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This Book "Priestley's Navigable Rivers and Canals" by Joseph Priestley was previously published in April 1831. NOTE: Oringinally called "Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways, of Great Britain".
For more information see About this Book

Index Page Link to Previous Page 281

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produce of the country, and for importing coal, lime, timber, deals, groceries, and other commodities generally required in an agricultural district.

GLAMORGANSHIRE CANAL.

30 George III. Cap. 82, Royal Assent 9th June, 1790.

36 George III. Cap. 69, Royal Assent 26th April, 1796.

THIS navigation, which is sometimes called the Cardiff Canal, commences at a place called The Lower Layer, a mile and a half below the town of Cardiff, on the east side of the River Taff, and near its entrance into Penarth Harbour. Its course is directly north, passing on the east side of the town of Cardiff, and thence in a north-westwardly direction, parallel, with the Taff and by the city of Llandaff to near the junction of the Taff and Cynon. It crosses the Taff by an aqueduct, and within a short distance is joined by the Aberdare Canal. From hence its course is round the base of the Twyn Maur Hills, still keeping in the vale, but on the western side of the Taff, to its termination at the town of Merthyr Tidvile. The length is about twenty-five miles, with a total rise of about 611 feet. At its termination in the tideway of the River Taff, at Lower Layer, there is a sea-lock, with a floating-dock 16 feet deep, and capable of admitting ships of three hundred tons burthen. The line from Merthyr to Cardiff was opened in February, 1794.

Many railways extend from the several iron-works, mines and collieries which abound in this rich mineral district. The Cardiff and Merthyr Tidvile Railway takes a parallel course with the canal from Merthyr to the aqueduct, but on the opposite side of the river. There is also a railway from the mines near Glancayach, to this canal, a little below the above-mentioned aqueduct; and there is another railway of considerable extent, which commences at the collieries at Dinas Ucha, on the west bank of the River Rhondda Vawr, along which it continues to below its junction with the River Taff, near Forest Bridge.

The act of the 30th George III. is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from Merthyr Tidvile,

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'to and through a place called The Bank, near the town of Cardiff, in the county of Glamorgan.' The subscribers to this canal, at the time the above act was obtained, were seventy-seven in number, (amongst whom were Lord Cardiff and Count de Redin,) who were incorporated by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Glamorganshire Canal Navigation," with power to raise among themselves the sum of £60,000, in six hundred shares of £100 each, and a further sum of £30,000, should it be deemed necessary, by mortgage of the undertaking.

TONNAGE RATES.

Iron-stone, Iron-ore, Coal, Lime-stone, Lime, and all Kinds of Manure 2d per Ton, per Mile.
Stone, Iron, Timber, Goods, Wares, Merchandize, or other Things 5d ditto. ditto.

Fractions as for a Quarter of a Mile, and as for a Quarter of a Ton.

Ships or other Vessels, whether laden or unladen, passing through the Lock at the Bank into or out of the Dock or Basin, shall be subject to the Payment of One Penny per Ton, according to the registered Admeasurement of such Ship or Vessel.

The company are restricted to divide no more than eight per cent. Proprietors of any mines lying within four miles of any part of this canal, may make collateral cuts or railways across the grounds of other persons, on payment of damages. Owners of lands may make wharfs and charge the following rates.

WHARFAGE RATES.

Coal, Lime, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, lron.stone, Timber, Stone, Brick, Tile, Slate, or Gravel 1d per Ton.
Any other Goods 3d ditto.

The above Rates are payable if they remain upon the Wharfs for the Space of Six Days, except for Coal, Iron and Lime-stone, which may continue at the above Rate Six Calendar Months; and Timber, Clay, Lime, Iron-stone, Stone, Brick, Tile, Slate, or Gravel, may remain Thirty Days. If any Goods lie on the Wharfs or Quays for the Space of Ten Days beyond the respective Periods above prescribed, One Penny per Ton shall be paid for such Ten Days; and One Penny per Ton per Day for every Day beyond such Period. It is further enacted, that all Ships or other Vessels, passing from the Sea or the River into any Dock or Basin belonging to this Company, shall pay the same Duties, in Addition to the Rates which the Bailiffs, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Town of Cardiff, have hitherto received as Port Dues.

The act of 36th George III. which received the royal assent on the 26th April, 1796, and is entitled, 'An Act to amend an Act of the Thirtieth Year of his present Majesty, for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from Merthyr Tidvile, to and through a place called The Bank, near the town of Cardiff, in the county of Glamorgan, and for extending the said Canal to a place

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'called The Lower Layer, below the said town,' was obtained chiefly for the purpose expressed in the title, viz, the extension to a point nearer the sea, and to obtain power to raise the additional sum of £10,000 among themselves, in proportion to their respective shares, for the completion of the line of extension, and for no other purpose whatsoever. But if this last-mentioned sum is insufficient, £10,000 more may be contributed; but upon this no more profit than five per cent, per annum shall be received. Two years only, from the date of the last act, are allowed for the completion of the whole of the works.

On consideration of the Marquis and Marchioness of Bute giving consent to the making of the extension, they and their tenants of the ground on the west side of the extension, have the privilege of using the canal and towing path below the south gate of the town of Cardiff, without payment of rates.

