. Cap. 94, Royal Assent 30th April, 1793.

37 George III. Cap. 30, Royal Assent 3rd March, 1797.

THIS canal was executed in consequence of an act of parliament, bearing date 30th April, 1793, and entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from or nearly from the town of Grantham, in the county of Lincoln, to the River Trent, near Nottingham Trent Bridge; and also a collateral Cut from the said intended Canal, at or near Cropwell Butler, to the town of Bingham, both in the county of Nottingham.'

According to the tenor of the above-recited act, the canal commences on the east side of the town of Grantham, in Lincoinshire, from which place it pursues its course nearly due east, though in a very circuitous direction, to its termination at the Trent Bridge at Nottingham, having completed a distance of above thirty miles. After leaving Grantham, it passes by Harloxton to Woolsthorp Point, a distance of five miles on the summit level, 1 97½ feet above low water; from Woolsthorp Point to Stainwith Close, a distance of less than two miles, there is a fall of 59 feet nearly; from Stainwith to Cropwell Butler, the distance is twenty miles, and level; from this place to the termination at Trent Bridge, in Holme Pierpoint, a distance of four miles, there is a fall to the Trent of 88½ feet. The canal is cut through a clay soil, and has its water entirely supplied by reservoirs, of which there are two; one at the summit level near Denton, of twenty acres, 9 feet deep; the other at Knipton, made for the purpose of receiving the flood waters of the River Devon, and covering sixty

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acres; when first made, this reservoir was 9 feet deep, but the head has since been raised 4 feet higher. The act authorized the proprietors to raise amongst themselves the sum of £75,000, and an additional sum of £30,000, whereof £20,000 should be raised by shares of £100 each, amongst the said proprietors, and £10,000 by mortgage of the tolls and rates.

The money originally directed to be raised having been expended on the works, and some misunderstanding having arisen amongst the shareholders as to their liability to raise the additional £20,000 mentioned above, application was made to parliament for a second act, to set the matter at rest, which was obtained in 1797, and bears for title, 'An Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the Grantham Canal Navigation, to finish and complete the same, and the collateral Cuts to communicate therewith; and for amending the Act of Parliament, passed in the Thirty-third Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, for making and maintaining the said Canal and collateral Cut.'

By this act, such proprietors as had not paid the two calls of £10 each, over and above the original £75,000, already made under the first act, were required to pay the same forthwith, and the said calls were consolidated, with their original subscriptions, into shares of £120 each; and the company were empowered to raise £24,000 more, by creating additional shares of £120 each.

By the first act it was determined, that the proprietors should not divide a profit of more than eight per cent, per annum; and that after a fund of £3,000 had been collected, the tolls were to be reduced; but, by the subsequent act, these clauses were repealed; and they are now at liberty to divide the nett receipts, and to raise or lower their tolls, as may seem expedient to the committee.

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Things, passing on this Canal to or from the Trent River 2½d per Ton.
For the same navigating on this Canal 1½d ditto, per Mile.
Limestone ¾d ditto. ditto.

Manure, Materials for Roads, and Goods for the sole Use of Charles Pierpoint and John Musters, Esquires, and of the other Proprietors and Tenants of Estates through which the Canal passes, are exempt from the Toll of Two-pence Half penny per Ton, on passing in or out of the Trent.

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The proprietors of the Trent Navigation are compelled to make the bed of that river 30 inches deep of water at Trent Bridge in the driest seasons.

The navigation is now complete, with the exception of the collateral cut to Bingham, and the advantages to the town of Grantham are very great; corn, timber, coals, lime, and many other articles both of import and export, by the communication opened through this canal, with those of Nottingham and Cromford, are now transferred at a comparatively easy cost, giving, amongst other things, to the inhabitants of this district, the comforts of fuel at a much less expense than heretofore.

GRESLEY CANAL.

15 George III. Cap. 16, Royal Assent 13th April, 1775.

THIS canal, which pursues a north-west direction, and is level throughout, was made at the expense of Sir Nigel Gresley, Bart. and Nigel Bowyer Gresley, Esq. his son and heir-apparent, for the purpose of conveying the produce of their extensive coal mines in Apedale, in Staffordshire, to the town of Newcastle-under-Lyne, in the same county, and of facilitating their transit to other parts of the country by means of the Newcastle-under-Lyne Junction, and other navigations.

The act obtained as above, is entitled, 'An Act to enable Sir Nigel Gresley, Bart. and Nigel Bowyer Gresley, Esq. his Son, to make and maintain a navigable Cut or Canal from certain Coal Mines in Apedale, to Newcastle-under-Lyne, in the county of Stafford.' This act, after making the usual provisions, binds the proprietors for twenty-one years from and after the date thereof, to furnish the inhabitants of Newcastle with coals at 5s. per ton of twenty hundred weight, weighing one hundred and twenty pounds each hundred weight, and in like proportion for a single hundred weight. At the expiration of the first twenty-one years the proprietors, or their heirs, are to furnish coals at 5s. 6d. per ton for an additional term of twenty-one years; which last quoted price may, under certain conditions, be raised to 6s. per ton; the pro-

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prietors, in either case, binding themselves, under the penalty of £40 for each offence, to keep a supply of coals sufficient for the consumption of the town, at a wharf in or near the same.

