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This Book "Priestley's Navigable Rivers and Canals" by Joseph Priestley was previously published in April 1831. NOTE: Oringinally called "Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways, of Great Britain".
For more information see About this Book

Index Page Link to Previous Page 241

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The act of the 7th and 8th George IV. entitled, 'An Act to amend and enlarge the Provisions of the several Acts relating to the Ellesmere and Chester Canal Navigations;' after reciting the works executed in the several acts of parliament relating to this navigation, states, that the branch from Wardle Green to Middlewich, which the acts of the 12th and 17th George III. empowered the Chester Canal Company to make, has not been done; this act, therefore, enables the united company to execute this branch with some deviations from the original line; and to form a junction with a short branch of one hundred yards in length, which the Trent and Mersey or Grand Trunk Canal Company are required to make, by virtue of an act passed this session of parliament, from their canal at or near the Brick Kiln Field Bridge, or Brooks Lane Bridge, situate on the south side of the town of Middlewich. The deviation on this branch occurs near the Middlewich end, and is fifteen hundred and sixty yards in length, which does not materially alter the length of the line. The estimate for this deviation line was made by Messrs. Telford and W. A. Provis, and amounts to £14,009, 3s. 1d. The locks upon this branch are directed to be 77 feet in length, 8 feet 4 inches in width at the top, and 7 feet 1 inch at the level of the bottom sill, and the rise of each 10 feet 4 inches.

Although this act repeals all the previous acts relating to the united navigation, yet the original contracts remain in force, and the present committee are to be continued in the same way as though the acts had not been repealed.

There are clauses for the protection of Tilstone Mills, Darnhall Mills, Tattenhall Mills, Stoke Mills, and the mills belonging to Earl Kilmorey, in the county of Chester. The water of the River Perrey above Platt Mill, situate in the township of Ruytun of the Eleven Towns, and some other streams, are not to be taken.

Upon all the canals, branches, and railroads, belonging to the united company of the Ellesmere and Chester Canal, the following tonnage rates are allowed.


Coke, Culm, Lime.stone, and Rock Salt 1½d per Ton, per Mile.
Freestone, Timber, Slate, Pig and Bar Iron, Iron-stone, Pig Lead, and Lead-ore 2d ditto. ditto.
All other Goods, Wares, and Merchandize whatsoever 3d ditto. ditto.

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In addition to the above Rates, the Company are empowered to charge the Sum of Two Shillings per Ton upon the Cargo of any Boat which shall not have passed along the Canal the Distance of Twelve Miles, but which shall have passed through any Lock or Locks (except on Lime, Limestone, or Coal.)

For the Purposea of this Act, One Hundred and Twenty Pounds Avoirdupois, of Coal, Coke, Culm, Lime, Freestone, and Lime-stone - and One Hundred and Twelve Pounds of any other Commodity shall be deemed a Hundred Weight.

If any Vessel pass through a Lock with less than Thirty Tons, to pay for that Amount at the highest Rates; unless such Vessel he returning after having passed with more than Thirty Tons, or unless the Water be running over the Waste Weirs of the Locks;-if there is not sufficient Water for Thirty Tons of Lading, then the Rates are to be paid upon the Quantity carried.

Empty Vessels, or such as have less than Eighteen Tons lading, passing the Locks which are only adapted for Vessels of Seven Feet Beam, and have not passed through a Foorteen Feet Lock, shall pay a Tonnage equal to the highest Rates on Eighteen Tons, unless such Boat be returning after having passed with more than Eighteen Tons, or unless the Water is running over the Waste Weirs of every Lock such Boat passes through.

Fractions to be taken as for a Mile and as for a Quarter of a Ton.


Paving-stones, Gravel, Sand, and all other Materials for Roads, also Dung, Soil, Marl, and Ashes to he used as Manure for the Improvement only of the Lands and Grounds through which the Canals or Railway passes.

Lords of manors and owners of lands may erect Wharfs; but if they refuse, the company may do it, and charge the following


Coal, Culm, Lime, Lime-stone, Clay, Iron, Iron-stone, Lead-ore, or any other Ores, Timber, Stone. Brick, Tiles, Slates, Gravel, or other Things 1d per Ton.
For the Warehousing of any Package not exceeding Fifty-six Pounds Weight 2d.
Above Three Hundred Pounds Weight, and not exceeding Six Hundred Pounds Weight 4d.
Exceeding One Thousand Pounds Weight 6d per Ton.

The above Rates to be paid if the Articles do not remain more than Twenty-four Hours on the Wharf. .
Should any of the above Articles remain Seven Days above the Time specified (for Wharfage) 1½d per Ton in addition.
Ditto, (for Warehousing) 2d ditto.

And the like Sum of Three Half-pence or Two-pence, respectively, per Ton, for every further Seven Days which such Articles shall remain on Wharf or in Warehouse after the Expiration of the first Seven Days.