The chief object of this navigation and the railways with which it is connected, is to facilitate the export of the vast quantity of coal, iron-stone, and other ores and minerals which are worked in great abundance on its line, and in particular at Merthyr Tidvile and its immediate vicinity.

GLASGOW, PAISLEY, AND ARDROSSAN CANAL AND RAILWAY.

46 George III. Cap. 75, Royal Assent 20th June, 1806.

7 & 8 George IV. Cap. 87, Royal Assent 14th June, 1827.

THE canal commences from Tradestown, or Port Eglinton, on the west side of the city of Glasgow, whence it takes a western course, approaching the northern bank of the White Cart River, along which it continues to near the town of Paisley, where it crosses the above-mentioned river, and passes on the south of that town, to Johnstone, where it terminates.

The railway commences at the canal wharf at Johnstone, and takes a south-westerly course, running parallel with, and on the east side of the Black Cart, and by Lochs Swinnock and Tanker, and along the eastern bank of the River Rye, which it crosses near Blair House, and continues along the course of that river to near the village of Kilwinning, whence it takes a westward

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course through the collieries, by Kerrylaw, and thence northward of the town of Saltcoats, to the harbour of Ardrossan, where, at an elevation of 9 feet 6 inches above high water mark, it terminates. The railway is twenty-two miles and three furlongs in length, and the canal eleven miles.

From the harbour above-mentioned, there is an inclined plane one mile and five chains in length, rising 11 feet 6 inches, and another one mile and a chain in length, which descends 8 feet. It is then level for the space of one mile, seven furlongs and four chains. Then another plane one mile, three furlongs and seven chains in length, rising 46 feet; then a further rise, to the summit level, of 45 feet, in one mile, five furlongs and nine chains. The next twelve miles, three furlongs and two chains are level; from the end of which it descends 20 feet in the next two miles, one furlong and two chains; and, in the remaining distance of five furlongs, there is a further fall of 44 feet to the level of the quay of the canal at Johnstone, which is 40 feet above the level of high water at Ardrossan. A branch of half a mile in length extends from the main line to Saltcoats Harbour, which descends 3 feet in that distance to a point 10 feet above high water mark.

It was originally intended by the proprietors of these works to have constructed an entire canal from near Glasgow to Ardrossan, and for which purpose their first act was obtained; but circumstances, which are explained below, prevented this. The estimate for making the whole canal was £140,000; but when it was found desirable to make the railway above described, instead of continuing the canal, a separate estimate for it was made by Mr.
James Jardine, which, for the Main Line, amounted to, £92,568
And for the Saltcoats Branch 1,525
Making a total of £94,093

The first act relating to this undertaking, is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the Harbour of Ardrossan, in the county of Ayr, to Tradestown, near Glasgow, in the county of Lanark; and a collateral Cut from the said Canal to the Coal Works at Hurlet, in the county of Renfrew;' by which the subscribers, two hundred and twenty-six in number, (amongst whom were the Earl of Eglinton, Lord Montgomerie,

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and Lady Jane Montgomerie,) were incorporated by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Glasgow, Paisley, and Ardrossan Canal," with power to raise among themselves the sum of £140,000, in two thousand eight hundred shares of £50 each; and an additional sum of £30,000 if necessary, either among themselves, or they may borrow the same on assignment of the rates, as a security.

TONNAGE RATES.

Lime-stone, Iron-stone, Stone for Building, Dung, Earth, Sand and Clay 2d per Ton, per Mile.
Coal, Coke, Culm and Lime 3d ditto. ditto.
Bricks, Tiles, Slates, Ores, Iron and Metals 4d ditto. ditto.
Timber, Bark, Corn and Grain 5d ditto. ditto.
All other Goods, Wares or Merchandize 6d ditto. ditto.

Fractions to be paid as for a Mile, and as for a Quarter of a Ton.

BASIN DUES.

For every Vessel loading or unloading in any Basin belonging to this Company, in addition to the before-mentioned Rates 2d per Ton.

Vessels under Twenty Tons Burthen not to pass Locks without leave, or without paying Tonnage to that Amount.

Owners of lands may erect wharfs; but if they do not within six months after notice has been given them for that purpose, the company may do it, and charge a rate to be agreed on between the company and the owners of any goods which may remain more than twenty-four hours upon such wharfs.

In carrying into execution that part of the original line of canal from near Glasgow to Johnstone, the proprietors expended of the original stock, authorized to be raised by power of the act of 46th George III. the sum of £44,342, besides contracting a debt of £57,860, l0s.; also old subscription loans from various proprietors of canal stock, amounting to £2,398, 3s.; and new subscription loans, amounting to £10,950, 4s. 6d. making a total of £115,550, 17s. 6d.

