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This Book "Priestley's Navigable Rivers and Canals" by Joseph Priestley was previously published in April 1831. NOTE: Oringinally called "Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways, of Great Britain".
For more information see About this Book

Index Page Link to Previous Page 301

page 302

The cuts made under the powers of this act are, one from the town of Buckingham, to join the branch canal at Old Stratford; a second from Aylesbury, to unite with the canal at Marsworth, two miles above Tring; and a third from Wendover, meeting the canal at Bulbourne, at the summit level. This last is a feeder rendered navigable.

The original line of canal authorized by the first act obtained by the company, having been found capable of improvement in the parishes of Abbot's Langley, &c. in Hertfordshire, another act received the royal assent in March, 1795, entitled, 'An Act for authorizing the Company of the Grand Junction Canal to vary the Course of a certain Part of the said Canal, in the county of Hertford, so as to render the Navigation thereof more safe and convenient, and for making some other Amendments and Alterations in an Act made in the Thirty-third Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, for making the said Canal.' The rates of tonnage payable on the old line are hereby made payable on the new; but it is enacted that no articles, the respective rates of tonnage and wharfage whereof were, by the first act, fixed at a less sum than one penny per ton per mile, should be permitted to pass any lock when the water does not flow over the waste weir above such lock, without consent, unless the person conducting such articles shall pay the company an additional rate; which rate, together with the rates made payable on the said articles by the first act, shall not amount to more than one penny per ton per mile; and, in consequence of the safer and speedier conveyance by the projected deviation, the company are empowered to receive, over and above the former rates of tonnage and wharfage, the following

RATE.

For all Goods, Wares, Merchandise and Things whatsoever, carried and conveyed on any Part of the Line of said Deviation of the Canal 2d per Ton.

By this act, the clause of 33rd George III. restraining persons from conveying coal, culm, or cinders nearer to the city of London than Langley Bar, is repealed, and these articles are now to be conveyed not nearer to London than the north-west end of Grove Park, under forfeiture of vessel and cargo.

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By another act passed in April, 1795, and entitled, 'An Act for making a navigable Cut from the Grand Junction Canal, in the precinct of Norwood, in the county of Middlesex, to Paddington, in the said county,' the company are empowered to make and maintain a navigable cut from the canal in Norwood aforesaid, through several parishes, &c. therein enumerated, to Paddington, with a towing-path on each side of the same; and it is also provided that the following should be allowed as

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Lime and Ashes, passing Westward on the said Cut, to be used for Manure, and for all other Manure whatsoever passing Westward on the said Cut 1d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Things whatsoever ½d ditto. ditto.
For all separate Packages, Parcels and other Articles, not exceeding Two Hundred Weight each, and belonging and consigned to different Persons ½d ditto. ditto.

And the Company are empowered to receive, over and above the Rates now quoted, such Rates or Allowances as may be fixed by them, for all Minerals, Wares, Timber or Goods carried on the said Cut, which shall remain on any Wharf or Quay belonging to the Company, above Three Hours.

No Vessel of less Burthen than Twenty Tons, nor any Boat or Vessel used for carrying Passengers or any Persons not employed in navigating such Boats or Vessels, shall be used on the said Cut without the Company's Consent, under a Fine to them of Ten Pounds for every Offence.

A further act passed in the same year (1795,) entitled, 'An Act for making and extending a navigable Cut from the town of Watford, in the county of Hertford, to the town of St. Alban, in the same county,' authorizes the company to receive, over and above the rates already secured to them by the former acts, for goods, &c. conveyed on the canal or cuts therefrom, the further rate of two-pence per ton for all goods, &c, conveyed by them the whole length of the intended cut, and so in proportion for any less distance.

A fourth act was obtained in December, 1795, bearing for its title, 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Grand Junction Canal to finish and complete the same, and the several Cuts and other Works authorized to be made and done by them, by virtue of several Acts of Parliament.' By this act the company had authority to raise, in addition to their former capital, a sum not exceeding £225,000, for carrying on the works; and they are also empowered to take, on all parts of the said canal, or its various cuts, except that from Norwood to Paddington, the following rates.

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ADDITIONAL RATES.

For all Lime, Lime-stone, Ironstone, Flint, and other Stone; all Bricks, Tiles, Slate, Coal and Manure ¼d per Ton, per Mile.
All other Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Things whatsoever ½d ditto. ditto.

The proprietors of the Warwick and Braunston Canal having obtained legal sanction for varying the course of a certain part of that canal, to unite with the Oxford Canal at Napton instead of Braunston, which might injure the Oxford Canal Company, it was inserted in a clause of their act that the Oxford Company should claim the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Coal navigated out of the said intended Canal into the said Oxford Canal, and along the same into the Grand Junction Canal 2s 9d per Ton.
For all Goods, Wares and Merchandize, except Coals, Lime, Lime-stone and Manure, which shall be bone fide navigated out of said intended Canal into said Oxford Canal, and along the same into the said Grand Junction Canal, or vice versa 4s 4d ditto.

And in proportion for a less Quantity than One Ton.

Inasmuch as, by the first act for making the Grand Junction Canal, certain rates were secured and granted to the Oxford Canal, of which, if the annual receipts did not amount respectively to £5,000 and £10,000, the Grand Junction were to make good the deficiency, it is by this act provided, that the rates or dues then granted to the Oxford Canal Company, shall now be deemed part of the aforesaid sums, and the Company of the Oxford Canal may lessen their rates, but not so as to lessen the said sums, without consent of the Grand Junction Company; and in case the reduction should lessen the said sums, then the said Oxford Canal Company shall again advance the same, if requested by the Grand Junction Canal Company.