There are few private works of more real utility to the public than Sir Nigel Gresley's Canal, which has added considerably to the interests of the inhabitants of Newcastle, by the regularity wherewith they are supplied with coal at a moderate charge.

GRIMSBY PORT OR HAVEN.

36 George III. Cap. 98, Royal Assent 14th May, 1796.

39 George III. Cap. 70, Royal Assent 12th July, 1799.

THE wet docks in Grimsby Harbour or Haven are connected with the mouth of the Humber, in the tideway of that river, by one of the largest cuts in the kingdom, being calculated to admit ships of as much as one thousand tons burthen. The length of the canal is inconsiderable, being only one mile and a half, with one lock 126 feet long, 36 feet wide, and 27 feet high within the walls; which lock, independent of the charge for piling and foundations, cost upwards of £14,000. Mr. Rennie was the engineer employed upon this useful undertaking; the first act for which was put in execution soon after the royal assent thereto had been obtained. The wet docks at Grimsby having proved insufficient, an addition thereto of three acres was made and completed in 1804, under the powers of the second act obtained in 1799. The direction of the canal is south-west, and the depth of water in it 20 feet.

When Grimsby obtained the privilege of becoming (independent of Hull) a port for the purpose of Foreign imports and exports, the extent of the port was precisely defined by his Majesty's commissioners; and, by the act of parliament, and the powers and privileges granted to the port, certain dues can be charged upon all shipping which enter the same. But the enumeration of such charges could answer no purpose, except to lengthen this article; we therefore think it better to refer parties immediately interested in the port dues, to the act of parliament under which they are imposed.

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GROSMONT RAILWAY OR TRAMROAD.

52 George III. Cap. 107, Royal Assent 20th May, 1812.

THIS railway was laid down by Mr. John Hodgkinson, who estimated the cost of completing the same at £12,000. The sum of £10,900 being subscribed in £100 shares, the work commenced under the sanction of the legislature in an act, entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway from the End of the Llawihangel Railway in the parish of Liawihangel Crucorney, in the county of Monmouth, to or near to the Twelfth Mile-stone, in the Road leading from the town of Abergavenny, in the county of Monmouth, to the city of Hereford.' The clause for remunerating the proprietors enacts the following as

TONNAGE RATES.

Dung, Compost, Limestone, Manure and Materials for Roads 2d per Ton, per Mile.
Lime, Chalk, Marl, Ashes, Peat, Clay, Bricks and Sand 3d ditto ditto.
Coal, Cinders, Coke, Culm, Charcoal, Tin, Copper, Lead-ore, Pig or Sheet-lead, Iron-stone or Ore, Pig and Bar-iron, Timber, Tiles, Slates, Flag-stones and other Stones 4d ditto. ditto.
All other Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Things whatsoever 6d ditto. ditto.

A Fraction of a Ton to be considered as the Quarters contained in such Fraction; and a Fraction of a Quarter as One Quarter. A Fraction of a Mile to be considered as the Quarters contained in it, and of a Quarter as One Quarter.

TOLLS TO BE TAKEN ON THE RAILWAY.

For every Horse, Mare, Gelding, Colt, Mule, Ass, or other Beast carrying or drawing Goods, Wares or Merchandize liable to pay Tonnage Rates, and passing through any Stop-gate or other Gate on the Railway 0s 3d each.
For all Cows and Horned or Neat Cattle, except Sheep or Swine, driven loose on the said Railway 0s 2d ditto.
For all Sheep and Swine 1s 3d per Score.
All Waggons and Carriages carrying Persons for Hire on the said Railway, for each Passenger 0s 2d per Mile.

This tramroad, which may be considered a continuation of the Llawihangel Railway, was designed to facilitate the communication with Herefordshire, and thereby contribute to the easier transit of the various products and commodities, both of import and export, and is nearly seven miles in length, from its commencement at the Llawihangel Railway to its termination at Llangua Bridge.

The fund to be raised for the purposes of the act is £13,000, in £100 shares, with the power of raising a further sum of £7,000, either amongst themselves, or by creating new shares, or by mortgage.

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When it is stated, that by this railway a difference in the level of from 166 to 168 feet is made in the distance above specified, it is hardly necessary to add, that were it even for nothing but the saving of time and labour in the conveyance of goods, the work could not fail to be of very great utility.

HAMOAZE RIVER OR ESTUARY.