After the lapse of twenty years from the date of the act above recited, it was found impossible to raise the necessary funds for completing the remaining portion of the line from Johnstone to Ardrossan, without complying with this condition, that the debts incurred in executing the canal from Johnstone to Glasgow, amounting (as above-recited) to £71,208, 17s. 6d. should be

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alone entailed upon that part of the canal. With this understanding, an act received the royal sanction on the 14th June, 1827, entitled, 'An Act to amend an Act of the Forty-sixth Year of the Reign of his late Majesty, incorporating the Glasgow, Paisley, and Ardrossan Canal Company; and to empower the said Company to form a Railway from Johnstone, in the county of Renfrew, to Ardrossan, in the county of Ayr, and certain Branch Railways communicating therewith;' by which the company are authorized to employ the remainder of the original capital stock (of £140,000,) amounting to £95,658, in the formation of a railway to Ardrossan; and that this railway stock should not be liable to the above-recited debts, but that separate accounts shall be kept of the expenditure and proceeds of the canal and of the railway.

By means of this canal and railway, great facilities will be given for exporting coal, from the extensive mines in the line, for the supply of the north and eastern coasts of Ireland, and to receive, in return, supplies of corn for the consumption of the populous places of Glasgow, Paisley, &c. Moreover, it will have the effect of shortening considerably the distance, and rendering more safe the transit of exported manufactured goods from the above-mentioned towns, by avoiding the circuitous route by the River and Firth of Clyde.

GLASTONBURY NAVIGATION.

7 & 8 George IV. Cap. 41, Royal Assent 28th May, 1827.

THIS navigation commences from the confluence of the Rivers Brue and Parrett, in Bridgewater Bay, Bristol Channel, whence it takes a south-eastwardly direction along the course of the River Brue, to Highbridge Lower Floodgates. From this point a canal is to be made in the bed of the river, by Newbridge, to about ten miles beyond Basin Bridge, where it then follows the course of the south drain, over Westhay and Meare Heaths, and through a very flat country to the west side of the town of Glastonbury, where it terminates. The total length of the navigation is fourteen miles, one furlong and seven chains, viz, from low water mark on the shore of the Bristol Channel, to the proposed tide lock near High

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Bridge, is seven furlongs and six chains. This tide lock will be so constructed, that the top of the gates will be on a level with the highest known smooth tide, which rose 40 feet. The surface of the canal will be 10 feet below the top of the gates, and the canal will be 10 feet deep from the lock to the junction with the South Brue Drain, a length of ten miles, three furlongs and three chains. At the end of this fine pool there is another lock, with a rise of 3 feet 2 inches, and thence, the remainder of the canal to Glastonbury will be only 6 feet deep. The estimate for this navigation was made by Mr, John Beauchamp, and amounts (exclusive of application to parliament, plans, &c.) to the sum of £15,234.

The act for making this navigation is entitled, 'An Act for improving and supporting the Navigation of the River Brue from the mouth thereof, at its Junction with the River Parrett, to Cripp's House, and for making and constructing a Canal from thence to the town of Glastonbury, in the county of ,Somerset.'

The party who undertook to execute this navigation consisted of thirty-six persons, (amongst whom was Sir Alexander Hood, Bart) and was incorporated by the name of "The Glastonbury Navigation and Canal Company," and who are empowered to raise among themselves the sum of £18,000, in three hundred and sixty shares of £50 each, and a further sum of £5,000 on mortgage of the undertaking; and they may borrow any part of the original sum of £18,000 on promissory notes under the common seal, or of the Exchequer Bill Commissioners.

TONNAGE RATES.

Coal, Culm, Coke, Cinders, Charcoal. Timber, Iron, Bricks, Tiles, Stone, Slate, Turf and Manure 1s 6d per Ton.
Cheese, Timber, and other Goods, Wares and Merchandize 3s 0d ditto.

And so in Proportion for any greater or less Weight than a Ton.

WHARFAGE RATES.

For any Goods remaining on any of the Wharfs or Quays beyond the Period of Twenty-four Hours, such additional Rates as may be fixed by the Company; but that not more than Three-pence per Ton shall be paid for any Goods which do not remain on the Wharfs, or Warehoused, more than Six Days.

As the drainage of the low lands on the banks of the Brue is under the management of the Commissioners of Sewers, the company are bound to invest £1,000 in the Three per Cent. Consolidated Bank Annuities, to be at the disposal of the commis-

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sioners, to be applied in repairing or making any alteration in the necessary drainage works, which may be required in consequence of the making and completing this navigation.

The object of this navigation is to open a short and more ready communication between Glastonbury and the sea, and to facilitate the exportation of the agricultural produce of that part of Somerset, and to import fuel and other general merchandize.

GLENKENNS CANAL.

42 George III. Cap. 114, Royal Assent 26th June, 1802.

THIS navigation commences in the tideway of the River Dee, close to the north side of the town of Kirkcudbright, whence it takes a northerly course, running parallel with and on the east bank of the Dee, by Kelton House, to Loch Ken, into which it enters a short distance south of Glenlochar Bridge. This part of the navigation is ten miles and a quarter, and has fourteen locks upon it, besides a stop lock and weir at its entrance into Loch Ken. This navigation is continued for the space of twelve miles and a half through Loch Ken, by Kenmore Castle and the town of New Galloway, a little beyond which place a canal of three miles in length extends to the Boat Pool at Dalry, where the navigation terminates. The total length is twenty-five miles and three quarters. Mr. John Rennie projected the navigation, and made the estimate, which amounted to the sum of £33,382.