And the Grand Junction Canal Company, to obviate any injury from the intended deviation, are empowered to collect, on coal and all other goods and things except lime and limestone, passing from or out of said Warwick and Napton Canal, as it is now called, into the Oxford Canal, and navigated on the same, and vice versa, an additional rate of sixpence per ton, and so on, in proportion, for less quantities. And for collecting the same, and preventing evasion, the Grand Junction are authorized to cause a bar or stop-gate, with a toll-house, to be placed upon or across the said

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Warwick and Napton Canal at any place they chuse, within one hundred yards of the junction of the said Warwick and Napton with the Oxford Canal.

The next act obtained by the Grand Junction Canal Company was passed in 1798; and is entitled, 'An Act for confirming and carrying into Execution certain Articles of Agreement made and entered into between Beilby, Lord Bishop of London, Thomas Wood, Esq. Sir John Frederick, Bart. and Arthur Stanhope, Esq. Sir John Morshead, Bart. and Dame Elizabeth his wife, and Robert Thistlethwaite, Esq. and Selina his wife, and the Company of Proprietors of the Grand Junction Canal; and for other Purposes therein-mentioned.'

This act may be considered as the foundation of the Grand Junction Water Works, of which it is not necessary in this work to speak particularly.

The immense undertaking, in which the proprietors of the Grand Junction Canal had now, for some years, been engaged, demanded a greater supply of funds than they were able to provide; they therefore were obliged to go to parliament for its authority, to enable them to raise the sums required for the completion of their plans; and obtained another act in 1801, entitled, 'An Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the Grand Junction Canal more effectually to provide for the Discharge of their Debts, and to complete the whole of the Works to be executed by them, in pursuance of the several Acts of the Thirty-third, Thirty-fourth, Thirty-fifth, Thirty-sixth, and Thirty-eighth Years of the Reign of his present Majesty; and for altering and enlarging the Powers and Provisions of the said Acts.' They were hereby empowered to raise an additional sum of £150,000; and, to this end, it was thought advisable, that the parts of £100 shares, already or hereafter to be created, instead of being called half, quarter, and eighth parts, should in future be reduced into shares of 10s. each; and that every possessor of one £100 share should, henceforth, be considered as the holder of eight shares at £12, 10s.; and that each holder of one or more such shares of £12, 10s. should have a proportionate part of the profits of the said undertaking, according to his number of shares; but no proprietor can vote who has less than eight such shares, nor give more

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than one vote for every eight shares he possesses, as far as ten votes; and no proprietor can be elected on the committee who has not at least forty such shares.

At the time of passing this act, it appears that an adjustment of accounts took place between the company and the corporation of London, and a balance of £1,562 being due from the former to the latter, an arrangement was made for liquidating this claim; and, in future, the company agreed to pay the corporation £600 per annum, in lieu of any deficiencies in the tolls due to the corporation, as recited in the first act; the said sum of £600 per annum to be paid clear of all parochial rates, or other deductions whatsoever.

Though so considerable a sum of money had been already raised, it was still found insufficient, and accordingly another act was obtained in 1803, designated, 'An Act for empowering the Company of Proprietors of the Grand Junction Canal, to raise a further Sum of Money to enable them to complete the Works authorized to be executed, in pursuance of the several Acts passed in the Thirty-third, Thirty-fourth, Thirty-fifth, Thirty-sixth, Thirty-eighth, and Forty-first Years of the Reign of his present Majesty; and for amending, altering, and enlarging the Powers and Provisions of the said Acts.' By this the proprietors are enabled to raise a further sum of £400,000, or such parts thereof as they should deem necessary for completing the works; and to provide for the extra cost of making a tunnel at Blisworth, and an aqueduct over the Ouse at Wolverton, and for completing other works yet unfinished, they have power given them to collect the following additional rates.

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Coal, Coke, Lime, Lime-stone, Flint and other Stones, Bricks, Tiles, Slate, Sand, Fuller's-earth, Iron-stone, Pig-iron, Pig-lead, and all Kinds of Manure, carried and conveyed on the said Canal, or through the said Tunnel, or the Deep Cutting at the two Mouths or Entrances of the same 0s 8d per Ton.
For all other Goods, Wares, Merchandize, and Things whatsoever 1s 4d ditto.
For all Coal, Coke, Lime, Lime-stone, Flint and other Stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slate, Sand, Fuller's-earth, Iron-stone, Pig-iron, Pig-lead, and all Kinds of Manure, carried and conveyed on or over any Part of the said Aqueduct 0s 4d ditto.
For all other Goods, Wares, Merchandize, and Things whatsoever 0s 8d ditto.

As the Rules established by the first Act for ascertaining the Weight of Timber and other Articles conveyed on the said Canal, had been found very uncertain, it is provided by this Act that the Tonnage for Timber and all other Goods whatever,

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should be charged according to their real Weight. One Hundred and Twelve Pounds Avoirdupois, being deemed and taken for One Hundred Weight with respect to all Timber and other Goods whatever.

By this act it is provided, that a certain part of the money to be raised by its authority shall be appropriated solely to the making and completing of a collateral branch from the canal at Gayton, to join the Nen Navigation at Northampton, and that such collateral branch should be completed on or before the 25th March, 1805, for all purposes stated in the act.