For the purpose of carrying into execution the Middlewich Branch of this canal, (which is estimated to cost £68,837, 18s. 3d.) the company are authorized to borrow the sum of £80,000 of the Exchequer Bill Commissioners, upon mortgage, or assignment of the rates and duties; or they may borrow the same of other persons; or by creating new or additional shares; but not more than four hundred and twenty-five, so that the total number of shares in this navigation may not be more than four thousand.

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This act also declares, that unless new shares are created, the consolidated stock of this navigation shall consist of the sum of £475,568, 15s. divided into three thousand five hundred and seventy-five shares, and three quarters of a share of £133 each; and the management is to be under the direction of a committee of twenty-five persons, possessing at least five shares each; and a sub-committee of six for the management of the Wirral Branch of this navigation, extending from Chester to the Mersey.

A fund for repairs may be created to the extent of £20,000, after all debts are paid, by deducting not more than one tenth of the dividends in each year. For the purpose of preventing injury to the navigation of the River Dee, by abstracting water from this river into the collateral cut or feeder at Llantysilio, it is enacted, that the united company shall, from their canal, supply the River Dee, at Chester, with as much water as is taken from it by the feeder, and which shall not have been previously restored to the Dee.

Of the canals and collateral branches authorized to be made, by powers granted under the respective acts of parliament relating to this navigation, the following have not been executed, and as the acts are repealed, they cannot now be done. That part of the original main line from the basin at Chester to the aqueduct at Pont-y-Cysylte being twenty miles in length, with 455 feet of lockage; another portion between Weston Wharf and the Severn at Shrewsbury, which was nine miles and a half in length, with 107 feet of lockage; together with a proposed tunnel at Weston Lullingfield, of four hundred and eighty-seven yards in length. A branch to Holt, of four miles in length; another to the Talwern Collieries; another from Gresford to Allington; and another from Pont-y-Cysylte to the collieries at Acrefair; a branch of seven miles to Prees Heath; and a collateral cut from that part of the main line formerly called the Llanymynech Branch, to the Montgomeryshire Canal, at Portywain Lime Works; and another to Morda Bridge, near Oswestry.

The objects contemplated by the proprietors of these navigations, in their recent application to parliament, are chiefly to enable them to establish a carrying trade from the port of Elles mere, on the banks of the River Mersey, across that river to the

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different towns and navigations with which it communicates, and to construct a reservoir of about twenty-four acres near the Hurlestone Locks, between the canal and the turnpike-road leading from Chester to Nantwich, for the purpose of catching the surplus water of the Upper Pound Locks, and supplying the Lower Locks in time of scarcity. They had further intended to make a short extension of their canal of a mile in length, from Pont-y-Cysylte Basin to the road leading to Plas-Kynaston Hall, in the county of Denbigh; this, however, they ultimately abandoned, and their act is in consequence entitled, 'An Act to enable the united Company of Proprietors of the Ellesmere and Chester Canals to make a Reservoir, and to establish Vessels for the conveyance of Goods from Ellesmere Port across the River Mersey; and-also to amend and enlarge the Powers of the said Act relating to the said Canal.'

The estimate for the several works contemplated, including £4,000 for the cut subsequently abandoned, was made by Mr. Thomas Stanton, amounting to £55,200, of which, the reservoir was calculated to cost £31,200; and for purchase of proper vessels for the carrying trade, an additional sum of £20,000 would be required; the company are, therefore, empowered to raise for these purposes, and for completing their branch canal from Wardle Green to Middlewich, a further sum of £70,000, by all or any of the means by which the said company are authorized to collect any sum of money by virtue of the preceding acts.

This act also enables the united proprietors to purchase Dee Mills, in the city of Chester, for the purpose of avoiding any dispute which might arise respecting the use of the water of the River Dee, which supplies both the canal and mills.

For the carriage of goods and merchandize across the Mersey, the company are empowered to collect the following


For Pig-iron 3s 0d per Ton.
For Bar and Rod Iron 3s 6d ditto.
For Sheet, Hoop and other Iron, Lead and other Metals 4s 0d ditto.
For Timber 4s 0d ditto.
For Corn, Grain, Malt and Flour 5s 6d ditto.
For Sugar, Groceries, Drugs, Hides and Manufactured Goods 6s 6d ditto.
For Wine, Spirits, Vitriol, Glass and other Goods and Merchandize 8s 0d ditto.

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Ton.

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On some parts of this navigation some astonishing works have been constructed, but the limits to which our work is prescribed, precludes the possibility of enumerating them; however we must not omit to notice the well known aqueduct over the Dee at Pont-y-Cysylte. This stupendous work is carried over the river, at an elevation of 125 feet above its bed, on nineteen pairs of stone pillars, 52 feet asunder. The trough through which the vessels pass is 320 feet long, 20 feet wide, and 6 feet deep, and it is entirely composed of cast iron plates. There is also another very large aqueduct over the River Ceiriog, which is built of stone; it is two hundred yards in length, and is supported on ten arches, at an elevation of 65 feet above the river.