The act for making it received the royal assent on the 26th June, 1802, and is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the Boat Pool of Dalry, in the Glenkenns, to the port and town of Kirkcudbright, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright.' The subscribers for carrying the work into execution, consisted of twenty-eight persons, (amongst whom were the Hon. John Gordon, the Hon. Montgomerie Granville Stewart, Sir William Douglas, and Sir Alexander Gordon,) who were incorporated by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Glenkenns Canal Navigation," and empowered to raise among themselves the sum of £30,000, in three hundred shares of £100 each; and a further sum of £15,000, if necessary, by equal calls

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upon the holders of the three hundred shares; or they may obtain the last-mentioned sum by mortgage of the undertaking; but if £20,000 be found sufficient to make that part of the navigation extending from Loch Ken to the tideway of the Dee, the company may, in preference, complete that part, and suspend, until funds can be raised, the further prosecution of the remainder of the original design.

TONNAGE RATES.

Coal, Lime, Sand, Stone, Lime-stone, and all Kinds of Manure, (Upon the Canal) 3d per Ton, per Mile.
Grain, Potatoes, Slate, Iron-stone, lron, Timber, and other Goods, Wares and Merchandize, (upon the Canal) 6d ditto. ditto.

For all Goods carried upon the navigable part of the River Dee, or Loch of Ken, half only of the above Rates.

Fractions to be taken for Half a Mile and Quarter of a Ton.

For every Ship, whether laden or unladen, passing through the Tide Lock into the Dee, and into or out of the Basin at Kirkcudbrigbt, an additional Charge of Six-pence per Ton for every Ton upon the Burthen of such Ship.

WHARFAGE RATES.

lf any Goods remain on the Wharfs for above the Space of Two Calendar Months, an Allowance to be made to the Proprietors, to be adjusted by Commissioners appointed by the Act.

For the purposes of this Act, One Hundred and Twenty Pounds Avoirdupois to be deemed a Hundred Weight.

Owners of land may also erect warehouses and construct wharfs, and charge the following rates.

RATES FOR PRIVATE WHARFS.

Coal, Lime, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, Iron-stone, Timber, Stone, Brick, Tile, Slate or Gravel 2d per Ton.
For any other Goods 3d ditto.

Provided the same does not continue more than Twenty Days, except the enumerated Articles as above, which may remain Two Calendar Months, on payment of Four-pence per Ton. But should any of the above-mentioned Articles remain on the Wharf or Quays for the Space of Twenty Days over and above the Time specified, then Three-pence per Ton shall be paid for such Twenty Days, and One Penny per Ton per Week afterwards.

The object of this navigation is to give facilities for the conveyance of coal, lime, manure and general merchandize, into the interior of the stewartry or county of Kirkcudbright, and for the improvement of the estates which border upon it.

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GLOUCESTER AND BERKELEY CANAL.

33 Geo. III. C. 97, R. A. 28th March, 1793.

37 Geo. III. C. 54, R. A. 9th May, 1797.

45 Geo. III. C. 104, R. A. 27th June, 1805.

58 Geo. III. C, 17, R. A. 17th March, 18l8.

3 Geo. lV. C. 53, R. A. 24th May, 1822.

6 Geo. IV. C. 113, R. A. 10th June, 1825.

THIS admirable ship canal commences from the River Severn, at Sharpness Point, about three miles north of the town of Berkeley, whence it runs along the shore for the space of two miles; thence by Slimbridge, Frampton-on-the-Severn, Saul and Wheatenhurst, between which last-mentioned places it crosses the Stroud Canal; thence, west of Hardwick Court, Quedgeley House and Hempstead House, to near the county gaol on the south side of the city of Gloucester, where it terminates in a spacious basin, out of which there is a lock into the River Severn. Its length is sixteen miles and. a half; it is 70 feet wide, and in depth 18 feet, and level throughout; and therefore capable of receiving Indiamen of four hundred tons burthen. It was originally intended to have made the canal from Berkeley Pill, and only 15 feet deep; the length of which would have been eighteen miles and a quarter. A branch is also to be made from near Saul to the River Severn at Hock Cribb, in the parish of Arlington, of nearly one mile and a quarter in length.

The first act relating to this navigation received his late Majesty's assent on the 28th of March, 1793, and is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the River Severn, at or near the city of Gloucester, into a place called Berkeley Pill, in the parish of Berkeley; and also a Cut to or near the town of Berkeley, in the county of Gloucester;' and by which the original subscribers were incorporated by the name of "The Gloucester and Berkeley Canal Company," with power to raise among themselves for the purposes of this act, the sum of £140,000, in fourteen hundred shares of £100 each, and a further sum of £60,000, if necessary.

The tolls which the company were permitted to take, under the authority of this act, are expressed at great length; but, as they are repealed by the act of 6th George IV. and new rates allowed, it is unnecessary to introduce them here.

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The act of the 37th George III. was obtained chiefly for the purpose of enabling the company to make some deviations from the original line, through the parishes of Slimbridge, Frampton-upon-Severn, Fretherne, Saul, Wheatenhurst, Moreton, Valence, and Standish. It is entitled, 'An Act for authorizing the Company of Proprietors of the Gloucester and Berkeley Canal Navigation to vary the Line of a certain part of the said Canal, so as to render the Execution thereof more easy, expeditious and less expensive; and for altering and amending the Act passed in the Thirty-third Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, for making the said Canal.' Power, however, is given in this act to raise £40,000, part of the £140,000, besides the £60,000 authorized by the last act, either by the admission of new subscribers for shares, half shares, or quarters; or by way of mortgage, or on bond. The company are required by the act to pay the Stroudwater Navigation Company, for every day which the making of this canal shall obstruct the passage on their canal, the sum of five guineas.