Parliamentary assistance was again sought in the year 1805, when another act was obtained, entitled, 'An Act for altering, amending, and enlarging the Powers of certain Acts for making and maintaining the Grand Junction Canal.' By this act the company, in addition to their other charges, are enabled to demand the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Goods, Wares, Merchandize, and Things navigated and conveyed on or through the said Canal and collateral Cuts, or any Part of them, excepting Timber, Coal, Coke, Lime, Lime-stone, Flints, Ashes, Breeze, Manure, Clay, Bricks, Tiles, Slate, Stone, Fuller's-earth, Iron-stone, Pig-iron, Bar, Rolled and Rod Iron, Nails, all Articles of Cast Iron, Pig-lead, and every Article of Wrought Iron, not before specifled, provided such Wrought Iron Articles shall exceed the Weight of Fifty-six Pounds ¼d per Ton, per Mile.

No Tonnage, however, is to be charged in Addition for any Goods, Merchandize, or Things conveyed along or over the Railroad or collateral Communication, or any Part thereof, leading from the said Canal to join the River Nice or Nen, at or near the Town of Northampton, so long as the said Railroad or any Part of the same, should be made use of as a collateral Communication for the Conveyance of Goods, until the said Company shall have completed the Water Communication for the whole Length.

This Act further allows an additional Rate of Sixpence per Ton on all Goods, &c. conveyed through any Lock on the Canal and its collateral Cuts, or any of them, except any Lock between Brentford Bridge and the Thames, a less Distance than Eight Miles, or paying for a Distance of Eight Miles; and it is further provided, that the additional Rate of Sixpence per Ton shall not be paid by Owners and Occupiers of certain Brick Fields in the Parish of lsleworth, on the side of the Canal and Towing-path there, for Bricks or Tiles manufactured there, or for the Coals, Ashes, and Breeze, Sand, &c. used in making them.

The Clause of the first Act, regarding the Conveyance of Timber and Stores for his Majesty's Service is repealed; and the Company are empowered to demand Rates for these as for all other Goods, subject, however, to a drawback of the whole Amount of each Year, provided the Tonnage does not exceed One Thousand Tons; but if more, the drawback shall only be demanded for such Articles, amounting to One Thousand Tons, as shall have been first navigated on the Canal in the preceding Year. By another Act of the same Year, Has, Fifty Thousand Tons of Coal are allowed to be conveyed for One Year, from 1st August, 1805, on the said Canal to London, paying a Rate of 10s. 9¾d. per Ton.

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In 1812 another act was passed, entitled, 'An Act to explain, amend, and enlarge the Powers of certain Acts passed for making and maintaining the Grand Junction Canal,' by which the proprietors were enabled to complete their truly arduous undertaking, and, agreeably to the provisions of the said act, to make a sufficient reservoir for supplying the mills situated on the River Colne; they were also pledged by this act to make similar reservoirs for the mills upon the Berkhampstead or Bulbourne River, and on the united Rivers Bulbourne and Gade; which however they did not do; but, in lieu thereof, erected a steam engine near Nash Mill, on the Bulbourne and Gade, and also made and worked side-ponds at four locks, situate near Nash Mill aforesaid, in order to diminish the consumption of water. Disputes having arisen between the company and the owners of the various mills, through the ponds of which, by some great error, the line of canal passes, and great delays having occurred in passing the above-noticed locks, the company applied for and obtained another act, bearing date 17th March, 1818, entitled, 'An Act to enable the Grand Junction Canal Company to vary the Line of Part of their Canal in the county of Hertford, and for altering and enlarging the Powers of several Acts relating to the said Canal.'

By this act that part of the canal between Frogmoor Swing Bridge, in the parish of Hemel-Hempstead, and its junction with the Tail Water of Nash Mill, was abandoned, and the line of canal carried into the united Rivers Bulbourne and Gade, as far as Nash Mill aforesaid, thereby preventing waste of water and loss of time in navigating. The company are also enabled to borrow a further sum of £30,000 for the purposes of the act; for completing the said deviation; and for making any other improvements on the same.

The next act was obtained in June, 1819, and entitled, 'An Act to vary and alter certain Acts of his present Majesty, relating to the Grand Junction Canal, the Grand Junction Water Works, and the Regent's Canal, in order to effect an Exchange of Water, for the better Supply of the Regent's Canal Navigation and Grand Junction Water Works.'

It will be now necessary to state the different levels on which the canal is constructed, from its junction with the Oxford Canal

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at Braunston to its termination at Brentford. There are two summit levels; one at Braunston, the other, and most considerable, at Tring. From the junction of the two canals, by Braunston Tunnel, which is two thousand and forty-five yards long, there is a rise of 40 feet, in a distance of five miles and a quarter, to Norton; from Norton to Blisworth Tunnel, (which is three thousand and eighty yards in length,) the distance is fourteen miles and a quarter, with a fall of 60 feet; from Blisworth Tunnel to the Stratford Branch, six miles, with a fall of 80 feet; from Stratford Branch to Fenny Stratford, ten miles and a half, with a fall of 10 feet; from Fenny Stratford to the Wendover Branch, in a distance of thirteen miles and a half, there is a rise towards the summit level in Tring parish, of 100 feet; from Wendover Branch to the principal summit at Tring aforesaid, a rise of 50 feet; the summit level here is nearly three miles and a half in length; the descent is then continued with little intermission by Hemel-Hempstead, Rickmansworth, and other places, to Harefield Park, a distance of twenty-one miles, with 300 feet fall; thence to Uxbridge, four miles, with 16 feet fall; from Uxbridge to its termination at Brentford, there is a level of seven miles, the elevation of the summit level at Tring being 380 feet above low-water-mark in the Thames at Limehouse. The Paddington Branch of fourteen miles, is 90 feet above low water.