THIS river is navigable for ships of war of the greatest size, and, in consequence of its connection with Plymouth Sound, is of great service as a harbour. It extends in a direction almost due north from Cawsand Bay to the Tamar River near St. Mellion, a distance of about nine miles, leaving as its branches Cat Water, Sutton Pool, and Stone-House Creek; communicating also with the River Tavey, near Warley, and passing, in its course, by Plympton Earle, and Saltash, both considerable towns. Several improvements have been contemplated and undertaken on this river and its branches, amongst which may be mentioned the bridge and causeway over Stone-House Creek, projected by Mr. Smeaton in 1767; a pier from Penlee Point to protect the ships in Cawsand Bay from the east and south-east winds; the deepening and cleansing of Cat Water and Sutton Pool, for which £4,000 was granted in the 45th George III.; and the construction of a floating dock in Sutton Pool, capable of holding one hundred merchantmen afloat.

HARTLEPOOL CANAL.

THIS canal, three hundred yards long and 19 feet deep, the whole of which is cut through the solid rock, was executed in the year 1764, at the expense of Sir J. H. Duval, for the purpose of connecting Hartlepool Harbour, on the coast of Durham, with the sea. As a private work, it is not necessary for us to enter into details of its construction, or the cost of its execution. It has been the means of saving many valuable lives; for in stormy weather, vessels now can enter the harbour, where they lie in security.

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HAY RAILWAY.

51 George III. Cap. 122, Royal Assent 25th May, 1811.

52 George III. Cap. 106, Royal Assent 20th May, 1812.

THIS railway commences at the wharf of the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal, not far from the town of Brecon, and pursuing a circuitous course through a mountainous district, in some parts 670 feet or more above the level of the sea, it ends at the village of Eardisley, in the county of Hereford, where a junction of the Kington Railroad has since been made with it.

This undertaking was commenced in the latter end of the year 1811, under the authority of an act of the legislature, entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway from or near the public Wharf of the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal, in the parish of St. John the Evangelist, in the county of Brecon, to or near to a certain Place called Parton Cross, in the parish of Eardisley, in the county of Hereford.' But before the proprietors had advanced far in their work, they perceived the necessity of varying the line of their original design, and, consequently, went again to parliament for the purpose of obtaining a second act, which received the royal assent in 1812, and is styled, 'An Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the Hay Railway to amend, vary, and extend the Line of the said Railway, and for altering and enlarging the Powers of an Act passed in the Fifty-first Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, for making and maintaining the said Railway.'

By the first act the proprietors have power to raise £50,000 in shares of £100 each, and a further sum of £15,000, if necessary, amongst themselves, or by the admission of new subscribers or by mortgage, or by promissory notes. The work commenced with a subscription, in £100 shares, of £47,500. Under the provisions of these acts the work has been completed; and the following are fixed as

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Lime-stone, Stone for repairing Turnpike-Roads and Highways, Dung. Compost and all Sorts of Manure,except Lime, such a Sum as the Company shall direct, not exceeding 2d per Ton, per Mile.

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TONNAGE RATES CONTINUED.

For all Coal, Coke, Culm, Stone, Cinders, Marl, Lime, Sand, Clay, Peat, Iron.stone and other Minerals, Building-stone, Pitching and Paving-stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slates, Timber, Lead in Pigs or Sheets, Bar-iron, Waggon-tire, and all Gross and Unmanufactured Articles, a Sum not exceeding 4d per Ton, per Mile.
For all other Goods, Commodities, Wares and Merchandize whatsoever, a Sum not exceeding 6d ditto ditto.

Fractions of a Ton to be considered as Quarters of a Ton, and of a Mile as Quarters of a Mile. The Rate of Charge for small Parcels not exceeding Five Hundred Weight, to be fixed by the Company.

Owners and Occupiers of Land may pass on the said Railway free of Toll, as far as the same extends through their Lands, and may drive Cattle and Sheep along the same.

Lords of manors and owners of land, through which the road passes, may erect wharfs, &c. on the line; and if they refuse to do so, then the company are authorized. In case of lords of manors and others erecting wharfs, &c. the following rates will be allowed.

WHARFAGE AND WAREHOUSING RATES.

For Wharfage of all Goods mentioned as above 1d per Ton.
For Warehousing of all Parcels not weighing more than Fifty-six Pounds 1d each.
For ditto of all above Fifty-six Pounds, and not more than Five Hundred Weight 2d ditto.
For ditto of all Packages above Five Hundred Weight 6d ditto.

If they remain on a Wharf or in a Warehouse above Forty-eight Hours, then a further Charge may be made for the first Ten Days, of One Penny per Ton for Wharfage, and Three-pence per Ton for Warehousing; after the Space of Ten Days, the same Rates for every Day till removed.

The railroad was laid down by Mr. John Hodgkinson, who designed two lines of road, one twenty-six miles in length, without a tunnel, the estimate for which was £50,375, 12s.; the other twenty-four miles long, with a tunnel, and on a line which does not rise more than 7 inches in the chain, estimated at £52,743, 18s. This latter is the one adopted; and, taking the level line from the wharf of the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal, where the road commences, the rises and falls thereof, are as here stated, viz, from the wharf to the tunnel, (which latter is two furlongs five chains long,) in a distance of three miles and three quarters, arise of 169 feet 2 inches above the level; from the outlet of the tunnel, which is 184 feet 2 inches above the level line, there is a descent in eight miles of 154 feet 2 inches below the same; for the next four miles and three quarters, the road has a further fall of 95 feet; from that fall to the termination of the railroad at Eardisley village, being a distance of nearly seven miles and a half, there is a rise of 78 feet.