Eight years after the date of the last-recited act, the proprietors being desirous of making a branch from the main line, near Saul, to the Severn, at Hock Cribb, application was made to parliament for the necessary powers; and an act was accordingly obtained on the 10th July, 1805, entitled, 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Gloucester and Berkeley Canal, to vary and alter the Line of a certain part of the said Canal, and to enable the said Company to raise a further Sum of Money for carrying into Execution the several Acts for making the said Canal.' This branch is one mile, one furlong and five chains in length; and the estimate for making it was made by Mr. John Wheeler, which amounted to the sum of £28,765, 12s. 4d.; and, for this purpose, and for completing the main line of the canal, they are empowered to raise the additional sum of £80,000, by creating new shares of not less than £60 each.

Twenty-five years after the passing of the first act, the company of proprietors again applied to parliament for an act to enable them to alter the line, and make the canal terminate at Sharpness Point, as described in the early part of this article, instead of at Berkeley Pill.

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The act was passed on the 17th March, 1818, in the 58th George III. and is entitled, 'An Act to enable the Gloucester and Berkeley Canal Company to vary and alter the Line of their Canal; and for altering and enlarging the Powers of several Acts passed for making and maintaining the said Canal.' This variation of the main line had the effect of shortening it one mile and three quarters. The estimate for this deviation, commencing in Sir Samuel Wathen's land, near Branwood, which was one mile, six furlongs and eight chains in length, was made by Mr. John Upton, and amounted to the sum of £49,230.

Although the preceding acts authorized the company to raise £280,000 for making the canal, yet, at the passing of this act, they had only raised and expended £112,000; and, from the great difficulty they had already experienced in obtaining the above sum, the company was apprehensive that, without additional powers, they could not raise the remaining £168,000; this act enables them to raise that sum by the creation of new shares, which shall not be granted at less than £60 per share. But they are also further empowered to raise any part of the above sum of £168,000 on mortgage, bond, or by granting annuities. By this act the company are authorized to charge for all goods, which shall remain upon any of the whath belonging to this company above forty-eight hours; the sum of sixpence per ton per diem.

In the prosecution of the work it was found desirable to construct the canal so as to admit vessels drawing 18 feet water, instead of the original proposition of limiting it to 15 feet; it was also found expedient to erect a breakwater in the Severn, near the outer harbour of the canal, in order to facilitate the entrance of vessels. These alterations made a considerable addition to the expenditure, an act was therefore obtained in the 3rd George IV. to enable them to borrow the additional sum of £150,000, either by the admission of new subscribers, or in any way authorized by the preceding acts. This act is entitled, 'An Act for enabling the Gloucester and Berkeley Canal Company to raise a further Sum of Money to discharge their Debts, and to complete the said Canal; and for amending the several Acts passed for making the said Canal.' Here it may be remarked, that the Exchequer Bill Commissioners advanced to this company, on security of the rates,

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the sum of £65,000, by four instalments of £16,250 each, viz, on the 24th July, 1818, the 2nd August and 7th December, 1819, and 11th of August, 1820; and the last-recited act gives authority to the commissioners above-mentioned, to advance the further sum of £60,000, in part of the £150,000 which the act empowered them to raise. It is further enacted by the 3rd George IV. that the management shall be vested in a committee of fifteen proprietors instead of nine.

The last act relating to this canal received the royal assent on the 10th June, 1825, and is entitled, 'An Act for enabling the Gloucester and Berkeley Canal Company to raise a further Sum of Money; and for altering, amending, and enlarging the Powers and Provisions contained in the several Acts for making the said Canal;' in the preamble of which it is stated, that the sum of £430,000, which the several preceding acts enabled them to raise, had been expended on the work relating to this canal, but that the further sum of £50,000 would be required; this act, therefore, enables the company to borrow this sum upon the same securities as is prescribed by the preceding acts. For the purpose, however, of paying off simple contract debts, the company may issue £15,000 of the £50,000, in transferable promissory notes of £100 each, payable in ten years. Of the £150,000 which the company were empowered to raise under the act of 3rd George IV. the Commissioners for the issuing of Exchequer Bills, advanced the further sum of £60,000, by two instalments of £30,000 each; and the last-recited act authorizes the commissioners above-named to advance the further sum of £35,000, as part of the sum of £50,000, which the last act authorized the company to borrow.

As the tonnage rates granted by the act of 33rd George III. are repealed by the last-recited act, the following are the rates now allowed to be collected.

TONNAGE RATES.

Coal conveyed upon all or any part of the Canal 1s 0d per Ton.
All other Goods, Wares and Merchandize 5s 0d ditto.
Ditto, not passing through either of the Locks upon this Canal 0s 3d per Ton, per Mile.

