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This Book "Priestley's Navigable Rivers and Canals" by Joseph Priestley was previously published in April 1831. NOTE: Oringinally called "Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways, of Great Britain".
For more information see About this Book

Index Page Link to Previous Page 261

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name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Exeter and Crediton Navigation," with power to raise £21,400, in two hundred and fourteen shares of £100 each, and an additional sum of £10,700, if necessary.

At the two extremities of this proposed navigation, basins were to be made, with the necessary accommodation of warehouses, wharfs, weighing beams, cranes, &c. Very heavy rates were allowed by this act, viz. for timber, 1s. per ton per mile, and all other articles, except manure and lime for manure, 6d. per ton per mile. An additional rate of 2d. per ton was also to be paid for entering any basin belonging to this navigation.

Notwithstanding these demonstrations, and the encouragement given by the legislature to the projectors by this favourable act, no further steps appear to have been taken for carrying its powers into execution; nor is there now much prospect of it.

FAL OR VALE RIVER.

30 Charles II. Cap. 11, Royal Assent 15th July, 1678.

THIS river has its source on the high grounds three miles east of the town of St. Columb Major, in Cornwall, whence it flows southwardly by the stream works on Tregoss Moor, and by other tin mines, to Grampound; thence through Golden Vale, and by Tregony to Trewarthenick, where it becomes of considerable width; and, after winding through the extensive woods and plantations belonging to Tregothnan, the elegant seat of the Earl of Falmouth, it opens into a considerable estuary, sometimes called the Mopus, which conducts through Garreg Roads to Falmouth Harbour, and thence into the sea at Falmouth Bay.

This is a tideway river; and an act was obtained in the reign of Charles the Second to improve it; but, in consequence of Tregony declining in the exact ratio with the growing importance of Truro, (which may be said to he the capital of Cornwall,) this navigation seems now to be of little consequence. The act is entitled, 'An Act for making navigable the River Fale or Vale, in the county of Cornwall.'

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Truro is one of the principal markets for the sale of the produce of the Cornish Mines; and, from its being situate on a navigable branch of the Fal, called the River Mopus, and about eleven miles north from Falmouth, it possesses all the advantages required for the shipment of the vast quantity of copper and other valuable ores, which this rich mineral district continues to produce.

Falmouth, situate at the mouth of this river, is a sea-port, into which, in 1824, twenty-nine British and eight Foreign vessels entered. It possesses an excellent harbour; and a fine and spacious roadstead; but it derives its chief importance from being the regular station of the packet boats, which carry Foreign mails into all parts of the world.

FORTH RIVER.

THIS noble river has its source about two miles north of Ben Lomond, (that celebrated mountain in Scotland, which rears its giant form 3,262 feet above the level of the sea,) and proceeds south-easterly, passing the Clachan of Aberfoil by a very serpentine course, through a comparatively level district, (which in Scotland is denominated Carse Lands,) to a short distance above Stirling, where it is joined by the River Teth, which flows from the Lochs Catrine, Achray, Venacher, and others situate in the wild district of the Grampians.

About midway between the above junction and Stirling, it is joined by the River Allan. From Stirling the windings of the river are singularly intricate; and, in its meanderings to Alloa, (which is but six miles in a straight line,) it takes such strange peninsulating sweeps, that its course measures nearly twenty miles. However beautiful this part may appear, it is exceedingly troublesome to the navigator; for, though vessels of from sixty to seventy tons burthen have sufficient water to Stirling, yet if they trusted to sails alone, they would require wind from every point of the compass to bring them to their destination, and that more than once; on which account, this part of the river is little used as a navigation.

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About three miles west of Alloa, the navigable River Devon falls into the Forth; but between it and the town above-mentioned, a stratum of rock occupies the bed of the river, which constitutes a kind of bar, over which vessels of more than seventy tons seldom venture. This place is a little above the largest island in the river, and is designated the Thrask Shallows. From the Devon, the Forth gradually opens into an estuary, which, opposite the mouth of the Carron, is two miles in width; and a few miles further down, between Borrowstounness and Culross, it is full three miles; but again contracts to little more than one mile a short distance below Queen's Ferry. At Leith, which is seven miles and a half below the last-mentioned place, it is nearly six miles in width; and between Preston Pans and Kirkaldy, it is above twelve miles.

The length of this magnificent river and estuary, from Stirling to the Isle of May, where it may be said to enter the German Ocean, is about seventy English miles, viz. from Stirling to opposite the River Carron and Forth and Clyde Canal, twenty-four miles; thence to Leith twenty miles; and to the Isle of May it is twenty-six miles. Within the limits above described are five ports, viz. Leith, Alloa, Anstruther, Grangemouth and Preston Pans.