This navigation, from the immediate connection it has with the Rivers Mersey and Dee, and with the Montgomeryshire Canal, and the communication it has, by means of collateral cuts and the Ruabon Branch Railway, with the mineral districts to which they severally extend, and the fertile agricultural parts of North Salop and the county palatine of Chester, through which it winds its way, is of first rate importance; and it will doubtless increase in value when the desirable junction with the Grand Trunk Canal has been effected.


6 George IV. Cap. 199, Royal Assent 6th July, 1825.

THE parliamentary line of this intended ship canal, commences in the English Channel at Beer Roads, Seaton Bay, whence it takes a north-eastwardly course, skirting the shore, to the village of Seaton; thence, running parallel with the Axe River, to Colyford, where it crosses the River Coly, a mile south of the town of Colyton; thence continuing in the vale of the Axe, by Whitford, to the River Yarty, which it crosses by an aqueduct; thence half a mile west of the town of Axminster, and across the Little River Kilbridge to Hurtham, where it quits the valley and proceeds northwards a mile east of Chard, to its summit level. Hence its course is over a flat and uninteresting country for the space of

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twelve miles and a half, without a lock; thence it passes Thorpe Falcon, and across the navigable River Tone by an aqueduct, about five miles east of Taunton. The line from the Tone runs parallel, for some miles, with the intended Bridgewater and Taunton Canal, and along the line of a part of it by St. Michael's and Huntworth, to the town of Bridgewater, which it passes on its west side, and thence north-westwardly by Wembdon, to the River Parrett, along the shore of which it continues to Combwich, where it leaves the river, and running direct to Stolford, locks down into Bridgewater Bay, in the Bristol Channel.

The canal will be forty-four miles and five furlongs in length; in the first eleven miles and three quarters, from Seaton Bay, it rises 245 feet, by twenty-nine locks, from low water in the English Channel; thence for twelve miles and a half it is level; and for the remaining twenty miles and three furlongs there is a fall of 267 feet 7 inches, by twenty-nine locks, to low water in the Bristol Channel. By the section here described, it would seem as though the levels had been mis-stated by us, or that an error had been committed in taking them; but the apparent discrepancy is to be accounted for by the different rise of the tides in the two channels. At Bridgewater Bay in the Bristol Channel, the ordinary spring tides are 36 feet 6 inches, and the high spring tides rise 40 feet; while in Seaton Bay, in the English Channel, the ordinary spring tides are but 12 feet, and the high spring tides seldom exceed 15 feet 6 inches, so that the latter in the Bristol Channel are higher by 2 feet than in the English Channel; whilst the low water line is 22 feet 7 inches below it.

This canal is to be made 15 feet deep, 90 feet wide, and capable of being navigated by ships of two hundred tons register. It is to be supplied with water from reservoirs; viz, one in the Axe Valley, near Seaborough, Covering a surface of two hundred and seventeen acres and three roods; and another in the same valley, in the parish of Winshem. The third is at the upper end of the valley of the Yarty, near Hilhaven Bridge, in the parishes of Yarcombe and Membury; and the other at Ridge, on the Kilbridge River, in the parish of Chardstock, in the county of Dorset. The Hilhaven Bridge Reservoir is to be to the extent of one hundred and five acres, and that at Ridge sixteen and a half.

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Between the two last-mentioned reservoirs there is a cut of communication six miles and a half in length; and from the Ridge Reservoir to the canal, the feeder is three miles and a half.

The feeder from the Seaborough Reservoir follows the north bank of the Axe by Ford Abbey, thence it turns northward, and enters the canal near Chard, being eight miles and a half in length. Mr. Telford's estimate for this magnificent undertaking was made in 1824, and amounted to the sum of £1,712,844.

The act for carrying this great work into execution, was obtained in 1825. It is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a Canal for Ships and other Vessels, to commence at or near Seaton Bay, in the county of Devon, and terminating in the Bristol Channel, at or near Stolford or Bridgewater Bay, in the county of Somerset, with several collateral Branches to communicate therewith.' The subscribers, consisting of two hundred and seventy-one persons, (amongst whom were the Earl of Cork and Orrery, the Dean of York, and Major-General Sir James Kempt,) were incorporated by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the English and Bristol Channels Ship Canal," with power to contribute among themselves the sum of £1,750,000, in seventeen thousand five hundred shares of £100 each, the whole of which is to be subscribed before the work is commenced. The company may also borrow the further sum of £750,000 on mortgage of the rates, or by granting annuities, or on promissory notes under the common seal. In obtaining supplies of lockage water for this canal, the company are prohibited from taking any from the Rivers Parrett or Tone, or any streams which flow into them; they are also restricted from taking any but the flood waters arising on the Rivers Axe and Yarty, and Wambrook. In this act is recited a very important agreement, bearing date 28th March, 1825, between this company and the Bridgewater and Taunton Navigation Company, by which the former company agree to give the latter, for their interest in the new canal, between Bridgewater and Taunton, together with the machines and materials used in carrying on the work, the sum of £90,000, together with the sum of £7,307, 1s. 10d. owing to the Bridgewater and Taunton Canal Company, by virtue of the purchases made from the proprietors of shares in the debt due on the River Tone.