The main line of the canal, as before stated, is upwards of ninety miles in length; its depth averages 5 feet, and its width 43; the Paddington Branch, which may in fact be considered a continuation of the main line, is of the same dimensions, and it is remarkable that for nearly twenty miles, reckoning from the wharf at Paddington to Uxbridge, the direction of the canal is so level, as to require only one lock. The branch to Old Stratford is also of the same depth as above, and has no lock in a distance of one mile and a half. The continuation of this branch to Buckingham has two locks in a distance of nine miles and a half, with a depth of 4 feet, and width of 28. The Bulbourne Branch is nearly seven miles long, without lock, 4½ feet deep, and 32 feet wide. The whole number of locks from the junction with the Oxford Canal at Braunston, to the termination of the Paddington Branch, is ninety-eight; their dimensions on the main line are, width 14½

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feet; length, from upper to lower gates, 82 feet. On the Buckingham Branch, at the junction with the Old Stratford Branch, the locks are 7 feet wide, with a rise of 13 feet; the rise of the other locks averages about 7 feet each, and require nearly two hundred and fifty tons of water to fill them. The communication with Northampton and the River Nen is by a double railway, allowing carriages, going different ways, to pass without interruption. The two tunnels average a width of 15 feet, and a height of 19 feet; that at Blisworth is 60 feet below the summit of the hill, through which it is excavated. There is a line of deep cutting through the great chalk-hills between Cow-Roost and Bulbourne, which is three miles long, and, in some parts, 30 feet deep; near Blisworth Tunnel, and at Dawley, there are also great lengths of cutting of considerable depth; and, between Wolverton and Cosgrove, there is a very lofty embankment, with three aqueduct arches, at the crossing of the Ouse River: by means of this embankment nine locks are avoided, and a length of twelve miles of level pound on the north side of the embankment is held up by a single lock of 18 inches rise. The embankment is half a mile long, and, at the crossing of the Ouse, 30 feet high. An unfortunate mistake occurred in taking the levels near Fenny Stratford, for rectifying which it was necessary to place another lock of 18 inches rise, in order to hold up a pound of some miles, which otherwise would have been united to a level pound of ten miles near the same town. There are various embankments at Weedon Beck, Bugbrook and other places, which it would be superfluous to notice particularly, though several of them are of considerable size. Some extensive pieces of water are on the canal in different places; the largest being at Harefield Moor, Great Berkhampstead, Halton Park, and Wendover. In a line which passes through the ponds of so many mills as this does, it is necessary to have a more than ordinary number of reservoirs to supply the consumption of water in these, as well as in the canal itself; the Grand Junction has five; one at Daventry, another at Weston Turville, and a third at Braunston; these are all of large size. There is also one at Wilston, covering forty acres of ground; but the largest is at Aldenham, covering above sixty acres.

Several feeders are connected with this navigation on different

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parts of the line; that for the southern summit is near Wendover; and there are three others near Tring and Miswell, the last of which is arched over to the length of a quarter of a mile. The northern summit's feeder is from Watford, near Daventry; and this level has also its banks considerably raised for the purpose of accumulating extra water during wet weather. The water let down from this summit by lockage is again pumped up out of the level of the Oxford Canal by a powerful steam engine. The water out of the Wilston Reservoir is also pumped into the Wendover Branch of the southern level by an engine erected in 1803; and a little below Two-Waters, in the Colne Valley, the lockage: water of four locks there is returned by another engine. A great saving of water is also effected on the north and south sides of the Tring Summit Level, by the addition of side-ponds to the locks, and there are many considerable tumbling bays or weirs throughout the line, the most remarkable of which are near Great Berkhampstead, Uxbridge, and the passage of the Tove or Towcester River; the necessity for which has been occasioned by the peculiar direction of the line, which, as we have before stated, passes through an immense number of mill-ponds: besides these, there are over-falls, stop-gates and trunks, culverts and bridges, in great numbers. The navigation of this canal is used by barges, square at head and stern, and having flat bottoms, of sixty tons burthen, and smaller vessels of twenty-five tons burthen, with sharp heads and sterns. The canal was opened from its junction with the Oxford Canal to the embankment at Weedon Beck, in 1796, and, before the end of 1797, extended to the tunnel at Blisworth; a communication between Two-Waters and the Thames was effected in 1798; in the ensuing year the canal was completed as far as Bulbourne, together with the Wendover Branch; in 1800 the canal, commencing at the Thames, had reached the south end of the projected tunnel at Blisworth; and, till this was completed, a communication between this part and the one from the Oxford Canal, which, as is seen above, was opened as far as the north end of the same tunnel, was made by a temporary railroad three miles and upwards in length, over Blisworth Hill. In 1801 the Buckingham Branch was completed, and the whole of this magnificent line opened in 1805, when the Blisworth Tunnel was finished.

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It will be seen, from the title of one of the acts quoted above, that the company had powers granted for supplying part of Paddington with water; they have also immense warehouses and covered docks at White Friars, which afford stowage to the boats and barges of Mr. Pickford's establishment. At Paddington there is a basin four hundred yards long, and thirty broad, with ranges of wharfs, warehouses, and immense sheds for stowing goods in all directions around it; in addition to which, there are all necessary accommodations for persons attending the Paddington Market (established in 1802,) with cattle, hay, corny vegetables, &c.

Packet-boats regularly ply on the canal between London and Uxbridge, for the conveyance of passengers and parcels; and Mr. Pickford has a succession of barges day and night, conveying goods on this canal and those connected with it. Mr. Barnes, Mr. Telford, Mr. Holland, Mr. Jessop, and Mr. Bevan, all of them engineers of first rate abilities, have been consulted and employed on this canal, and the expectation of the original projectors, as far as regards public utility, have been fully realized. The design of making a communication between the Grand Junction and the various docks at London, has been effected by the Regent's Canal, out of which this company have now the privilege of taking the water, which they before were authorized to take from the Thames.