The tide flows up this river to Craigforth Mill, a short distance beyond Stirling; and at Cambus Quay, at the mouth of the Devon, (though above fifty miles from the sea,) it is frequently known to rise 20 feet at spring tides. Several attempts have been made to improve the navigation beyond Alloa; and in particular by Messrs. Watt and Morrison, in 1767. These gentlemen proposed to extend the navigation from Stirling to the lime and slate quarries at Aberfoil, and, by four cuts, to shorten the course from Stirling to Alloa seven miles. Mr. Smeaton's opinion was taken on these proposed improvements, and also as to the removal or avoiding the Thrask Shallows; and though all was proved quite practicable, they have been suffered, either from the want of spirit in the parties most interested, or from one cause or other, to remain in statu quo, with all their imperfections.

The River Forth is a free navigation; the only tolls paid on it being for the use, and towards the support of several ferries, for which an act was obtained in the 32nd of George III. cap. 93,

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entitled, 'An Act for improving the Communication between the county of Edinburgh and the county of Fife, by the Passages or Ferries across the Firth of Forth, between Leith and Newhaven, in the county of Edinburgh, and Kinghorn and Bruntisland, in the county of Fife; and for rendering the Harbours and Landing Places more commodious.'

It appears, by an act made in the parliament of Scotland in 1669, entitled, 'Act for repairing Highways and Bridges,' and another in 1686, entitled, 'Additional Act anent Highways and Bridges,' that justices of the peace, assisted by the commissioners of supply in the several shires, are empowered to manage and regulate the ferries of the Forth.

By the act of 32nd George III. above-recited, additional powers are granted for maintaining the ferries between Kinghorn and Newhaven, and Bruntisland and Leith and Newhaven, and the following tolls and duties are payable.

FERRY TOLLS.

For every Person 0s 1d.
For every Horse and Cart Load of Goods 0s 2d each.
Carriages with Two Wheels (not subject to a higher Duty) 0s 3d ditto.
Ditto, ditto, (liable to pay Duty) 0s 6d ditto.
Ditto, Four Wheels 1s 6d ditto.
Oxen and other Cattle 1s 8d per Score.
Calves, Hogs, Sheep or Lambs 0s 10d ditto.
Grain or Meal 0s ½d per Boll.

These Duties are over and above what is paid to the Skipper or Boats Crew.
Vessels entering the Harbours of Kinghorn or Bruntisland, according to their Admeasurement 0s ¼d per Ton.

The trustees for the management of these ferries may borrow £3,000 on the credit of the duties; of which £600 was to be spent in improving the basin at Kinghorn, otherwise Pettycur; and an equal sum in improving the communication to this harbour from the east; £900 in building an inn at Pettycur, (of which £600 is to be repaid by the burgh of Kinghorn;) £50 towards keeping a light at Pettycur Harbour, and the like sum for another at Bruntisland; £500 in improving the communication between the turnpike road and the harbour of Bruntisland; and £1,000 in erecting a pier and landing at Newhaven.

On the River Forth a very extensive general trade is constantly maintained; for, independently of the vast quantity of merchandize

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which must necessarily pass along it, to supply the richest and most populous parts of Scotland, it has, by means of the Forth and Clyde Canal, a communication with the extensive manufacturing districts around Glasgow and Paisley, and with the western parts of England and Scotland, and with Ireland. On its banks are eighteen market towns; and it washes the shores of eight of its counties.

Leith being the port of Edinburgh, and the principal rendezvous for shipping, considerable cost has been incurred in rendering the harbour proportionably commodious. In 1777 a new quay was constructed on the north side of the harbour. In 1806 a beautiful basin, 750 feet in length, and 300 in breadth, was opened, capable of containing forty ships of two hundred tons burthen. A second was finished in 1817; and these, together with three graving docks, occupy a site of eight acres, and have cost £250,000. Ships of very large burthen cannot enter this port; there being but 16 feet at spring tides, and 9 only at neaps.

A tolerable estimate of the extent of the trade which is carried on at this port, may be formed from parliamentary documents, by which it appears that custom duties were paid, in the year 1824, upon two hundred and twenty-two British, and one hundred and forty-six Foreign ships.

FORTH AND CLYDE CANAL.

8 Geo. III. C. 63, R. A. 8th Mar. 1768.

11 Geo. III. C. 62, R. A. 8th Mar. 1771.

13 Geo. III. C. 104, R. A. 10th May, 1773.

24 Geo. III. C. 59, R. A. 19th Aug. 1784.

27 Geo. III. C. 20, R. A. 21st May, 1787.

27 Geo. III. C. 55, R. A. 28th May, 1787.

30 Geo. III. C. 73, R. A. 9th June, 1790.

39 Geo. III. C. 71, R. A. 12th July, 1799.

46 Geo. III. C. 120, R. A. 12th July, 1806.

54 Geo. III. C. 195, R. A. 14th July, 1814.

1 Geo. IV. C. 48, R. A. 8th July, 1820.

THIS magnificent canal commences in the River Forth, in Grangemouth Harbour, and near to where the Carron empties itself into that river. Its course is parallel with the Carron, and in nearly a westwardly direction, passing to the north of the town of Falkirk, and thence to Red Bridge, where it quits the county of Stirling, and enters a detached portion of the shire of Dumbarton. Hence it passes to the south of Kilsyth, and runs along the south bank of the River Kelvin, and over the Logie Water, by a

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fine stone aqueduct, at Kirkintilloch; it then approaches within little more than two miles of the north-west quarter of the city of Glasgow, to which there is a branch communicating with the Monkland Canal at Port Dundas, near that city. The remaining part of the line is in a westwardly direction, crossing the Kelvin River by a noble aqueduct, and thence to the Clyde, into which, after running parallel with it for some distance, it locks down at Bowling's Bay, near Dalmuir Burnfoot.