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The advantages of this railroad to the owners of property on its line are very considerable, independent of the facilities it affords for the transit of goods, minerals, and other produce, by means of its cotmection with the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal, the Kington Railroad, and, through it, with the Leominster Canal, and the extended line of country to which it thereby transfers the produce carried along it.

HECK AND WENTBRIDGE RAILWAY.

7 George IV. Cap. 46, Royal Assent 5th May, 1826.

8 George IV. Cap. 20, Royal Assent 12th April, 1827.

THIS work commences at a place called Wentbridge, adjoining the turnpike-road from Doncaster to Ferrybridge; and, pursuing a circuitous course in a north-east direction, arrives at its termination in the basin communicating with that part of the Aire and Calder Navigation called the Knottingley and Goole Canal, in the township of Heck, after having completed a distance of seven miles and thirty-five chains.

The first proceeding in this work was under authority of an act, entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway or Tramroad from Heckbridge, in the parish of Snaith, to Wentbridge, in the parish of Kirksmeaton, all in the West Riding of the county of York.'

By this act it was determined that the subscribers, who were called "The Heck and Wentbridge Railway Company," should make and maintain a railway or tramroad from Far Fleet Close, at or near Heckbridge, in the parish of Snaith, and passing through the parishes of Womersley, Campsall, Kirksmeaton and Darrington, and through or into the hamlets or townships of Pollington, Heck, Whitley, Balne, Stubbs Walden, Stapleton, and Wentbridge, terminating in the great north road, at the last-mentioned place. They are also required to make a dock or basin at the communication of their railway with the canal from Knottingley to Goole, for loading and unloading vessels, together with a bridge for haling horses to pass over the cut joining such basin or dock with the canal. For these and other purposes of the act,

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they are empowered to raise amongst themselves in shares of £100 each, a sum not exceeding £11,300; and they may, if needful, raise a further sum of £2,800, by borrowing on mortgage of the rates. For paying interest of capital, and monies borrowed, they have authority to demand the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Materials for repairing Roads, and for all Dung, Compost and Stable Manure 1d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Stone of every Description, except for repairing Roads, Lime-stone, Lime, Coal, Coke, Cuim, Charcoal, Cinders, Sand, Clay, Bricks, Tiles, Earth, Timber, Staves, Deals, Lead, Iron or other Metal 3d ditto ditto.
For all Manufactured Goods, and all other Goods, Wares, Merchandize, Matters or Things whatsoever 4d ditto ditto.

No Toll to be taken for Manure of any nescription used on the Lands in Heck, Balne, Womersley, Stubbs Walden, Little Smeaton, Kirksmeaton and Stapleton, if brought from Heckbridge into these Townships.

In Addition to the above Rates, the Proprietors are authorized to charge Sixpence per Ton on all Goods, Wares, Merchandize, and Things whatsoever, which shall pass any Inclined Plane on the Railroad. Fractions of a Ton to be taken as Quarters of a Ton, and of a Quarter as One Quarter; Fractions of a Mile to be taken as Quarters, and of a Quarter as One Quarter. Small Parcels and Packages not exceeding Five Hundred Pounds to be charged for according to Rates determined by the Company, who also have Power to reduce the Tolls, and again to advance them, as circumstances may demand.

Owners and Occupiers of Land have the usual Power of passing along the Railway without paying Tolls; they may also erect Wharfs, Warehouses, &c. on their Lands adjacent to the Railway, for Warehousing Goods; or, in Case they refuse so to do, the Proprietors may erect the same, paying for the Land taken for such Purposes.

The company, or other persons erecting wharfs, warehouses, &c. are empowered to demand the following

WHARFAGE AND WAREHOUSING RATES.

For Coals, Culm, Lime, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, Iron-stone, Copper-ore, or other Ores, Timber, Stone, Brick, Tiles, Slates, Gravel, or other Things 2d per Ton.
For every Package not exceeding Fifty-six Pounds Weight 2d each.
For ditto exceeding Fifty-six Pounds, and not more than Three Hundred Pounds 3d ditto.
For ditto exceeding Three Hundred Pounds, and not more than Six Hundred Pounds 4d ditto.
For ditto exceeding Six Hundred Pounds, and not more than One Ton 6d ditto.
For all Packages exceeding One Ton 6d per Ton.

After remaining Forty-eight Hours on the Wharfs or in Warehouses, the Owners are to pay One Penny per Ton Wharfage, and Two-pence per Ton Warehousing for the next Seven Days, and the said Sum respectively for every succeeding Seven Days.