Vessels entering or going out of either End of this Canal, empty or in ballast, One Penny per Ton for Lockage,

Fractions to be charged as for a Quarter of a Ton.

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EXEMPTIONS.

Stone, Gravel or Sand to be used in the repair of any Road in any Township through which this Canal shall pass, and which shall pass from one part of the Canal to another; also all Dung, Soil, Marl, Ashes of Coal and Turf and Lime for Manure, for the Improvement of Lands only within Three Miles of the Canal; but should any of the above Articles pass through either of the Locks at the two Extremities of this Canal, Rates shall be paid as above.

Among the many advantages derived from the execution of this magnificent canal, the avoiding of the dangerous and very difficult navigation of a circuitous part of the Severn, is not the least. The distance, by the river, from Sharpness Point to Gloucester, is twenty-eight miles, while by the canal it is only sixteen miles and a half, consequently there is a saving of more than eleven miles.

The difference in time cannot exactly be calculated; one is subject to all the inconveniences of the worst part of the Severn, the other is easy, smooth and certain. The completion of this canal is likely to make Gloucester a powerful rival of the port of Bristol; and its further important uses will be much better developed by an inspection of the accompanying map, than by any observations we can add.

GLOUCESTER AND CHELTENHAM RAILWAY.

49 George III. Cap. 23, Royal Assent 28th April, 1809.

55 George III. Cap. 41, Royal Assent 12th May, 1815.

THIS railway commences at the basin of the Gloucester and Berkeley Canal, within the city of Gloucester; from whence, skirting the south side of the town, it passes the village of Wotton, and thence, in a north-easterly direction, by the side of the Mail-Road between Gloucester and Cheltenham, and terminates at the Knapp Toll Gate, at the latter place. A branch is proposed to be extended to the Limestone Quarries at Leckhampton Hill; but this is not yet executed. The length of the main line from the basin is rather more than eight miles and three quarters; but, including the length of the quay, it is nine miles.

The proposed branch is two miles and three quarters. The estimates for this railway and branch were made by Mr. John Hodgkinson, which amounted to £25,261, 14s. viz, for the

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mainline, £19,005, 14s. and for the branch, £6,256. The calculation was made upon a single road, with passing places at every quarter of a mile.

The subscribers to this undertaking, at the time the act was obtained, were twenty-six in number, amongst whom were the Earl of Suffolk, Lord Sherborne, and Sir William Hicks, Bart. who were incorporated by the name of "The Gloucester and Cheltenham Railway Company," and authorized to raise among themselves the sum of £25,000, in two hundred and fifty shares of £100 each, and a further sum of £10,000, if necessary, on mortgage. The act is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway or Tramroad from the River Severn, at the Quay, in the city of Gloucester, to or near to a certain Gate in or near the town of Cheltenham, in the county of Gloucester, called the Knapp Toll Gate, with a collateral Branch to the top of Leckhampton Hill, in the parish of Leckhampton, in the said county.'

TONNAGE RATES.

Stone for the repair of Roads, (except the present Turnpike Road from Gloucester to Cheltenham) 1d per Ton, per Mile.
Coal, Coke, Culm, Stone, Cinders, Chalk, Mart, Sand, Lime, Clay, Ashes, Peat, Lime-stone, Iron-stone and other Minerals, Building-stone, Pitching and Paving-stone. Bricks, Tiles, Slates, Timber, Lead in Pigs or Sheets, Bar-iron, waggon-tire, and all Gross and Unmanufactured Articles and Building Materials 3d ditto. ditto.
All other Goods, Commodities, Wares or Merchandise 6d ditto. ditto.

EXEMPTION.

All Stone for the repairs of the Turnpike-Road between the City of Gloucester and Cheltenham.

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Ton and Half a Mile; but Tonnage is not to be taken for more than Eight Miles and a Half on the Main Line, and upon Ten Miles and Three Quarters, including the Branch.

Owners of land may erect wharfs ; but if they refuse, the company may do it, and charge the following

WHARFAGE RATES.

Coal, Culm, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, Iron-stone, Lead Ore or any other Ores, Timber, Stone, Brick, Tiles, Slates or Gravel 1d per Ton.
All other Goods, Wares and Commodities 2d ditto.

Provided they do not remain more than Twenty-one Days; but should they continue for the Space of Ten Days over and above that Period, an additional One Penny per Ton shall be paid for such Ten Days, and One Penny per Ton for every further Day.

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WHARFAGE AND WAREHOUSING RATES AT CHELTENHAM.

For every Package not exceeding Fifty-six Pounds 1d.
Ditto, above Fifty-six Pounds and under Five Hundred 2d.
Ditto, exceeding Five Hundred Pounds 6d per Ton.

The act of the 55th George III. was obtained for the purpose of enabling the proprietors to borrow the further sum of £15,000, to enable them to complete the railway, and to pay off the debt which had been incurred. It is entitled, 'An Act for enabling the Gloucester and Cheltenham Railway Company to raise a further Sum of Money for the completion of their Works.' The sum above-mentioned may be obtained by the creation of new shares, or in the mode prescribed by the preceding act.

This railway was originally projected with the two-fold purpose of relieving the roads between Gloucester and Cheltenham from the carriage of heavy articles, and for bringing coal to the highly celebrated and improving town of Cheltenham; the importance of which to the inhabitants of that place has been abundantly felt by the great reduction in the price of coal that immediately took place on completing the railway.