The canal is thirty-five miles in length, viz, from Grangemouth to the east end of the summit pool, is ten miles and three quarters, with a rise, from low water in the Forth, of 155 feet, by twenty locks. The summit level is sixteen miles in length, and in the remainder of its course, there is a fall to low water, in the Clyde, at Bowling's Bay, of 156 feet, by nineteen locks.

The branch to the Monkland Canal at Glasgow is two miles and three quarters; and there is another cut into the Carron River, at Carron Shore, in order to communicate with the Carron Iron Works.

Though this canal was originally constructed for vessels drawing 7 feet, yet by recent improvements, sea-borne craft of 10 feet draught may now pass through it, from the Irish Sea to the German Ocean. The locks are 74 feet long and 20 wide; and upon its course are thirty-three draw-bridges, ten large aqueducts and thirty-three smaller ones; that over the Kelvin being 429 feet long and 65 feet above the surface of the stream. It is supplied with water from reservoirs; one of which, at Kilmananmuir, is seventy acres, and 22 feet deep at the sluice; and that at Kilsyth is fifty acres in extent, with 24 feet. water at its head.

The first act of parliament relating to this canal, received the royal assent on the 8th of March, 1768, and it is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the Firth or River of Forth, at or near the mouth of the River Carron, in the county of Stirling, to the Firth or River of Clyde, at or near a place called Dalmuir Burnfoot, in the county of Dumbarton; and also a collateral Cut from the same to the city of Glasgow; and for making a navigable Cut or Canal of Communication from the Port or Harbour of Borrowstounness, to join the said Canal at or near the place where it will fall into the Firth of Forth.'

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The subscribers were incorporated by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Forth and Clyde Navigation," with power to raise among themselves the sum of £150,000, in fifteen hundred shares of £100 each, and an additional sum of £50,000, if necessary.

Although it was not until after the passing of the above act that this great work was commenced, yet the project of forming a communication between the eastern and western seas had been agitated a long time previous; and, even as early as the reign of Charles the Second, the design was thought to be one of so much utility, that that monarch took measures for cutting a canal, through which, not only ordinary vessels, but also small ships of war might pass between sea and sea, without the danger of coasting.

The estimated cost of this early project was £500,000; but a variety of circumstances, and particularly the difficulty of raising such a sum, caused the prosecution of the design to be neglected, and no further steps were taken till 1723. In that year a survey and estimate were made by Mr. Gordon, an engineer of repute; but his calculation of the expenses deterred the projectors, and nothing was done. Thirty-six years after, Lord Napier employed Mr. Machell to lay down the plan of a canal, which should begin at the Clyde, about four miles below Glasgow, and end in the Forth, near the mouth of the River Carron. Mr. Machell's report in 1764 placed the utility of the undertaking in so striking a point of view, that " The Honourable the Board of Trustees for encouraging Fisheries, Manufactures, and Improvements in Scotland," immediately employed Mr. Smeaton to make the necessary surveys, and to estimate thereon. This eminent engineer produced a design, which at first deterred the parties by whom he was employed, as well by the apparent difficulties to be encountered, as by the immense sum he deemed necessary for its completion; but, on the projection of a smaller canal, opening a communication between Glasgow and the Forth, Mr. Smeaton's plan was reconsidered; and, after he had convinced all parties of the practicability of it, and completely refuted the objections of Mr. Brindley and other engineers, the act above-recited was obtained, and the execution of the canal immediately commenced under his direction.

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Estimates were made by Mr. Smeaton, of the several lines and various dimensions proposed for this canal; but the one under which the work was commenced amounted to £147,337, but augmented to £149,244, 8s. by the additional expense incident to a change in the line, which was effected under powers of an act of 11th George III. entitled, 'An Act to explain, amend, and render more effectual, an Act made in the Eighth Year of his present Majesty's Reign, entitled, An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Cut or Canal from the Firth or River of Forth, at or near the mouth of the River of Carron, in the county of Stirling, to the Firth or River of Clyde, at or near a place called Dalmuir Burnfoot, in the county of Dumbarton; and also a collateral Cut from the same to the city of Glasgow; and for making a navigable Cut or Canal of Communication from the Port and Harbour of Borrowstounness, to join the said Canal at or near the place where it will fall into the River of Forth.' Several other acts became necessary as the works proceeded; but as they have relation chiefly to the supply of the requisite funds for prosecuting the undertaking, we shall but briefly notice them.