The estimate for this work was made by Mr. Enoch Taylor, who omitted to calculate the expense of making the basin or dock, and the cut joining it to the canal, with the bridge over the same, and other works connected therewith; indeed the proprietors

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themselves, in their first scheme, had no intention of making either basin, cut or bridge, excepting a swivel bridge for the towing-path, and therefore found their original stock too small for the purposes of their act; to remedy the first omission, they obtained, on the 12th April, 1827, another act, entitled, 'An Act to amend and enlarge the Powers and Provisions of an Act relating to the Heckbridge and Wentbridge Railway.' By this they were empowered to purchase twenty acres of land, in addition to the six acres for which the former act made provision, for making the dock or basin, cut and bridge before-mentioned, as also coal-yards, warehouses, wharfs, and other buildings and conveniences; they may also raise a further sum of £7,600 amongst themselves, or by the creation of new shares, or by borrowing of the Commissioners of Exchequer Bills, for the purposes of the said act.

The original object for constructing this railway, was to bring the stone situate at Wentbridge and Smeaton into the London and other distant markets.

HEDON HAVEN.

14 George III. Cap. 106, Royal Assent 20th May, 1774.

THE harbour of Hedon having, from the accumulation of warp, &c. in the bed of the River Humber for a long series of years, become unnavigable, an act, entitled, 'An Act for recovering, improving, and maintaining the Navigation of the Haven of Hedon, in Holdernesse, in the East Riding of the county of York,' was obtained in the year 1774, for the purpose of remedying this inconvenience, and to render the harbour again navigable from low-water-mark to the turnpike-road near the town of Hedon, leading to Patrington; and also for making a reservoir or basin near the said road. For these purposes, the commissioners named in the act were empowered to borrow money on security of the tolls; and the following were determined on as

TONNAGE RATES.

Wheat, Rye, Beans, Peas or Rapeseed 0s 6d per Quarter.
Malt, Oats, Barley, or other Grain not before named 0s 4d ditto.
For every Sack of Meal or Flour containing Five Bushels 0s 6d per Sack.

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TONNAGE RATES CONTINUED.

Coals, Culm or Cinders, of Forty-eight Bushels to the Chaldron 3s 6d per Chaldron.
Brick, Stone, Tile, or Lime for Building 3s 6d per Ton.
All other Goods, Wares, Merchandize or Commodities whatsoever, not before enumerated 4s 0d ditto.

And in Proportion for lesser Weights and Quantities.

Goods remaining on the Wharfs, &c. above Twenty-four Hours, are to pay Wharfage Rates appointed by the Commissioners. Manure, Hay and Straw not for Sale, but to be used by the Owners, are exempt from the Tolls.

The commissioners appear to have proceeded in the execution of the plan for which the act was obtained; but the trade of Hedon having greatly declined, the advantages accruing are only of a limited nature.

HEREFORD RAILWAY.

7 George IV> Cap. 100, Royal Assent 26th May, 1826.

WE have, in a former page, given an account of the Grosmont Railway, to which the present may be properly considered an addition. The act for executing it was obtained in 1826, and bears for its title, 'An Act for making and maintaining a Tramroad or Railway from the End of the Grosmont Railway, at Monmouth Cap, in the parish of Llangua, in the county of Monmouth, to Wye Bridge, in the parish of Saint Martin, within the Liberties of the city of Hereford.' Locomotive engines are allowed by the act, and the following are appointed as

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Dung, Compost, Lime-stone, Manure and Materials for repairing Roads 2d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Lime, Chalk, Marl, Peat, Ashes, Clay, Bricks and Sand 3d ditto. ditto.
For all Coals, Cinders, Coke, Cuim, Charcoal, Tin, Copper, Lead-ore, Lead in Pigs or Sheets, Iron-stone or Ore, Iron in Pigs, Bar-iron, Timber, Tiles, Slates, Flag.stones and other Stone 4d ditto. ditto.
For all other Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Things whatsoever 6d ditto. ditto.

Fractions of a Ton to be taken as the Number of Quarters in the Fractions, and of a Quarter as a Quarter. Fractions of a Mile as Quarters, and of a Quarter as a Quarter.

For passing along the road with cattle, &c. the following are the authorized tolls.

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TOLLS.

For every Horse, Mule, Ass or other Beast, (not carrying or drawing Goods, &c. liable to the previously stated Rates), which shall pass any Stop-gate or Toll-house 0s 3d each.
For all Cows, Horned or Neat Cattle, except Sheep and Swine 0s 2d ditto.
For all Sheep and Swine 1s 3d per Score.
For all Waggons and Carriages carrying Persons for Hire on the said Railway, for each Person so carried 0s 2d per Mile.

Small Parcels under Five Hundred Weight are to be paid for according to a Rate to be fixed by the Company.

The proprietors are empowered to raise £23,200 in shares of £100 each; and if need be, an additional sum of £12,000 by mortgage.