The advantages which the metropolis, and indeed all places on the main line and branches, derive from this grand undertaking, are incalculable. The staple goods of Manchester, Stourbridge, Birmingham, and Wolverhampton; cheese, salt, lime, stone, timber, corn, paper, bricks, &c. &c. are conveyed by it to London, whilst in return, groceries, tallow, cotton, tin, manure, and raw materials for the manufacturing districts, are constantly passing upon it. The immense trade on this concern is briefly stated, by observing that the tonnage amounts to near £160,000 per annum.

GRAND SURREY CANAL.

41 Geo. III. C. 31, R. A. 21st May, 1801.

47 Geo. III. C. 80, R. A. 8th Aug. 1807.

48 Geo. III. C. 99, R. A. 3rd June, 1808.

51 Geo. III. C. 170, R. A. 15th June, 1811.

THE first act obtained for the execution of the Grand Surrey Canal is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable

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'Canal from the River Thames, at or near a place called Wilkinson's Gun Wharf, in the parish of St. Mary, at Rotherhithe, in the county of Surrey, to the town of Mitcham, in the parish of Mitcham, in the said county; and also divers collateral Cuts or Branches communicating from the same to certain parishes and places within the counties of Surrey and Kent.' By this act the proprietors are made a corporate body, under the title of "The Company of Proprietors of the Grand Surrey Canal," and are empowered to raise the sum of £60,000 in shares of £100 each, or by loan on bond, or mortgage, with a further sum of £30,000, if necessary.

The canal commences at Wilkinson's Gun Wharf on the south banks of the River Thames, in Rotherhithe, a quarter of a mile below the Thames Tunnel, and directly opposite Shadwell Dock. It almost immediately enters the docks belonging to the navigation, along which it continues upwards of twelve hundred yards, running parallel with the Commercial Docks. Hence its course is southward, entering Kent and approaching, at Bridge Place, within two hundred and fifty yards of the King's Dock Yard at Deptford. Its course from this point is directly west by Peckham New Town, crossing the Kent Road, and thence in a straight course to the north side of Adlington Square, Camnberwell Road, where it terminates. Its total length, including the docks, is four miles and six chains. Within seven furlongs of its western termination, there is a branch of half a mile in length proceeding southwardly to Peckham; and near its junction with the Thames, there is a capacious outer dock on the west side of the main dock, five hundred and seventy yards in length.

By the act it is provided that the intended canal and cuts shall be supplied with water from the Thames, and all other rivers, streams, or brooks found in digging the said canal, except the River Wandle and streams, within two thousand yards thereof, running into the same. The company may also cut collateral branches to any place within fifteen hundred yards thereof, with consent of the owners, on purchasing the ground. Aqueducts are to be made, if necessary, over the Wandle, at least 15 feet from mark-stake high in that river, to the surface of the water in the canal, and proper aqueducts over an intended railway from

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Wandsworth to Croydon, so that loaded waggons may pass under the same; the span of the arch under such aqueducts to be full 16 feet wide. The company may make rollers, inclined planes, railways, waggon-ways, and cranes, if the conveyance of goods over any part of the projected line should require it; such rollers, ,&c. to be considered as part or parts of the said canal or branches. If the cut into Greenland Dock should be made, the proprietors are to pay certain sums to be agreed upon by them and the proprietors of the dock, for the use thereof for vessels on this canal. This act also provides that the company shall receive the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For Free-stone, Lime-stone, Chalk, Bricks, Slates, Tiles, Corn in the Straw, Hay, Straw, Faggots, Dung, Manure, Stones and Clay 2d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Cattle, Calves, Sheep, Swine, and other Beasts; Lime, Rough Timber, Hemp, Tin, Bark, Iron-stone, Pig-iron and Pig-lead 3d ditto. ditto.
For all Coal, Charcoal, Coke, Culm, Flour, Wheat, Barley, Oats, Beans, Peas, Malt, and Potatoes 4d ditto. ditto.
For all Hops, Fruit, Goods, Wares, Merchandize, and other Things whatsoever 6d ditto. ditto.

And in Proportion for more or less than a Ton, and more or less than a Mile.

Vessels passing in or out of any Outlet or Lock communicating with the Thames, to pay according to their Tonnage as for One Mile; which Charge shall never be calculated for less than Five Tons. The same Quantum of Rate to be paid for every Vessel passing up or down any Inclined Plane.

Vessels entering any other company's basins, and landing or taking in goods, shall pay the following rates.

RATES.

For all Goods, Wares, Merchandize, and other Things whatsoever 3d per Ton.
For every Barge or Vessel which has not passed One Mile along the Canal or Cuts 3d ditto.

This last Rate is to be deducted from the gross Amount of Toll, provided the Vessel so charged shall afterwards proceed along the whole Line or collateral Cut.

Fractions of a Quarter of a Ton or a Quarter of a Mile to be reckoned as a Quarter of a Ton and a Quarter of a Mile. Fifty Cubic Feet of Fir, Balk, Poplar, Deal or Birch; Fifty Cubic Feet of Round, and Forty Cubic Feet of Square Oak, Ash, Elm, Beech, or other Timber not cut into Scantlings, to be estimated as One Ton; One Hundred and Twelve Pounds Avoirdupois of all other Goods, Wares, Merchandize, or Things whatsoever, tobe considered One Hundred Weight; and Two Thousand Two Hundred and Forty Pounds Weight of the same, One Ton. Rates for conveying small Parcels to be fixed by the Proprietors; and Goods remaining on the Wharfs above Twenty-four Hours to be paid for according to Bargain between said Company and the Owners.