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The Bridgewater and Taunton Canal Company are to continue their works, but the expenses are to be reimbursed by the English and Bristol Channels Ship Canal Company. The purchase money to be paid by three equal instalments; the last of which is to be paid at the end of nine months from the passing of the above-recited act, or within three months afterwards; in default of which, the agreement to be void. And, in case it is paid, the monies are to be applied to carrying into execution what remains to be executed of the Bridgewater and Taunton Canal; and after the residue, if any, is distributed among the shareholders, they are to be dissolved, and be no longer a corporate body; and are henceforward released from all obligation to maintain the said canal, which is by this act transferred to the English and Bristol Channels Ship Canal Company.


Hay, Straw, Dung, Pests, and Peat Ashes, Chalk, Marl, Clay, Sand, Lime, Lime-stone to be used for Manure, and all other Articles intended to be used as Manure, and all Materials for the repair of Roads, Coal, Culm, Coke, Cinders, Charcoal, Iron, Stone, Bricks, and Tiles 1d per Ton, per Mile.
All other Goods, Wares, or Merchandize 3d ditto. ditto.

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Mile, and as for a Quarter of a Ton.

For the Purposes of this Act Forty Cubic Feet of Oak, Ash, Elm, Beech. Larch, Mahogany, and other heavy Timber or Wood; and Fifty Cubic Feet of Pine, Fir, Deal, Poplar, and other light Wood; and Forty Cubic Feet of Goods which shall not weigh Twenty Hundred Weight, of One Hundred and Twelve Pounds each, shall be deemed a Ton.

If any Vessel pass along this Canal for any less Distance than Ten Miles, and shall pass through any Lock, shall pay, in Addition to the above Rates, One Penny per Ton upon One Hundred and Fifty Tons at the least, upon passing the first Lock upon the Canal, and One-half of such Amount at every succeeding Lock.

For every Vessel, whether Laden, Unladen, or in Ballast, passing the Tide Locks at either Extremity, and which shall not have passed the whole Length of the Canal, there shall be paid Two-pence per Ton upon the Registered Tonnage of such Ship; and in no case shall less be paid than for One Hundred and Fifty Tons.

For Vessels Unladen or in Ballast, (except such as are used for Agricultural Purposes,) which shall navigate a Distance of Ten Miles or upwards, One Penny per Ton per Mile, as upon One Hundred and Fifty Tons at the least; if less than Ten Miles, and shall pass any Lock, (except the Tide Locks,) One Penny per Ton per Mile; and also a Rate of One Penny per Ton for passing such Lock, upon One Hundred and Fifty Tons at the least, and One-half of such Amount for every succeeding Lock.

As the canal company intend to construct harbours, or ports, with piers, jetties, lights, and other works at the two extremities of the navigation, it is enacted, that they shall be entitled to the following harbour dues, to be paid by all ships or other vessels which may use the said harbours, &c. without navigating the said canal.

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For every Vessel entering either of the Harbours of Beer, or Seaton, or Stolford, of Twenty Tons Burthen and upwards, according to the Registered Tonnage of such Ship or Vessel 3d per Ton.

From the last-mentioned Rate all Vessels in his Majesty's Service are exempt.


For every Horse or other Beast passing on any of the Towing Paths (except such as are used in Haling any Ship or other Vessel) 3d.

Such Toll to be taken but once a Day.

Vessels (not being a Ship or Sea Vessel,) laden with Hay, Straw, or Corn in the Straw, or with any Material for the repair of Roads, or with any Kind of Manure, shall not pass through any Lock; but upon Payment of One Penny per Ton as upon One Hundred Tons at the first Lock they shall pass, and Half the Amount at every succeeding Lock. As many Barges as the Lock will receive, are to pass upon Payment together of the Rates above-mentioned.

Lords of manors, or land-owners, may make or erect wharfs or warehouses; but if they refuse, the company may do it, and charge the following rates.


For any Goods lying on the Wharfs not more than Twenty-four Hours ½d per Ton, per Mile.
More than Twenty-four Hours, and less than Seven Days 1d ditto. ditto.
Except Coal, Iron, and Iron-stone, which may remain Two Months, and after such Time ¼d per Ton, per Day.

There are many clauses in this act relating to private property, but more especially with regard to estates belonging to Lord Sidmouth, Sir William Oglander, Bart. and William Manning, Esq. situate where the reservoirs are intended to be made, by which the company are required to purchase the whole of these several estates, if any portion is taken under the authority of this act.

The chief object and advantages to be derived from the execution of this ship canal, is the shortening and rendering more certain and expeditious the passage of all vessels trading from the Bristol Channel, the ports of Ireland, and the western ports of England, to the English Channel. Indeed, if we take into consideration the danger and difficulty, at all times, of the navigation round the Land's End, and the detention, frequently amounting to six weeks, arising from the prevalence of south-westerly winds, the importance of having a passage in the line above described, cannot but be seen by every one who will for a moment consult the accompanying map. The distance saved, by means of this

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canal, between Bridgewater Bay or the ports eastward of it, and any ports eastward of Beer Harbour, is upwards of two hundred and twenty miles.