The third act received the royal assent on the 10th May, 1773, and is entitled, 'An Act to enlarge the Powers of two Acts, made in the Eighth and Eleventh Years of the Reign of his present Majesty, for making and maintaining a navigable Cut or Canal from the Firth or River of Forth, at or near the mouth of the River of Carron, in the county of Stirling, to the Firth or River of Clyde, at or near a place called Dalmuir Burnfoot, in the county of Dumbarton; and also a collateral Cut from the same to the city of Glasgow; and for making a navigable Cut or Canal of Communication from the Port and Harbour of Borrowstounness, to join the said Canal, at or near the place where it will fall into the Firth of Forth;' by which the company are authorized to borrow, on assignment of the tolls as a security, the sum of £70,000.

The execution of this canal proceeded with such rapidity, under the direction of Mr. Smeaton, that in two years and three quarters from the date of the first act, one half of the work was finished; when, in consequence of some misunderstanding between him and the proprietors, he declined any further connection with

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the work, which was shortly afterwards let to contractors, who however failed, and the canal was again placed under the direction of its original projector, who brought it to within six miles of its proposed junction with the Clyde, when the work was stopped in 1775 for want of funds, and it continued at a stand for several years.

For the purpose, however, of opening a communication between the part already executed and the city of Glasgow, a subscription was entered into by the inhabitants of that place, to make a branch, so that by effecting a junction with the Forth, the part excavated might immediately be brought into useful operation.

After the lapse of nine years from the stoppage above alluded to, an act was obtained, entitled, 'An Act for extending, amending and altering the Powers of an Act made in the Eighth Year of his present Majesty, entitled, An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the Firth or River of Forth, at or near the mouth of the River Carron, in the county of Stirling, to the Firth or River of Clyde, at or near a place called Dalmuir Burnfoot, in the county of Dumbarton; and also a collateral Cut from the same to the city of Glasgow; and for making a navigable Cut or Canal of Communication from the Port or Harbour of Borrowstounness, to join the said Canal at or near the place where it will fall into the Firtl& of Forth,' by which the Barons of the Court of Exchequer in Scotland, are, out of the money arising from the sale of forfeited estates, directed to lend the Forth and Clyde Navigation Company the sum of £50,000, by which they were enabled to resume their labours, under the direction of Mr. Robert Whitworth, an engineer possessing a well earned reputation, and by whom it was finished and opened on the 28th July, 1790. Previous, however, to this period, three other acts of parliament relating to this canal received the royal sanction; of which, one was on the 21st of May, in the 27th of George III. and another the week following, and the last on the 9th of June, in the 30th of that reign.

The first which passed into a law is entitled, 'An Act for varying and extending the Powers of the Company of Proprietors of the Forth and Clyde Navigation;' and the other, 'An Act for altering and extending the Line of the Cut or Canal, authorized

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'to be made and maintained by so much of several Acts made in the Eighth, Eleventh, Thirteenth and Twenty-fourth Years of the Reign of his present Majesty, as authorizes the making and maintaining a navigable Cut or Canal from the Firth or River of Forth, at or near the mouth of the River of Carron, in the county of Stirling, to the Firth or River of Clyde, at or near a place called Dalmuir Burnfoot, in the county of Dumbarton; and also a collateral Cut from the same to the city of Glasgow; for deepening the said Cut or Canal; and for explaining and amending so much of the said Acts, as relates to the making and maintaining the said Cut or Canal.' The 30th George III. is entitled, 'An Act for forming a Junction between the Forth and Clyde Navigation, and the Monkland Navigation; and for altering, enlarging and explaining several former Acts passed for making and maintaining the said Navigation.'

On the 12th of July, 1799, an act was passed to enable the company to repay the sum of £50,000, borrowed of the Court of Exchequer in Scotland, and to declare the capital stock of the company to amount to £421,525, notwithstanding that the company were restrained, by the act of 8th George III. from dividing more than ten per cent, on the original stock of £150,000. This, however, was permitted, in consequence of the proprietors having never received any dividend. This act is entitled, 'An Act for empowering the Company of Proprietors of the Forth and Clyde Navigation to repay into the Court of Exchequer in Scotland, the Sum advanced to them for the Purpose of completing the said Navigation; for repealing so much of an Act of the Twenty-fourth of his present Majesty as relates to the said Company; and for enabling the Barons of the said Court of Exchequer to advance Part of the Sum so to be received, to the Company of Proprietors of the Crinan Canal, on certain Conditions.'

By the act of 46th George III. a very material change is effected in the constitution of the company, and of the rates which they have hitherto received. It is entitled, 'An Act to alter and amend the several Acts passed for making and maintaining the Forth and Clyde Navigation;' by which it is enacted that the management of this concern shall be in future vested in a governor and seven other persons, who shall be called "The Governor and

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"Council of the Company of Proprietors of the Forth and Clyde Navigation," who have power to appoint a committee of three. The schedule of tolls granted in the former acts are hereby repealed; and the following tonnage rates are allowed in lieu thereof.

TONNAGE RATES.