GRAND JUNCTION CANAL.

33 Geo. III. C. 80, R. A. 30th Apr. 1793.

34 Geo. III. C. 24, R. A. 28th Mar. 1794.

35 Geo. III. C. 8, R. A. 5th Mar. 1795.

35 Geo. III. C. 43, R. A. 28th Apr. 1795.

35 Geo. III. C. 85, R. A. 2nd June, 1795.

36 Geo. III. C. 25, R. A. 24th Dec. 1795.

38 Geo. III. C. 33, R. A. 26th May, 1798.

41 Geo. III. C. 71, R. A. 20th June, 1801.

43 Geo. III. C. 8, R. A. 24th Mar. 1803.

45 Geo. III. C. 68, R. A. 27th June, 1805.

52 Geo. III. C. 140, R. A. 9th June, 1812.

58 Geo. III. C. 16, R. A. 17th Mar. 1818.

59 Geo. III. C. 111, R. A. 22nd June, 1819.

THIS stupendous and most useful line of navigation begins at Braunston, in the county of Northampton, where it unites with the Oxford Canal, bordering upon the county of Warwick.. Its course from Braunston is between Welton and Daventry, with a cut one mile and a half to the latter place; leaving Long Breckby to the left, it proceeds to Gayton, where a cut goes off five miles to Northampton. From Gayton it passes Blisworth, and through a tunnel to Stoke, Grafton and Cosgrove, near which last place there is a branch to Stoney-Stratford; below this, the canal joins the River Ouse, which it crosses; thence, passing

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Great Dinford, Little and Great Wolston, Woughton, &c. to King's Langley, and from that place through a short tunnel, by Grove Park to Rickmansworth, at a little distance from which town a branch of two miles extends to Watford; from Rickmansworth, as far as Uxbridge, in a parallel line with the River Colne, which it crosses several times; from Uxbridge it proceeds to Norwood and Osterley Park, where, intersecting the River Brent, it falls into the Thames, between Brentford and Sion House, completing a course of above ninety miles.

It was in the year 1792 that this undertaking first had its origin. In the beginning of that year the Marquis of Buckingham instructed Mr. Barnes, the eminent engineer, to make a survey of the country between Braunston, in Northamptonshire, the place where the Oxford Canal has its junction with the present canal, and the Thames near London, in order to mark out a line of canal, whereby the circuitous course by the Thames Navigation from Oxford might be avoided, and the transit of goods to the metropolis accelerated. Mr. Barnes's survey was laid before a public meeting at Stoney-Stratford, in June of the above year, when his plan was approved, and a committee formed for carrying on the scheme. The first act was consequently obtained, and received the royal assent on the 30th April, 1793. It is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the Oxford Canal Navigation at Braunston, in the county of Northampton, to join the River Thames at or near Brentford, in the county of Middlesex; and also certain collateral Cuts from the said intended Canal.' By this act the shareholders, who were incorporated under the title of "The Company of Proprietors of the Grand Junction Canal," are empowered to raise £500,000, in shares of £100 each, to be deemed personal estate; and should that sum be insufficient to carry the powers of the act into effect, they may raise £100,000 more, either amongst themselves, or by the admission of new subscribers, or by mortgage of the tolls of the canal. By this act it is provided that the canal shall unite with the Thames, at the place where that river receives the eastern branch of the River Brent, near Sion House; and it is also enacted that a collateral cut for the navigation of boats, barges, and other vessels, shall branch from it at the north-east

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end of the town of Daventry, and another, for the same purposes, to branch therefrom in the parish of Gayton, in the county of Northampton, to join the navigation of the River Nen, at Northampton; a third cut from the parish of Cosgrove, to join the turnpike road leading to London, at Old Stratford, in the same county; and a fourth branch, extending from Rickmansworth to Watford, both in Hertfordshire. It is provided, by one of the clauses of this act, that, in passing through Osterley Park, the estates of J. Robinson, Esq. the Duke of Northumberland, and James Clitheroe, Esq. the towing-paths shall be on the north, north-east, and east side of the canal, and that no water shall be taken from those domains to the use of the canal. Reservoirs are also to be provided for supplying the Rivers Gade, Colne, and Bulbourne, with as much water as may be taken from them for its use, and the same provision is made for the River Brent. From the Thames to Bax's Mill, the owners of wharfs, warehouses, &c. are not to pay any rates or tolls of this canal, not even the duty of one half-penny per ton, which, it will be seen below, is granted to the city of London; and it is further enacted, that waste water from this canal shall be so carried from the summit at Marsworth, as neither to impede the navigation of the Brent, nor inconvenience the owners of wharfs, &c. on it. By this act the following are allowed as

TONNAGE RATES.