From an inspection of the communication with various parts of the kingdom, which will appear by referring to the map, it is evident that the execution of this railroad will prove of very great convenience to the owners of property on its line; the various productions of the particular district through which it is designed to be made, will thus have a ready conveyance, while, by the same means, the staple commodities of other places will be as easily conveyed to the towns in its vicinity.

HEREFORD AND GLOUCESTER CANAL.

31 George III. Cap. 89, Royal Assent 11th April, 1791.

33 George III. Cap. 119, Royal Assent 11th July, 1793.

THIS useful branch of inland navigation, which is about thirty-five miles and a half in length from its commencement at Hereford to the tideway of the Severn at Gloucester, was projected under the superintendence of Mr. Joseph Clowes, civil engineer, in the latter end of 1790; and the first act obtained for the execution of the work, was passed in the following year, under the title of 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Cut or Canal from the city of Hereford to the city of Gloucester, with a collateral Cut from the same to the town of Newent, in the county of Gloucester.'

The act being obtained, the necessary works were soon after commenced; but it having been found necessary to vary the original line, and to make other alterations, a second act was obtained in 1793, entitled, 'An Act to vary and extend the Line of the Canal authorized to be made by an Act passed in the Thirty-first

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'Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, entitled, An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Cut or Canaifrom the city of Hereford to the city of Gloucester, with a collateral Cut from the same to the town of Newent, in the county of Gloucester.'

This canal pursues a northerly direction from Byster's Gate in Hereford, near to the banks of the Wye, till it Comes to the River Lugg, near Sulton St. Michael and Sulton St. Nicholas; having crossed this river, it takes an easterly course to Munsley; thence crossing the River Leadon, it proceeds in a southerly direction, till it again crosses the Leadon, two miles below Ledbury; after pursuing its course to Denimoch easterly, it crosses the same river for a third and fourth time at four miles from the last-mentioned place; proceeding onwards to its termination, it passes by Pountley, Newent, Rudford and Lassington, crossing for the last time the Leadon, and also a branch of the Severn, in which river, after going through a cut across Alney Island, it terminates opposite to Gloucester.

By the first act the proprietors of this canal were authorized to demand the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For Manure, Bricks, Rubble, Lime and Clay 1d per Ton, per Mile.
For Coals 2d ditto. ditto.
For Corn, Meal, Hewn-stone, Hops, Wool, and other Goods, Merchandize and Wares 3d ditto. ditto.

And so on in Proportion for different Distances.

The original sum granted by the act for completing this work was £25,000, with power to raise £30,000, more, if necessary; shares to be £100 each.

The advantages of the amended act are, the nearer approach to Hereford and the tunnel at Oxenhall, which saves the collateral cut to Newent, and avoids a great deal of circuitous navigation.

We have stated above that the length of canal, when finished, will be thirty-five miles and a half, which is on the following levels, - from Hereford to Withington March, six miles of level canal; from thence to Monkhide, (which is a summit level at an elevation of 195½ feet above low water of the Severn,) there is a rise of 30 feet in a distance of three miles: the canal continues on the summit level for eight miles and a half to Ledbury; from that

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place to Gloucester, where it terminates, there is a fall of 195½ feet in the remaining eighteen miles. The proposed cut from Newent to the canal has a fall into it of 10 feet in a length of three miles. The total lockage is 226 feet nearly; and the number of tunnels on the canal three, all of considerable size; the first, near Hereford, being four hundred and forty yards long; the second on the high ground at Asperton, near Frome Cannon, the middle of the summit level, thirteen hundred and twenty yards; and the third at Oxenhall, two thousand one hundred and ninety-two yards.

In 1796 the line from Newent to the Severn was completed; and, after two years' interval, the Oxenhall Tunnel was opened, by which means the navigation became practicable to Ledbury. The expense of cutting, &c. was very great; but the advantages derived from this work are great in proportion; as an instance, we may mention, that the opening of the Oxenhall Tunnel effected an immediate reduction in the price of coals at Ledbury of no less than l0s. 6d. per ton; that quantity being sold for 13s. 6d., when, before the opening of the navigation, 24s. was the price. Nor is it with the coal mines alone that this canal opens a ready communication; lime-stone, iron, lead, and other productions of South Wales, as well as those of the immediate neighbourhood of Hereford, may, by means of this canal, be conveyed to London, Bristol, Liverpool, Hull, and various other parts of the kingdom, entirely by water carriage.

HERTFORD UNION CANAL.

5 George IV. Cap. 47, Royal Assent 17th May, 1824.

THIS canal, designed to make a communication from the River Lea Navigation at White Port Bridge, in the parish of St. Mary Stratford Bow, with the Regent's Canal at Old Ford Lock, Bethnal Green, was projected by Sir George Duckett, Bart. who, in 1824, obtained the sanction of parliament by the following act, entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the River Lee Navigation, in the parish of St. Mary Stratford Bow, in the county of Middlesex, to join the Regent's Canal at or near a Place called Old Ford Lock, in the parish of St. Matthew Bethnal Green, in the said county of Middlesex.'