The act further provides that £2, 2s. shall be paid as a fine or acknowledgment to the mayor and commonalty of London, for the liberty of opening a communication between the canal and the

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Thames, together with an annual rent of £60, as a compensation for the diminution of tolls, secured to the said mayor and commonalty under an act of 17th George III.

The second act obtained by the company in 1807, and entitled, 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Grand Surrey Canal to complete the same,' after reciting the previous act, and showing that the money thereby authorized to be raised, had already been expended in cutting part of the said canal, and excavating a basin at Rotherhithe, enables the proprietors to raise a further sum of £60,000, for completing the same, by creating new shares, or by promissory notes, or by mortgage, or annuities, as shall seem most advisable.

In June, 1808, a third act was obtained by the proprietors, entitled, 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Grand Surrey. Canal to supply with Water the several Towns, Districts, and Places therein mentioned, and to amend the several Acts relative to the said Canal.' The parishes and hamlets which the company is by this act authorized to supply with water, are St. Mary Rotherhithe, New Cross, St. John and St. Mary Magdalen Bermondsey, St. Giles Camberwell, Walworth, Peckham, and places adjacent in Surrey and Kent, for the accomplishment of which, £14,000 is to be raised by creating additional shares of £100 each, or by mortgage; and the proprietors are authorized to pay from the 29th September, 1807, interest at five per cent. per annum on all monies already advanced, and hereafter to be advanced, for shares in this undertaking.

Though considerable sums, as appears from the acts already recited, had been raised for the carrying on of this work, so many alterations had been made, and such a variety of additional expenses had been incurred, that the proprietors were obliged again to go to parliament; and, accordingly, a further act was obtained in the year 1811, entitled, 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Grand Surrey Canal to make a collateral Cut communicating therewith, in the parish of St. Mary Rotherhithe, in the county of Surrey, and to enable the said Company to complete the said Canal, and for amending the several Acts relating thereto.' After stating that the company had already completed a basin and entrance into the Thames at Rotherhithe, with a line

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of four miles of canal from the said basin to the Camberwell Road, and that they had paid off part of the mortgage debt due from them, the act empowers them to make a collateral cut, from the canal opposite the Commercial Docks in Rotherhithe, along the east side of the canal, and parallel thereto, to communicate with the basin aforesaid, at the lower end thereof, near the Thames; whereby vessels, using the canal or its cuts, might go into the Thames without passing through the basin; for this purpose, and that of liquidating their debts, they are empowered to raise no less a sum than £150,000, in addition to the money already subscribed, in shares of £100 each, or by promissory notes, or by mortgage, or by annuities. By this act also, certain privileges are secured to the Croydon Canal Company, the Commercial Dock Company, the Kent Water Works' Company, and the city of London. Some of the former tolls are repealed, and the following is declared to be the scale of the future tonnage and dockage rates.

TONNAGE AND DOCKAGE RATES.

Description of Goods, &c. .Rent per Quarter.
Dockage on all light Vessels on entering the Basin, per Register, Ton £0 0s 6d.
Ditto, for the Privilege of receiving or discharging a Cargo additional, per Register Ton £0 0s 6d.
For which Charges, Vessels may continue in the Basin as follows, viz. ..
Vessels of from Thirty Tons to One Hundred Tons, Ten Days. ..
Ditto, from One Hundred Tons to One Hundred and Fifty Tons, Fourteen Days. ..
Ditto, from One Hundred and Fifty Tons to Two Hundred Tons, Eighteen Days. ..
Ditto, from Two Hundred Tons to Two Hundred and Fifty Tons, Twenty-one Days. ..
Ditto, from Two Hundred and Fifty Tons to Three Hundred Tons, Twenty-four Days. ..
Ditto, from Three Hundred Tons to Three Hundred and Fifty Tons, Twenty-seven Days. ..
Ditto, from Three Hundred and Fifty Tons to Four Hundred Tons, Thirty Days. ..
After which Time all Vessels may be charged a Weekly Rate as follows, viz. ..
From Thirty Tons to One Hundred Tons £0 8s 0d.
From One Hundred ditto to One Hundred and Fifty ditto £0 10s 0d.
From One Hundred and Fifty ditto to Two Hundred ditto £0 12s 0d.
From Two Hundred ditto to Two Hundred and Fifty ditto £0 14s 0d.
From Two Hundred and Fifty ditto to Three Hundred ditto £0 16s 0d.
From Three Hundred ditto to Three Hundred and Fifty ditto £0 18s 0d.

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TONNAGE AND DOCKAGE RATES AND DOCKAGE RATES CONTINUED.