In addition to the great advantage which must necessarily accrue to the shipping interest, the prospects held out to the speculator in this work, are sufficient to tempt the cupidity of the most sceptical, if reliance may be placed in the accuracy of the data from whence the projectors have derived the probable sources of revenue. In a prospectus, published by the committee on this navigation, it is stated, that the clear annual income applicable to a dividend among the proprietors, is calculated, by very low estimates, to amount to twelve per cent, or £210,846, 12s. 4d. But the reader must bear in mind that the latter end of 1824 was a time of high expectations. When this article was drawn up (1830) the work had not commenced.


17 George III. Cap. 69, Royal Assent 30th April, 1777.

THE Erewash Canal commences in the River Trent, about a mile east of the village of Sawley, and nearly opposite the Soar River, or Loughborough Navigation; whence it takes a northerly course on the east side of Long Eaton, a mile and a half beyond which the Derby Canal Branch locks down into it. From this junction it runs parallel with and on the west side of the River Erewash, by Sandiacre, and across Nutbrook, by an aqueduct, at which place it is also joined by the Nutbrook Canal, about a mile and a half north of the last-mentioned village; hence it continues its course up the Erewash Vale, by Ilkeston and the Cotman Hay Collieries, to Newmanleys Mill, where it crosses the river into Nottinghamshire, and at about a mile beyond, it terminates in the Cromford Canal, near Langley Bridge. It is in length eleven miles and three quarters, viz, from the Trent to the Derby Canal, three miles and a quarter; from thence to the Nutbrook Canal, two miles and a half; and from thence to the Cromford Canal, Six miles, to which there is a total rise, from the Trent, of nearly 109 feet. The canal was made under the authority of an act of

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the 17th George III. which is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Cut or Canal from the River Trent, in the lordships of Sawley and Long Eaton, in the county of Derby, to or near Langley Bridge, in the counties of Derby and Nottingham.' The proprietors, at the time the act was obtained, consisted of seventy-four persons, (amongst whom was the Duke of Rutland,) who were incorporated by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Erewash Canal, in the counties of Derby and Nottingham," with power to raise among themselves the sum of £15,400, in one hundred and fifty-four shares of £100 each; and a further sum of £7,700, if necessary, either among themselves, or by the admission of new subscribers, or they may borrow the same on assignment of the rates as a security.


Wheat, Rye, Beans, or Peas 0s 6d per Quarter.
Malt 0s 4d ditto.
Barley, or other Grain not before enumerated 0s 5d ditto.
Coal and Coke 1s 6d per Ton.
Slate 0s 6d ditto.
All other Goods, Wares, or Merchandize (except Gravel, Stone, or other Materials for the repair of Roads) 2s 0d ditto.
Lime or Lime-stone 0s 1d per Ton, per Mile.

And so in Proportion for any greater or less Weight than a Ton.

One Hundred and Twenty Pounds Avoirdupois to be deemed a Hundred Weight.
Coal from the Hallam and Shipley Collieries, coming down the Nutbrook Canal, and passing along this Canal 0s 9d per Ton.
For all other Goods, Wares, or Merchandise 1s 0d ditto.

Lords of manors or owners of lands may make wharfs or erect warehouses, and may charge the following rates.


For any Description of Goods remaining for the Space of Ten Days 6d per Ton.
For every Day after the Expiration of the above Time ½d ditto.

In the Act of the 33rd George III. cap. 102, for making the Derby Canal, a Clause is introduced, whereby the Erewash Canal Company have agreed, in consideration of the Advantages they will derive from a Connection with the Derby Canal, to reduce the Rates upon all Coal or Coke navigated on the Erewash, and passing thence into the Derby Canal, to Five-pence per Ton.
Mercantile Goods which shall pass on the Erewash, between the Derby Canal and the River Trent, shall be charged only 3d per Ton.

And upon Lime, and all other Articles navigated on the Erewash, and afterwards on the Derby Canal, One-half only of the Rates they were previously entitled to.

The original Rates are however to be collected in case any other Canal or Railway be made between Derby and the Erewash.

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By the 34th George III. cap. 95, for improving the Trent Navigation, it is enacted, that the Annual Rent of £5, paid by the Erewash Canal Company, shall cease, and in Lieu of it, every Boat laden, and crossing the River between the Loughborough Navigation and the Erewash Canal, shall pay Sixpence.

This canal was designed and executed chiefly by the owners of the extensive collieries and other mines situate on its line and at its northern extremity, with a view of obtaining a more certain mode of transporting their heavy produce to distant markets; but it has, subsequently, by its connection with the Derby, Cromford and Nottingham Canals, and by the great improvements which have taken place in the Trent Navigation, become a part of the line of communication for general commercial purposes; and when the Cromford and Peak Forest Railway is completed, it will derive some additional revenue incident to a position on the line of communication between London and the northern manufacturing districts.