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By this act Sir George Duckett, his heirs and assigns, may borrow on mortgage of the canal and rates, any sum not exceeding £50,000; and for defraying the cost of completing the work, authority is given to charge all persons using the said canal the following

TONNAGE RATES AND TOLLS.

For all Goods, Wares, Merchandize, Articles, Matters and Things whatsoever, entering the Canal either from the River Lea Navigation or the Regent's Canal 1s 0d per Ton.
For every Horse, Mule, or Ass, except those used for drawing or haling Boats and Barges 0s 6d.

Fractions of a Ton to be taken as Quarters, and of a Quarter as a Quarter; and Barges or other Vessels not carrying Twenty Tons, to pay for Twenty Tons. Tolls for Horses and other Animals to be paid only once a Day.

Lords of manors and proprietors of lands may erect wharfs and warehouses; and if not, Sir George Duckett, his heirs or assigns, may do so, and claim the following

CRANAGE AND WHARFAGE RATES.

For all Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Things whatsoever, not remaining, on the Wharfs above Forty-eight Hours 3d per Ton.
For ditto remaining more than Forty.eight Hours 6d ditto.

If Goods are left more than Forty.eight Hours upon the Wharfs, without Permission of Sir George or his Agents, they may be removed into a Place of safety at the Owner's Expense, and detained till such Costs are discharged; and, in Case the Rents and Charges for Warehousing shall not be liquidated within Two Months, the Goods are to be sold to pay the same.

The summit level of this canal is to be 6 inches above the top water mark of the Regent's Canal; bridges are to be erected over the towing-paths of the same; and a stop-lock is to be made within a hundred yards of the same. Various other regulations are made for the preservation of the Lea Navigation and the Regent's Canal, which it is unnecessary to state; we may therefore briefly remark, that the work is of very great utility as well to the vicinity of the metropolis as to other parts of the country; more especially by connecting the Paddington Canal, through the Regent's Canal, with the Lea Navigation, without locking down into the Thames.

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HORNCASTLE NAVIGATION.

32. George III. Cap. 107, Royal Assent 11th June, 1792.

39 & 40 George III. Cap. 109, Royal Assent 9th July, 1800.

THE Horncastle Navigation commences in the Old Witham River, near Tattershall, in the county of Lincoln, and in part occupies the site of a cut formerly called the Tattershall Canal, made by Messrs. Dyson and Gibson, of whom the present company purchased it.

The first act obtained for the purposes of this undertaking was passed in 1792, and is entitled, 'An Act for enlarging and improving the Canal called the Tattershall Canal, from the River Witham to the town of Tattershall, and extending the same into the River Bain, and for making the said River Bain navigable from thence to or into the town of Horncastle, all in the county of Lincoln, and also for amending and rendering complete the Navigation communicating between the said River Witham, and the Fosdyke Canal, through the High Bridge, in the city of Lincoln.'

By this act the company were incorporated under the title of "The Company of Proprietors of the Horncastle Navigation," and were empowered to purchase, deepen, widen, and enlarge the cut made by Messrs. Dyson and Gibson; and to make any new cuts on the sides of the river, to straighten the same, and to avoid mills or other obstructions. The commissioners of the River Witham, in order to render the navigable communication complete at all times, are authorized to make that river navigable through the High Bridge in Lincoln, into the Fossdike Canal. For putting these plans into execution, the proprietors are empowered to raise, in shares of £50 each, the sum of £15,000; and, in case this sum should not be sufficient, they are to raise £10,000 more in the usual way; the expenses of the improvement of the Witham River are for seven years, to be borne jointly by the Witham Company and those of the Sleaford and Horncastle Navigations; and for remunerating the latter, the following are to be their tonnage rates.

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TONNAGE RATES.

For Goods, Wares, Merchandize and other Things whatsoever, navigated from above the Seventh Lock at Dalderby, downwards or from below to above the same Lock 2s 0d per Ton.
For ditto ditto, or between the Seventh and Fourth Lock near Fulby Mill 1s 9d ditto.
For ditto navigated from or to below the Fourth Lock 1s 3d ditto.

For Lime, Lime-stone, Manure, or Materials for Roads, Half the above Tolls.

The necessary preparations being made, and the plans, projected in the outset of the undertaking, being completed, the company entered upon the work, but after they had proceeded for some time in the execution of the powers invested in them, they found that the funds raised under the authority of this act were insuflicient for the extent and magnitude of their scheme; they therefore again applied to parliament, and obtained a second act, which received the royal assent on the 9th July, 1800, entitled, 'An Act for enabling the Horncastle Navigation Company to raise a further Sum of Money to complete the said Navigation, and for amending an Act passed in the Thirty-second Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, for making and maintaining the said Navigation.'

The preamble of this second act states that they have raised, under the first act, the sum of £15,000, and great part of the further sum of £10,000 therein directed to be raised; all which monies have been expended on the works; they are therefore authorized to raise, by subscription amongst themselves, or by the admission of new subscribers, or by mortgage, or on bond, the further sum of £20,000 for the purposes of the said act, and for remunerating the subscribers for the additional contributions, the following are granted as

ADDITIONAL TONNAGE RATES.