Description of Goods, &c. .Rent per Quarter.
From Three Hundred and Fifty Tons to Four Hundred Tons £1 0s 0d.
From Four Hundred ditto to Five Hundred ditto £1 3s 0d.
Docking each Vessel £0 10s 6d.
Undocking ditto £0 10s 6d.
Wharfage on Oak and other heavy Timber, per Load £0 6s 0d£0 3s 0d
Ditto on ditto, and other heavy Planks ditto £0 6s 0d£0 3s 0d
Ditto on large Timber and Masts ditto .£0 2s 0d
Ditto on small Timber ditto .£0 3s 0d
Ditto on Deals from the Baltic, per reduced Standard of One, Hundred and Twenty ditto £0 5s 0d£0 5s 0d
Ditto on ditto from America, ditto £0 5s 0d£0 5s 0d
Ditto on Quebec Pipe Logs of Three and Four Inches, per Thousand .£0 15s 0d
Ditto on Staves of Two and Two and a Half ditto .£0 15s 0d
Ditto on ditto of One and One and a Half ditto ditto .£0 15s 0d
Ditto on Hogshead Logs of Three and Four ditto ditto .£0 15s 0d
Ditto on ditto Staves of Two and Two and a Half ditto ditto .£0 15s 0d
Ditto on ditto of One and One and a Half ditto ditto .£0 15s 0d
Ditto on Barrel Logs of Three and Four ditto ditto .£0 10s 0d
Ditto on Barrel Staves of Two and Two and a Half lnches, per Thousand .£0 10s 0d
Ditto on ditto of One and One and a Half ditto ditto .£0 10s 0d
Ditto on Heading Logs of Three and Four ditto ditto .£0 10s 0d
Ditto on ditto Staves of Two and Two and a Half ditto ditto .£0 10s 0d
Ditto on ditto of One and One and a Half ditto ditto .£0 10s 0d
Ditto on Flax and Hemp per Ton £0 2s 6d£0 1s 0d
Ditto on Iron ditto £0 1s 6d.
. .Rent per Week.
Ditto on Mats per Bundle of One Hundred £0 1s 3d£0 0s 6d
Ditto on Russia Ashes per Ton £0 1s 3d£0 0s 2d
Ditto on Tallow ditto £0 1s 6d£0 0s 6d
Ditto on Oil per Ton of Two Hundred and Fifty-two Gallons £0 2s 6d£0 1s 0d
Ditto on Bristles per Cask £0 0s 8d£0 0s 3d
Ditto on Brimstone per Ton £0 1s 6d£0 1s 0d
Ditto on Pitch, Tar, and Turpentine per Barrel £0 3s 0d£0 0s 2d

The last Column is the Rent to be paid while stored on the Company's Premises.

Mr. Ralph Dodd was the engineer for this undertaking, and his estimate amounted to £80,220, 3s. 7d. The sum originally subscribed by the shareholders was £45,200; but by the different acts the company have had authority to raise above £300,000. The work has not yet remunerated the proprietors for their outlay, not more than two and a half per cent. annual interest having yet been received on each £100 share. The loan of course has had regular interest paid upon it, according to the provisions of the act, But as the profits of this concern, as originally intended, would partly depend upon dockage, this source of expected revenue will

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be greatly diminished by the extensive accommodation provided by St. Catherine's Docks, and the further extension of the London Docks.

GRAND UNION CANAL.

50 George III. Cap. 122, Royal Assent 24th May, 1810.

THIS canal was commenced under the authority of an act of parliament, bearing date as above, and entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a 'navigable Canal from the Union Canal, in the parish of Gumley, in the county of Leicester, to join the Grand Junction Canal near Long Buckby, in the county of Northampton; and for making a collateral Cut from the said intended Canal.'

This canal unites with the Leicester Union Canal near Gumley Hall and Foxton, about four miles from Market Harborough; to which latter place there is a collateral cut; from the junction it proceeds in a southern direction to the turnpike-road between Lutterworth and Northampton, which it crosses, and near to which there are reservoirs for supplying it with water, at the eastern extremity of a branch forming the communication with Welford; leaving the Welford Branch on the east, it proceeds in the same direction as before, by Elkington and Guilsbrough to Crick, where there is a considerable reservoir; leaving Watford on the east, it continues its course to its termination in the Grand Junction Canal at Long Buckby, in the parish of Norton, having traversed a distance of nearly forty-five miles. On this line there are two tunnels; one near the crossing of the turnpike-road to Northampton, the other at Crick.

By the act the proprietors are incorporated under the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Grand Union Canal," and. are empowered to raise a sum not exceeding £200,000, for the purposes of the said act, in shares of £100, or half shares of £50 each, as shall seem best to the subscribers at their first general meeting: and, in case such sum shall not be found sufficient for completing the work, the proprietors may raise a further sum not exceeding £50,000, either amongst themselves, or by the creation

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of fresh shares, or by mortgage, or by promissory notes. And, for reimbursing themselves, they are empowered to claim a the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Coal and Coke passing from the Grand Junction Canal into the Grand Union, but not carried thereon more than Twelve Miles 2s 6d per Ton.
For Coal and Coke conveyed on the said Canal to a greater Distance than Twelve Miles, and not afterwards conveyed on the Leicestershire and Northamptoushire Canal, for every Mile beyond the said Twelve Miles, in addition 0s 2½d ditto.
For all Coal and Coke passing from the Leicestershire and Northamptonshire Canal into the Grand Union, and not carried thereon more than Eighteen Miles 2s 6d ditto.
For all Coal and Coke conveyed above Eighteen Miles, a further Rate, so that the whole Tonnage does not exceed Two Shillings and Eleven-pence per Ton 0s 2½d ditto.
For all Coal and Coke passing from the Leicestershire and Northamptonshire Canal, along said Grand Union into the Oxford Canal, in addition to the said Rate of Two Shillings and Eleven-pence 2s 9d ditto.
For all Lime, Dung, Manure and Lim,stoue, passing through a Lock, or Locks at either End of said Canal 1s 3d ditto.
For all Cattle, Sheep, Calves, Swine and other Beasts; and for all Stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slates and Sand, Iron-stone, Pig-iron and Pig-lead, passing a Lock or Locks 2s 6d ditto.
All other Goods, Merchandize, Wares and Things whatsoever, passing, through a Lock or Locks 3s 0d ditto.