All Goods and Commodities whatsoever 4d per Ton, per Mile.
Light Boats or other Vessels, without lading or in Ballast only, (according to their respective Register or Admeasurement) 2d ditto. ditto.
British or Irish Vessels lying in any of the Harbours or Basins 2d per Ton.
Foreign ditto, ditto 4d ditto.
Timber lying in any of the Basins 4d per Ton, per Month.

And so in Proportion for any greater or less Time than a Month.

WHARFAGE RATES.

Goods and Commodities, remaining above Twenty~four Hours upon any of the Quays, Wharfs, or Landing Places, or at any Place on the Line of Navigation 2d per Ton, per Day.

And so in Proportion.
Goods landed or put into Lighters from, and on all Goods loaded into, Vessels lying in the said Canal or Basins 2d per Ton.
Every Vessel lying in any of the Basins for a longer Time than Twenty-four Days 1d per Ton, per Day.

Every Vessel coming into any of the said Harbours or Basins, a Duty of Sixpence sterling, on every Fifty Tons of the Burthen thereof, for Lighting the said Harbours and Basins

The act of 54th George III. is entitled, 'An Act to enlarge, alter, and amend the Powers of the several Acts for making and maintaining the Forth and Clyde Navigation;' and by which the company of proprietors are empowered to purchase ground for extending the basin, and to make new wharfs at Port Dundas, near Glasgow, and to make the canal 10 feet deep. This act further directs that Lord Dundas shall be entitled to receive, for all vessels lying on the south side of the outer basin at Grangemouth, the same rates of wharfage which the company are empowered to collect under power of the 46th George III. In the act which authorizes the company to carry the above works into execution, a power is given to borrow the sum of £40,000, on security of the rates and duties.

In consideration of the expense the company will incur by maintaining a bank and towing paths from the harbour of Grangemouth to the mouth of the Carron River, they are empowered to demand, from all ships and other vessels coming from Grange-

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mouth Harbour, or using the towing path in navigating the river of Carron, the sum of 4d. per ton, according to the registered admeasurement of such vessel

The last act relating to this navigation received the royal assent on the 8th of July, 1820. It is entitled, 'An Act for altering and amending several Acts for making and maintaining the Forth and Clyde Navigation;' wherein it appears, that since the passing of the act of 39th George III. the company have, by enlarging the canal, and increasing its depth to 9 feet, and by other works, expended the further sum of £98,315, including the £40,000, borrowed under authority of the last-recited act; by which their stock has accumulated to, and is hereafter to be considered as £519,840.

Power is given to borrow £80,000, on assignment of the rates, for the purpose of making the canal 1 foot deeper, so that the navigation may be 10 feet deep throughout.

The original object proposed by this canal was to open a communication between those important rivers, the Forth and Clyde, and between the northern metropolis and the manufacturing towns of Glasgow and Paisley; and whether as respects the utility of the work, the magnitude of the undertaking, or the skill and ingenuity with which it was designed and executed, the Forth and Clyde Canal will ever hold a distinguished place amongst the most important branches of our inland navigation.

Besides the fine rivers above-mentioned, it is joined by the Edinburgh and Glasgow Union Canal, near Falkirk; with the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway at its summit, near the last-mentioned village; and with the Monkland Canal and the Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway, at Port Dundas, near the city of Glasgow.

FOSS NAVIGATION.

33 George III. Cap. 99, Royal Assent 30th April, 1793.

41 George III. Cap. 115, Royal Assent 23rd June, 1801.

THE river which gives a name to this navigation, has its source near Newburgh Hall, about four miles north of Easingwold, whence it crosses Oulstone Moor, where a reservoir is constructed, for the purpose of supplying the navigation in dry seasons. Its

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course hence is through a detached part of the Bishopric of Durham by Stillington Mill, and to Sheriff Hutton Bridge, where the navigation commences. From the New Inn, near the bridge last-mentioned, a canal, two miles in length, is made, which cuts off a considerable bend, and enters the river near Duncombe House; thence the old course of the river is the line of navigation by Strensall, Towthorpe, Earswick, and Huntington, to the city of York, through the east quarter of which it flows, and falls into the Ouze on the south side of the castle. The length of the navigation is twelve miles and a half, with a total rise of 47 feet 8 inches from the surface of the Ouze in its ordinary summer state.

Mr. William Jessop designed this navigation in 1791, and estimated the cost at £16,274; but the first act was not obtained until the 30th April, 1793. It is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Communication from the Junction of the River Foss with the River Ouze, at or near the city of York, to Stillington Mill, in the parish of Stillington, in the North Riding of the county of York; and for draining and improving certain Low Lands lying on each side of the said River Foss.' The subscribers, at the time the act was obtained, were one hundred and six in number; amongst whom were Viscountess Irwin, Sir William M. Milner, and the Lord Mayor and Commonalty of the city of York, who were incorporated by the name of "The Foss Navigation Company," with power to raise among themselves the sum of £25,400, in two hundred and fifty-four shares of £100 each; and, if necessary, they may borrow the further sum of £10,000 on the credit of the undertaking.

TONNAGE RATES ALLOWED BY THIS ACT.