For all Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Commodities, conveyed from any Part above the Seventh Lock at Dalderby Ford to the River Witham, or any less Distance, and vice versa 1s 3d per Ton.
For Goods as aforesaid, from any part between the Seventh Lock and the Fourth at Fulby Mill to the Witham, or any less Distance, and vice versa 0s 10d ditto.
For the same from any part below the said Fourth Lock to the Witham, and vice versa 0s 5d ditto.

For all Lime or Lime-stone used for Manure, and for all other Kinds of Manure or Materials for repairing Highways, in the various Cases as above, Half of the said additional Rates per Ton shall only be charged.

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In the former act it was directed, that after the payment of £8 per centum to the proprietors for money advanced, the surplus of the rates should be funded, and when this fund amounted to £1,000, the rates should be reduced; but in the present that clause is repealed.

There is a considerable basin at Horncastle, and the work was opened in the year 1802. The length of the canal is eleven miles, at no great elevation above low water mark, and the direction it pursues is nearly north-east. The advantages it affords, by the easy conveyance of agricultural produce, and the importation of coals, timber, and other goods through the River Trent, are of great consequence to a portion of the county of Lincoln, and to Horncastle and its neighbourhood in particular.

HUDDERSFIELD CANAL.

34 George III. Cap. 53, Royal Assent 4th April, 1794.

40 George III. Cap. 39, Royal Assent 30th May, 1800.

46 George III. Cap. 12, Royal Assent 31st March, 1806.

BEFORE we enter on a description of this bold, stupendous and useful undertaking, it may be neccessary to premise that, in the year 1774, Sir John Ramsden, Bart. obtained an act for making and maintaining a navigable canal from the River Calder, at a certain point between a bridge called Coopers Bridge and the River Colne, to the King's Mill, near the town of Huddersfleld, in the West Riding of the county of York, Sir John was then a minor; but the measure met with the approbation of his trustees, inasmuch as it tended greatly to the convenience of the town of Huddersfield, whereof Sir John is nearly the sole proprietor. This canal was executed in due course; and, in the year 1792, an act of parliament passed for making and maintaining a canal from Manchester to or near Ashton-under-Lyne and Oldham; and, in the year 1793, the work of this canal was in a great state of forwardness. It was then discovered, that if a communication could be formed between Sir John Ramsden's Canal and the Ashton, it would be the most direct line of conveyance between the east and west seas, provided a short cut was made extending the Ashton Canal at Manchester to the Duke of Bridgewater's Canal, which

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defect was obviated by the formation of the Rochdale Canal. With this impression a survey was made, in the year 1793, by Mr. Nicholas Brown; and the measure obtained legislative sanction in an act, entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from and out of the Canal of Sir John Ramsden, Bart. at or near the town of Huddersfield, in the West Riding of the county of York, to join and communicate with the Canal Navigation from Manchester to or near Ashton-under-Lyne and Oldham, at or near the town of Ashton-under-Lyne aforesaid, in the county palatine of Lancaster.' Under the above act the proprietors, who are incorporated by the title of the "Huddersfield Canal Company," are enabled to raise in shares of £100 each, the sum of £184,000; and in case such sum should prove insufficient, they may raise £90,000 in addition, amongst themselves, or by creating new shares, or by mortgage. By the same act the following are to be collected as

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Dung, Manure, Clay, Sand and Gravel, not passinga Lock 0s ½d per Ton, per Mile.
For ditto passing a Lock 0s 1½d ditto. ditto.
For all Lime, Stone, Coal, Cannel, or other Minerals, not passing a Lock 0s 1d ditto. ditto.
For ditto passing a Lock 0s 2d ditto. ditto.
For all Timber, Goods, Wares, Merchandize and other Articles, not before mentioned 0s 3d ditto. ditto.
For all Stone, Lime, Coal, Cannel, Timber, Minerals, Goods, Wares, Merchandize, and all other Articles passing along or through the Tunnel on the Summit Level, or any part thereof, in Addition to the above Rates the further Sum of 1s 6d per Ton.

Fractions of a Mile to be taken as a Mile; of a Ton as the Quarters of a Ton contained therein; and of a Quarter as a Quarter.

Wharfage Rates to be demanded by the Company, or others having Wharfs on the Line of the Canal, shall not exceed Three-pence per Ton for the Space of Ten Days, after which Time an Additional Charge may be made for every succeeding Day of One Half-penny per Ton per Day. Vessels of less than Ten Tons are not to pass a Lock when the Water does not run over the Weir, nor of Fifteen Tons when it does, without Leave of the Company's Agent, to be given in Writing.

The company are required to make reservoirs for supplying the canal, sufficient to contain not less than twenty thousand locks of water, each lock containing one hundred and eighty cubic yards; but none of this water, except in times of flood, is to be taken from rivers on the line. In case Sir John Ramsden sustains

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