Fractions to be taken as a Quarter of a Mile and a Quarter of a Ton; and Vessels passing Locks with less than Twenty Tons of heavy Goods, to pay for Twenty Tons.

The Proprietors have the Power of reducing the Rates, and of again advancing them to the Sums specified above, as Circumstances may allow; but they are not to reduce the Sums of Two Shillings and Sixpence and Two Shillings and Nine-pence per Ton, on Coal and Coke conveyed on the Leicestershire and Northamptonshire, and Oxford Canals, respectively, without Consent from those Companies; and no other Reductions are to be made without Consent of the Companies interested therein.

The Grand Union Canal Company may erect wharfs and warehouses for receiving goods, and make charges for wharfage, &c. in addition to their tonnage rates; and owners of lands, lords of manors, and others, having property on the line of navigation, may erect wharfs on the canal or collateral cuts; they may also erect bridges, stiles, &c. at their own cost, the consent of the company being first obtained.

The plans and estimate of the Grand Union Canal Were made by Mr. B. Bevan, in the year 1810. The cost of making the said canal, with the branch or collateral cut to Welford, was estimated at £219,000, including the expenses of tunnels and twenty-one locks. The subscription list contained names for two thousand two hundred and fifty-six shares and a half, or £225,650, and, consequently, the work was immediately undertaken.

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Though not so extensive as many other parts of our inland navigation, the utility of the Grand Union Canal is commensurate with most. By means of its communication with the Grand Junction, the Oxford, and the Leicestershire and Northamptonshire Canals, it affords the means of conveying goods to and from many populous manufacturing districts and commercial towns, and secures a ready transit for their various productions along the above-named canals, the Grand Trunk, the Trent and Thames Rivers, and most of the navigations of Derbyshire, Yorkshire, and Lancashire.

GRAND WESTERN CANAL.

36 George III. Cap. 46, Royal Assent 24th March, 1796.

51 George III. Cap. 168, Royal Assent 15th June, 1811.

52 George III. Cap. 16, Royal Assent 20th March, 1812.

THIS canal, which is designed to open a communication between the Severn and the Bristol Channel, thereby facilitating the of the country on its line with coals, timber, &c. as well as the export of farming produce, was sanctioned by the legislature in 1796, under an act, entitled, 'An Act for making a navigable Canal from the River Exe, near the town of Topsham, in the county of Devon, to the River Tone, near the town of Taunton, in the county of Somerset; and for cleansing and making navigable a certain Part of the said River Tone; and for making certain Cuts from the said Canal.'

By this act the company were incorporated under the title of "Proprietors of the Grand Western Canal," and were authorized to make a line of navigation from the tideway in the River Exe, near Topsham, into the Tone River, in the parish of Bishop's Hull, in Somersetshire. They had also the power of making three collateral cuts or branches, viz, one in the parish of Cullompton; a second from the parish of Burlescombe to the parish of Tiverton; and a third in the parish of Wellington. They also were empowered to make two reservoirs in the valley of the River Culme, and two others in the valley of the Tone; from both which rivers they may take supplies of water. That part of the Tone which lies between Bishop's Hull and Taunton Bridge is, by this act, considered part of the canal, and vested in the proprietors thereof.

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By this act the proprietors wete authorized to collect certain rates, which it is not necessary to mention here, as they were repealed by a subsequent act, and another table substituted in place thereof. The sum of £220,000 is directed to be raised in shares of £100 each, and they might raise £110,000 in addition, if necessary, either amongst themselves, or by new subscribers, or on interest. The provisions of the act above-recited, were put into immediate execution, and the proprietors proceeded to complete their undertaking without delay; but it having been found necessary to vary the line prescribed by the above act, a second was obtained for that purpose in 1811, entitled, 'An Act to vary and alter the Line of a Cut authorized to be made by an Act of the Thirty-sixth Year of his present Majesty, for making a Canal from the River Exe, near Topsham, in the county of Devon, to the River Tone, near Taunton, in the county of Somerset, and to amend the said Act.' in consequence of this second act, the line was varied, but some difficulties still remained; to remedy which, parliament was again applied to, and in the following year a third was granted, entitled, 'An Act to alter and increase the Rates of Tonnage authorized to be taken by the Company of Proprietors of the Grand Western Canal; and to amend the several Acts passed for making the said Canal;' whereby the former rates, as we before stated, were repealed; and, for securing to them a fair remuneration for the money expended on the works, and to be hereafter laid out in completing them, the proprietors were empowered to demand the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Coals, Culm, Cinders, Coke, Lime, Lime.stone, Iron-stone, Ironore, Lead-ore, and all other Ores, Stones, Tiles, Slates, Bricks, Flag-stones. Clay and Sand, and all Articles used for Manure, and for repairing Roads 3d per Ton, per Mile.
For all Rough Timber, Pig-iron. Bar-iron, Pig-lead, Sheet-lead, Tin in Lumps and Bars, Charcoal, Salt, Corn, Hay,and Straw 4d ditto. ditto.
For all Wrought Metals, Oils, Wines, Liquors, Groceries, Cheese, Earthenware, and all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize, not specified before, carried on the Canal and Cuts, or any Part thereof 6d ditto. ditto.

Fractions in Distance to be taken as a whole Mile, and in Weight as a Quarter of a Ton.

The Company may charge Rates, to be determined by themselves, for the Carriage of small Parcels, and for the Wharfage of such Goods as shall remain more than Twenty-four Hours on their Wharfs. Tables of such Rates to be put up in some conspicuous Part of the Wharfs.

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