Lime, Coal, Slack, Cinders or Culm, per Chaldron of Thirty two Winchester Bushels 2d per Mile.
Dung, Soot, Rape-Dust, or other Manure, Wheat, Rye, Oats, Barley, Beans, Malt, Hay Seeds, Rapeseed, Mustard-seed, Linseed, and other Grain and Seeds of all Sorts, Oatmeal, Flour, Oat Shelling, Stock and Common Bricks, Square Paving Bricks or Tiles, Oak, Ash, Elm, Beech,Fir, or other Timber, or Logs of Mahogany, Oak Bark, Deals of all Kinds, Wainscot Boards, Pipe Staves, or other Articles of Wood, Stone, Flags, Slate, Bar Iron, or Manufactured Iron, Butter, Bacon. Cheese, Salt, Hay, Straw, and Wool 2d per Ton, per Mile.
For every other Sort of Goods, Wares or Merchandise 3d ditto. ditto.

For the Purposes of this Act, Forty Feet of Oak, Ash, Elm, or Beech Timber; and Fifty Feet of Fir, or Deal, Balk, Poplar, or other Wood, shall be deemed a Ton.

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For all Articles conveyed between the River Ouze and Monkbridge only, double Rates may be demanded.

If Goods remain on the Wharfs belonging to the Company a longer Time than Twenty-four Hours, an Allowance to be made for the same.

Vessels under Twenty-five Tons not to pass Looks without leave, or without paying for that Amount.

Land-owners may make Wharfs and charge Two-pence per Ton for all Goods remaining on them for any Period under Six Days.

The act of the 41st George III. is entitled, 'An Act to explain and amend an Act passed in the Thirty-third Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, entitled, An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Communication from the Junction of the River Foss with the River Ouze, at or near the city of York, to Stillington Mill, in the parish of Stillington, in the North Riding of the county of York; and for draining and improving certain Low Lands lying on each side of the said River Foss, so far as the said Act relates to the said Navigation; and for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the said Navigation to complete the same.' It was obtained chiefly for the purpose of raising money to complete the navigation, the company having failed in their endeavour to borrow the sum of £10,000, which the former act authorized them to do. This act therefore directs that the above-mentioned sum shall be raised by the admission of new subscribers, or by calls on the proprietors in proportion to their respective shares; and if £10,000 is not sufficient, they may borrow, on mortgage of the rates, the further sum of £10,000; and if the funds are insufficient to complete the navigation to Stillington Mill, the company are authorized to terminate this navigation at Sheriff Hutton Bridge.

This act further empowers the company to demand an additional tonnage rate, equal to half the former rate, whenever the nett profits of the navigation are below four per cent. upon the outlay.

The object of this navigation is the conveyance of coal and general merchandize into the interior of the county north of York; and to export the surplus agricultural produce. It serves, also, to drain the low grounds in the immediate vicinity of York, for which a drainage tax is annually levied upon the adjoining land.

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FOSSDIKE NAVIGATION.

THIS very ancient canal commences in the River Trent, at Torksey, about ten miles south of Gainsborough; from whence its course lies south-eastwardly, through a very flat and monotonous district to Brayford Mere, about a quarter of a mile west of Lincoln High Bridge. It is there joined by the Witham River, and at about five miles west of Lincoln the River Till falls into it, and these, together, supply the necessary lockage water.

This navigation is eleven miles in length, and level throughout. At Torksey there is a double lock, with gates pointed both ways, so that it equally prevents the entrance of the flood waters of the Trent, and peas up the water in the canal for navigation purposes; and, at its other extremity, is another lock into the Witham, for keeping up the water in the canal at a greater height than heretofore, and for preventing the flood waters of the Witham from entering it, which formerly did great damage to the banks.

As we are much in the dark respecting the time at which, or by whom this canal was excavated, it has afforded considerable scope for ingenuity and research. The celebrated antiquary and ingenious author of 'Itinerarium Curiosum,' Dr. Stukeley, in a letter addressed to Mr. Gale, August 2nd, 1735, states his belief that it was executed by the Romans as a continuation of Caerdike, a deep excavation, apparently made for the purposes of navigation, extending from the navigable River Nene, near Peterborough, in Northamptonshire, to the Witham, into which it enters at Washenburgh, a short distance below the city of Lincoln. He further states that the village of 'Torksey was a Roman town, built at the entrance of the Foss into the Trent, to secure the navigation of those parts, and as a storehouse for corn, and was walled about.'

The Doctor is borne out in this opinion from the account given in Domesday Book, wherein it appears, that before the coming of the Normans, Torksey was a place of considerable consequence, with two hundred burgesses, who possessed many privileges on condition that they should carry the King's Ambassadors, as often

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as they came that way, down the Trent in their own barges, and conduct them to York; and their original charter is still preserved, and occasionally acted upon.

Leland observes, 'The Fosse-Diche begynnith a quarter of a mile above Lincoln, and so goeth to Torksey a 7 mile strait in length. Bishop Atwater began to cleanse Fosse-Diche and did so half its length from Torksey in hope to bring vessels to Lincoln - but on his death it was neglected.' But this by no means leads to the conclusion that it had been previously navigated; nor does it disprove the contrary opinion; as, by its connection with the Till and Witham, it was liable to be silted up by the mud and sand introduced by flood waters.