31 Henry VIII Cap. 4, Royal Assent - - - - 1539.

10 Geo. IV. Cap. 47, Royal Assent 14th May, 1829.

THIS river has its source on Exmoor, at the westwardly termination of the Dunkerry Hills, in the county of Somerset, whence it pursues a south-eastwardly course, to within a mile of the town of Dulverton, and by Pixton Park, the seat of the Earl of Caernarvon, near which place it enters Devonshire. Its course, hence, is by Stuckbridge to Tiverton, to which place a branch of the intended Grand Western Canal extends; it then follows a southerly course, by Thorverton and Pynes, to the city of Exeter, near which place it is joined by the Creedy. From Exeter, the ancient course of the river is by Countess Wear Bridge, to the town of Topsham, where the river navigation commences. From the last-mentioned town to the sea, (into which it falls at Exmouth,) it is a considerable estuary, being in some places a mile and a half in width; and its length, by the low water channel, is nearly eight miles.

From the west side of the river, a little above the town of Topsham, a canal, above three miles in length, and running

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parallel with the river, was made by the corporation of Exeter, to that city, so early as the reign of Henry VIII. under powers of an act granted in the thirty-first year of that reign, entitled, 'An Act concerning the amending of the River and Port of Exeter,' but as this work was but very imperfectly constructed, and subject to the ebb and flow of the tide, which, at its entrance, rises 13 feet at the springs, the mayor, bailiffs and commonalty stopped up the entrance of this old canal, at the lower sluice, and extended it lower down, into a deeper part of the tideway, to a place called The Turf; considerable sums had been borrowed for carrying these works into execution and improving the old cut, and as more money was required for the purpose of completing the same and the additional works contemplated, an act was obtained during the last session, to enable the corporation to borrow a competent sum, on mortgage of the undertaking, or by granting annuities on lives, or by tontine.

This act is entitled, 'An Act for altering, extending, and improving the Exeter Canal;' and when all is done which the act authorizes, the canal will be, by the extension from the old lower sluice to the esfuary of the Exe, (two miles lower down,) five miles in length, with a basin and entrance tide lock at The Turf, and another commodious basin near the King's Arms Sluice, in the city, where there is a public wharf 500 feet in length. Another entrance into this canal, with a lock, will also be placed above the old sluice, near the town of Topsham, to facilitate the communication between that town and Exeter. The depth of the canal will be 15 feet. Within a mile and a half from Exeter, there is a double lock, with a fall of 6 feet; and at The Turf, a tide lock, with a fall of 4 feet to high water, spring tides, which here rise 14 feet. Mr. James Green projected these improvements in 1829, and estimated the cost at £10,000, the whole of which sum is to be advanced by the corporation of Exeter.


For every Ship or other Vessel passing along any Part of this Canal, according to the Registered Tonnage of such Vessel, (if such Ship or Vessel shall be above Ten Tons, and under One Hundred and Ten) 0s 6d per Ton.
If more than One Hundred and Ten Tons 0s 9d ditto.
If less than Ten Tons 5s 0d for such Vessel.

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In ascertaining the admeasurement of ships entering this port, the party whose duty it is, shall be guided by the directions contained in an act of the 6th of George IV. cap. 110, entitled, 'An Act for the Registering of British Vessels.'

This act is not to prejudice the right which Edward and Robert Trood, as proprietors and occupiers of Matford Limekilns, have heretofore exercised, of passing along the canal to and from the lower sluice and the above works, at all times, free of toll; nor is it to affect the persons who have hitherto enjoyed, (in right of their estates,) the privilege of landing articles for their private use; nor any rights, privileges, tolls, petty customs, duties, powers, or authorities of the mayor, bailiff, and commonalty of the city of Exeter, or any of their accustomed rights and privileges.

In addition to the duties before-mentioned, the following tonnage rates are payable for wares and merehandize, &c.


Description of GoodsAmount of Duty Quantity.
Alum 2s 1dper Ton.
Almonds 2s 0dDitto.
Anchovies 0s 1dper Barrel.
Anvils 2s 6dper Ton.
Archel 2s 6dDitto.
Argoll 2s 6dDitto.
Ashes 0s 6dper Barrel.
Bacon 2s 6dper Ton.
Bales and Boxes by Measurement of 40 solid Feet 2s 6dDitto.
Bales of Woollens returned 0s 4d20 Pieces.
Barilla 2s 6dper Ton.
Ditto 0s 7½dper Seron.
Bark 2s 6dper Ton.
Barley 0s 3dper Quarter.
Baulk Timber 1s 4dper Load of 50 Feet.
Beans 0s 4dper Quarter.
Bells and Bell Metal 2s 6dper Ton.
Beer and Porter 1s 6dper Butt.
Ditto 0s 9dper Hogshead.
Ditto 0s 6dper Barrel.
Ditto 0s 3dper Kilderkin.
Bones 1s 3dper 1,000.
Bottles (Quarts) 0s 1dper Dozen.
Bones and Hoofs 1s 0dper Hogohead.
Bran 0s 3dper Quarter.
Brass and Iron Pots 2s 6dper Ton.
Bricks (Stourbridge) 3s 0d.per 1,000
Ditto (Scouring) 2s 6dDitto.
Ditto (Building) 2s 6dDitto.