Lime and Limestone ¼d per Ton, per Mile.
Cattle, Sheep, Swine and other Beasts, Flint and other Stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slate, Sand, Fuller's-earth, Iron-stone, Pig-iron, Pig-lead, and all Kinds of Manure, (except Lime) ½d ditto. ditto.
Coke and Coal ¾d ditto. ditto.
All other Goods, Wares and Merchandize whatsoever 1d ditto. ditto.
For all Goods, Wares and Merchandise, passing from the Canal into the Thames, or vice versa ½d per Ton.
All Barges and other Vessels whatsoever, navigated on the Thames, or any part thereof Westward of London Bridge to Strand-on-the-Green, or Brentford, by an Act of the 17th George III. pay to the Lord Mayor, Aldermen and Commons of the City of London ½d ditto.

Fractions to be considered as One Mile, and all Fractions of a Ton to be taken according to the Quarters of a Ton contained therein.

Forty Cubic Feet of Oak, Ash, or Elm, and Fifty Cubic Feet of Fir, Deal, Plank, Poplar, Beech or Birch, to be rated as One Ton; One Hundred and Twenty Pounds, Avoirdupois, of Coal or Coke, as One Hundred Weight; and One Hundred and Twelve Pounds of any other Article.

Proprietors may fix the Price of Carriage for any Parcel not exceeding Five Hundred Weight. affixing the same on every Wharf of the said CanaL

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EXEMPTIONS.

Officers and Soldiers on march, their Horses, Arms and Baggage, Timber for his Majesty's Service, and the Persons having Care thereof; Stores for ditto, on Production of Certificate from the Navy Board or Ordnance. Also Gravel, Sand, and other Materials for making or repairing any Public Roads, and Manure for Land, if the same do not pass any Lock.

Lords of manors and land-owners may erect warehouses and wharfs in their own lands adjoining the canal; but if not done after due notice from the company, the said company may themselves build the same.

No Rates to be taken by the Owners of Wharfs for Wharfage of Minerals, Timber or other Goods, unless the same shall lie on the Wharfs or Quays more than Six Hours, and no more than One Penny per Ton shall be taken for Wharfage of Coal, Lime-stone, Iron-stone, Brick, Tile, Slate, Flint, or other Stone or Sand; nor more than Two-pence per Ton for any other Goods, where the same shall remain more than Six Hours, but shall not continue longer than Six Days, except Coal, Iron and Lime-stone, which may remain for Six Months, on Payment of One Penny per Ton; and after that Time One Half-penny per Ton per Day shall be paid for Wharfage; no Money being taken for the Conveyance of Materials for repairing or making of Roads.

The navigation of this canal is open, on payment of the rates, as above, for vessels, between the hours of seven and five in November, December, January, and February; between the hours of five and seven in March, April, September, and October, and between the hours of four and nine in May, June, July, and August; but no boat of less than 60 feet in length, and 12 in breadth, or of less than thirty tons burthen, can pass any lock without special consent, or paying tonnage for thirty tons, unless the water runs over at the weir; but when there is a want of water in the locks, vessels only pay for such tonnage as the water allows them to carry. But to parties who constantly travel by night, the company grant licenses at certain rates per annum for that permission.

When this canal was projected, it was thought that it might injure the Oxford Canal Company, it was therefore provided by the present act, that the following rates should be paid to that company.

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Coals passing from the said Oxford Canal into or upon the intended Grand Junction, without any regard to the Distance the same shall pass on the said Oxford Canal 2s 9d per Ton.

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TONNAGE RATES CONTINUED.

For all other Wares, Merchandize and Goods, passing ftom any navigable Canal into the Oxford, and thence into the intended Canal, and vice versa, except Lime, Limestone, and such other Articles as are exempt from Payment of Rates or Duties by the Oxford Canal Act, without any regard to the Distance passed on the said Oxford Canal 4s 4d per Ton.

Proportionate Charges to be made for less than a Ton.

If, after the completion of the canal, from its junction with the Oxford Canal to Old Stratford, the tolls to the Oxford do not amount to £5,000 a year, the deficiency shall be made good by the Grand Junction Company; and if, after the communication is opened between the Oxford Canal and the Thames, or after the 1st January, 1804, the rates shall not secure to the Oxford Canal Company the sum of £10,000 a year, the deficiency shall be made good by this company within three months; it being understood that the Oxford Canal is kept in good condition.

We have mentioned above, the toll of one half-penny per ton, to be paid for goods going in or out of this canal from the Thames, and the toll of equal amount due to time municipal authorities of London; if these rates do not amount annually to £200 from 30th April to Midsusnmer, 1795, and to £500 for the year ending Midsummer, 1796; £600 for the year 1797, and so on, increasing by £100 each year, till 1801, when the sum of £1,000 is to be paid to the said Mayor, Aldermen and Commons, or those whom they shall appoint, the deficiency shall be made up by the company; and if the said tolls exceed the said sums, then the said Mayor, Aldermen and Commons shall pay to the said company the surplus for the purposes of the act; but after 1801, the excess above £1,000 per annum shall belong to the said Mayor, Aldermen and Commons of London. A penalty of £50 is to be levied, if coals, culm, or cinders are brought by this canal, nearer to London than the mouth of the tunnel at Langley Bar.

In 1794, about a year after the granting of the first act, a second was obtained, entitled, 'An Act for making certain navigable Cuts from the towns of Buckingham, Aylesbury, and Wendover, in the county of Buckingham, to communicate with the Grand Junction Navigation authorized to be made by an Act of the last Session of Parliament, and for amending the said Act.'

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