Camden will have it that the Fossdike was cut by Henry I.; but as he quotes Hovedon, and the latter historian has almost literally copied Simeon Dunelmensis, it seems more than doubtful that he has truly interpreted his author. Simeon's passage is this, - ' Eodem anno (1121,) Henricus rex facto longa terræ intercessione fossato à Torkseie usque Lincolniam per derivationem Trentæ fluminis fecit iter navium.' Now, as the surface of the water in the Fossdike is 4 or 5 feet above the level of the Trent, it is matter of impossibility that the waters of the Trent should have been diverted through this channel, unless the surface of the Fossdike has been raised to the difference which now exists in the level between the Trent and this navigation. But, as neither Hovedon or Simeon Dunelmensis ever saw the Fossdike, we ought not to be surprized that they have been led into this opinion.

It seems very probable, and it is the opinion of Dr. Stukeley, that King Henry only scoured out the canal, and rendered it a better navigation; and, as a proof, if proof it may be called, that he did not execute the canal, we have it on record that, in the time of Domesday Book, it was said that the King's Monnetari at Nottingham, had, in the days of Edward the Confessor, the care of the River Trent, and of the Fossdike, and of the navigation therein. Now, as this King died in 1066, before the Norman Conquest, it is clear that the supposition of Camden is not supported,

The proprietors employed Messrs. Smeaton and Grundy, in

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1762, to suggest a mode of improving this navigation, which they did by recommending a lock at Brayford Head, and to raise the water 10 inches higher, so as to make the canal 3 feet 6 inches in depth. Their estimate for this and other necessary works amounted to £3,816, 18s. 8d. Twenty years afterwards, Mr. Smeaton again reported on this navigation, by which it appears that the previous designs of this eminent engineer and his colleague had not been carried into execution. But, as these reports relate more particularly to the drainage of the adjacent lands, we shall not further advert to them.

The original object of this canal, adopting the opinion that it is a monument of Roman ingenuity and greatness, was to convey the corn produced in the rich provinces of Lincoinshire, Northamptonshire, &c. direct to their favourite station of Eboracum (York,) by means of a canal, rather than trust to the uncertain circuitous navigation seaward. It is still used for the export of the surplus agricultural produce, but more particularly to import coal to Lincoln and its vicinity.

Those who desire further information respecting these Roman works, we refer to a letter addressed by the Rev. Dr. Stukeley, in 1735, to Francis Drake, F.R.S. at the time the latter gentleman was engaged in writing his Eboracum, and which will be found at full length, at page 38 of that excellent History of the Antiquities of the City of York.

GARNKIRK AND GLASGOW RAILWAY.

7 George IV. Cap. 103, Royal Assent 26th May, 1826.

7 & 8 George IV. Cap. 88, Royal Assent 14th June, 1827.

11 George IV. Cap. 125, Royal Assent 17th June, 1830.

THIS railway commences from the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway at Cargill Colliery, near Gartsherrie Bridge, in the county of Lanark, whence it proceeds in a westwardly direction by Gartcloss, Gartcosh, Garnkirk, Robroyston, Milton, Broomfield, Gernuston, Rosebank, and Pinkston, to the north end of the bridge across the cut of junction between the Forth and Clyde and Monkland Canals, on the road between Glasgow Field and Keppoch. It is in length eight miles, one furlong and four chains;

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in the first five thousand one hundred and forty-eight yards from its western termination near Glasgow, it is on one inclined plane, rising 116 feet 9 inches; the remaining five miles and a quarter is a dead level. The railway was designed by Mr. Thomas Grainger, who estimated the cost, according to the first design, at £28,497, 17s. 4d.; but subsequently, when it was determined to alter it to the line above-described, at £37,847, 17s. 4d. The subscribers to this undertaking, at the time the first act was obtained, were twelve persons only, who were incorporated by the name of "The Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway Company," and empowered to raise the amount of the original estimate of £28,497, 17g. 4d. in fifty shares; and if this sum is insufficient, they may borrow the additional sum of £10,000, on the credit of the undertaking. The act is entitled, 'An Act for making a Railway from the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway, by Garnkirk to Glasgow;' and by it the following tonnage rates are allowed.

TONNAGE RATES.

Lime-stone, Dung, Compost, and all Sorts of Manure, and Materials for the repair of Roads 0s 2d per Ton, per Mile.
Coal, Coke, Culm, Charcoal, Cinders, Stone, Sand, Bricks, Slates, Lime, Earth, Iron, Lead or other Metals or Minerals Unmanufactured 0s 3d ditto. ditto.
Timber, Corn, Flour, Goods, Lead in Sheets, Iron in Bars and all other Wares and Merchandize 0s 6d ditto. ditto.

For the use of any Waggon, Machinery, Engine, or Power belonging to the Company, One-half of the above Rates in Addition.