page 256


Description of GoodsAmount of Duty Quantity.
Brimstone 2s 6dper Ton.
Bristles 2s 6dDitto.
Brooms 0s 1dper Dozen.
Brush or Mop Sticks 0s 1dper Bundle.
Brush Heads 0s 1dper Six Dozen.
Brush Covers 0s 0½dper Twelve Dozen.
Bullocks 1s 6deach.
Burrs 6s 3dper 100.
Butter 2s 6dper Ton.
Butts (empty) 0s 2deach.
Casks (empty) 0s 1deach.
Candles 0s 2½dper Box, Six Dozen.
Candy 2s 6dper Ton.
Ditto 0s 2dper Box.
Carboys (full) 0s 3deach.
Ditto (empty) 0s 1deach.
Carraway Seeds 0s 4dper Sack.
Cement 0s 4dper Barrel.
Ditto 0s 2dHalf ditto.
Ditto 0s 1dQuarter ditto.
Chariot or Chaise 6s 3d.
Chalk 1s 0dper Ton.
Chairs 0s 2deach.
Cheese 2s 6dper Ton.
Chimney Pots 0s 1deach.
Ditto Caps 0s 1dper Dozen.
Ditto Hoods 0s 1½dDitto.
China 1s 6dper Hogshead.
Cider 1s 6dper Pipe.
Ditto 0s 9dper Hogshead.
Clay (Pipe) 1s 0dper Ton.
Clover Seed 0s 1½dper Cwt.
Ditto 0s 4dper Sack.
Coach (Four Wheels) 7s 6d.
Coals 1s 0dper Quarter.
Ditto (Canal) 2s 6dper Ton.
Cochineal 3s 1½dDitto.
Coffee 2s 6dDitto.
Ditto 0s 6dHalf Chest.
Ditto 0s 2dper Bag of One Cwt.
Coke 1s 3dper Ton.
Copper in Cases 2s 6dper Ton of 40 Feet.
Ditto in Bolts and Plates 2s 6dper Ton.
Copperas 2s 6dDitto.
Cork 5s 0dDitto.
Ditto 0s 3dper Bag of One Cwt.
Cordage 2s 6dper Ton.
Crates of Earthenware 1s 0deach.
Ditto Vial Bottles 2s 6dper 40 Feet.
Ditto Glass 2s 6dDitto.
Currants 2s 6dper Butt of Twenty Cwt.
Ditto 1s 3dper Pipe of Ten Cwt.
Ditto in Sacks 0s l½dper Cwt.
Deals 12 Feet 9 Inches 7s 3dper 120.
Dye Stuff 2s 6d .
Dye Woods in general 2s 6dDitto.

page 257


Description of GoodsAmount of Duty Quantity.
Drain Pipes 2s 6dper 1,000.
Earthenware (loose) 2s 6dper Load.
Ends of Serges 0s 2dTen Pieces.
Bales of Ditto 0s 4dTwenty Pieces.
Feathers 0s 9dper Sack, Three Cwt.
Fellies of Wheels 0s 2dper Dozen.
Fender Plate 2s 6dper Ton.
Figs 1s 3dper Twenty Frails.
Ditto 0s 9dper Twenty Drums.
Fish (Newfoundland) 2s 6dper Ton.
Fish (fresh) subject to a Toll of Six Dozen Free.
Fire Wood 1s 0dper Fathom.
Flax 3s 1½dper Ton.
Flocks 2s 6dDitto.
Flour 0s 3dper Sack.
Ditto 0s 2½dper Barrel.
Frying Pans 0s 1½dper Bundle.
Furniture 2s 6dper Forty Feet.
Ginger 2s 6dper Ton.
Glass 0s 6dper Side.
Ditto (White) broken 2s 6dper Ton.
Ditto (Green) Ditto 1s 3dDitto.
Glue, in Bags 2s 6dDitto.
Ditto, Pieces 1s 0dper Hogshead.
Ditto, ditto, in Bundles 2s 6dper Ton.
Grinding Stones 2s 6dper Chald. Thirty-six Feet.
Gunpowder 0s 3dper Barrel.
Gunstocks 0s 2dper Dozen.
Hair, in Bales 2s 6dper Forty Feet.
Hampers (full) 2s 6d.
Ditto, empty Bottles, Three or Four Dozen 0s 4deach.
Handspikes 1s 0dper Hundred.
Hemp 3s 1½dper Ton.
Herrings (Red) 0s 4dper Barrel.
Hides (Raw) 3s 6dper Fifty.
Ditto (Dry) 3s 6dDitto.
Ditto (Horse) 1s 6dDitto.
Ditto (Kips) 0s 3dper Dozen.
Horns and Bones (loose) 1s 3dper 1,000.
Hops 0s 6dper Bag.
Ditto 0s 3dper Pocket.
Hoops Wood (broad) 0s 1dper Dozen.
Ditto Wood (small) 2s 6dFifty Bundles.
Ditto lron 2s 6d.per Ton
Hurdles, Wood and Iron 2s 6dper Thirty.
Jars (Quart) 0s 0½dper Dozen.
Indigo 0s 1½dper Cwt.
Iron (Bar and Bolt) 2s 6d per Ton.
Iron Pots, Kettles, and Weights 2s 6dDitto.
Iron in Pigs 2s 0dDitto.
Ironmongery, in Packages 2s 6dper Forty Feet.
Iron (Scrap) 1s 3dper Ton.
Junk 2s 6dDitto.
Ladder Poles 12s 0dper 120.
Laths 0s 4dper 1,000.
Lath wood 4s 0dper Fathom.