TONNAGE RATES.

For every Description of Goods which shall pass the Inclined Plane 1s 0d per Ton, per Mile.

Fractions to be charged according to the Number of Hundredweights, and Fractions of a Mile not less than a Quarter.
Passengers carried in any Carriage belonging to the Company 0s 2d per Mile.

Owners of lands may erect whath; but if they neglect, the company may make them, and demand the following rates.

WHARFAGE RATES.

Coal, Culm, Lime, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron-stone, Stone, Bricks, Gravel, Hay, Straw, Corn in the Straw or Manure ½d per Ton.
Iron, Lead-ore, or any other Ore, Tin, Timber, Tiles and Slate 1d ditto.
Any other Goods or Merchandize 2d ditto.

Goods may remain Six Months, on Payment of the above Rates, but if they continue Six Days beyond that Period, One-half of the above Rates in Addition may be demanded, for every Month such Period is exceeded, and so in Proportion for any less Time than a Month.

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The Company are restricted from receiving more than Ten Pounds par Cent, on their Capital Stock, until they have reduced their Tonnage, on Distances not exceeding Three Miles, to Three-fourths, and on Distances exceeding Three Miles, to One-half the Rate they are empowered to collect; provided that, for Distances exceeding Three Miles, the Rates shall not be less than Four-pence Halfpenny.

The act of 7th and 8th George IV. entitled, 'An Act for altering and amending time Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway Act,' was obtained for the purpose of altering the line to the course described at the commencement of this article; which alteration was estimated by Mr. Grainger to cost the additional sum of £9,350. The company are therefore authorized to raise this sum in £50 shares; and, should they determine to make a double railway, they may raise an additional sum of £11,000 for that purpose, in £50 shares; all which sums shall be deemed the capital stock of the company. Five years, from the passing of this act, is allowed for the execution of the necessary works.

The act of 11th George IV. entitled, 'An Act for amending certain Acts for making the Glasgow and Garnkirk Railway, and for raising a further Sum of Money,' is simply to enable the company of proprietors to raise a sufficient fund for completing the works; the act, therefore, empowers them to raise the further sum of £21,150, either by creating new shares to that amount, or by borrowing upon credit of the undertaking the sum of £10,000, and creating new shares to the extent of £11,150.

The object of this railway is to convey to Glasgow, and for exportation, the valuable minerals at its eastern termination, and such as is brought down the Ballochney and the Wishaw and Coltness Railways, which extend further into the Lanarkshire Coal Field.

GARTURK.

(SEE WISHAW AND COLTNESS RAILWAY.)

GIPPEN OR GIPPING RIVER.

30 George III. Cap. 57, Royal Assent 1st April, 1790.

33 George III. Cap. 20, Royal Assent 28th March, 1793.

THIS river rises near Gipping Hall, situate two miles south-west of the town of Mendlesham, in Suffolk, whence it flows by Stow Market to Stowupland Bridge, near the said town, where

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the navigation commences. Its course from hence is south-easterly, by the town of Needham, and Shrubland Hall, the seat of Sir W. F. Middleton, Bart. to the south side of the town of Ipswich, where it falls into the tideway of the Orwell, near Stoke Bridge.

Its length is about sixteen miles; and the necessary works for making it navigable, were commenced under the authority of an act of the 30th George III. entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Communication between Stowmarket and Ipswich, in the county of Suffolk.'

Six gentlemen, resident in the vicinity, were appointed trustees for carrying the act into execution, with power to borrow the sum of £14,300 on the credit of the undertaking, and a further sum of £6,000, if necessary, either on mortgage or by granting annuities.

Power is also given to extend the navigation three quarters of a mile from Stowupland Bridge towards the Bury St. Edmund's Road, if it shall be deemed desirable.

TONNAGE RATES.

Corn and other Grain, Hops, Stone, Timber, Goods, Wares, Merchandize, and other Things, (except Coal) 1d per Ton, per Mile.
Coal ½d ditto. ditto.

And so in Proportion for any Weight or Quantity less than a Ton, or for any Distance less than a Mile.

If these Rates are insufficient for the Purposes of this Act, power is given to double them for such Time only as may be required; but not until Three Months' Notice has been given. Vessels of less than Thirty-five Tons lading, to be charged for Thirty-five Tons.

The Trustees can also, for all Goods deposited in their Wharfs, and which shall continue for a longer Period than Six Months, charge such additional Sums as they may think fit; provided Notice to such Purpose be deposited with the Clerk of the Peace.

Manure is exempt from Rates, unless the Commissioners shall determine to the contrary; in that case the same Rate is to be paid as for Coal.

The act of the 33rd George III. entitled, 'An Act for effectually carrying into Execution an Act of Parliament of the Thirtieth Year of his present Majesty, for making and maintaining a navigable Communication between Stowmarket and Ipswich, in the county of Suffolk,' is obtained solely for the purpose of enabling the trustees to borrow the sum of £15,000 over and above the sums authorized by the last-recited act, which had already been expended.

This navigation is chiefly used for exporting the surplus farming

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