page 258


Description of GoodsAmount of Duty Quantity.
Lancewood Poles 6s 0dper 120.
Lead, in Sheets 2s 6dper Ton.
Ditto in Pigs 2s 6dDitto.
Ditto in Pipe 2s 6dDitto.
Ditto in White Ground 2s 6dDitto.
Leather 2s 6dDitto.
Lignum Vita 2s 6dDitto.
Lime 1s 3dDitto.
Lime-stone 0s 6dDitto.
Litharge 2s 6dDitto.
Logwood 2s 6dDitto.
Madder 2s 6dper Ton.
Mahogany 2s 6dper Forty Feet.
Malt 0s 3dper Quarter.
Manganese 1s 6dper Ton.
Manure 0s 10dDitto.
Marble 2s 6dper Ton of Twelve Feet.
Ditto in Cases 2s 6dDitto of Twenty Feet.
Mats (Gardeners) 0s 4dper Bundle of 50.
Ditto (Door) 2s 6dper Forty Feet.
Metal (Brass or Bell) 2s 6dper Ton.
Millstones 1s 9deach.
Molasses 1s 3dper Puncheon.
Mops 0s 1dper Dozen.
Mopsticks 0s 1dper Bundle.
Mustard 0s 2dper Barrel, Seventy-two lbs.
Nails, in Bags 0s 1½dper Cwt.
Nail Rods 2s 6dper Ton.
Naive Stocks 0s 2dper Pair.
Nuts 0s 3dper Bag.
Oakum 2s 6dper Ton.
Oak Timber 2s 6dper Forty Feet.
Oats and Oatmeal 0s 3dper Quarter.
Ochre 2s 6dper Ton.
Oil (not exceeding 120 Gallons) 1s 6dper Pipe.
Oil 0s 2½dper Half Chest.
Ditto, Olive 0s 7½dper Jar.
Oilcake 2s 6dper Ton.
Oranges and Lemons 0s 4dper Chest.
Ditto 0s 2dper Box.
Ox Bows 0s 1dper Dozen.
Paints 2s 6dper Ton.
Paper in Bales 2s 6dper Forty Feet.
Ditto (Writing) 0s 0½dper Ream.
Ditto (Whited Brown) 0s 0½d Ditto.
Patten Rings 2s 6dper Ton.
Pepper 3s 1½dDitto.
Ditto, per Mat of Three Cwt 0s 6dDitto.
Peas 0s 4dper Quarter.
Pipes (Tobacco) in Boxes 2s 6dper Forty Feet.
Pipe Clay 1s 0dper Ton.
Pitch 0s 4dper Barrel.
Plaister Paris 2s 0dper Ton.
Potatoes 1s 0dDitto.
Ditto 0s 1dper Bag.
Rags 2s 6dper Ton.

page 259


Description of GoodsAmount of Duty Quantity.
Raisins 0s 6dper Barrel.
Ditto 0s 1dper Box of Half Cwt.
Ditto 0s 0½dper Half Box.
Rice 0s 9dper Barrel.
Ditto 0s 2dper Bag of One Cwt.
Rosin 0s 4dper Barrel.
Ditto in Cakes 2s 6dper Ton.
Salt 2s 1dDitto.
Salt and Ashes for Manure 0s 10dDitto.
Saltpetre 0s 2dper Barrel.
Salting Pans (large) 0s 6dper Dozen.
Ditto (middle) 0s 4dDitto.
Ditto (small) 0s 2dDitto.
Sand 0s 9dper Ton.
Scythe Stones 0s 2½dper Basket.
Seeds in general 0s 4dper Sack.
Sharemoulds 2s 6dper Ton.
Shreds 2s 6dDitto.
Ditto 1s 0dper Hogshead.
Shot 2s 6dper Ton.
Shumac 2s 6dDitto.
Skins, Calves (wet) 0s 1dper Dozen.
Ditto, ditto (dry) 0s 1dDitto.
Ditto, Deer 2s 6dper Hundred.
Ditto, ditto (in Hair) 2s 6dDitto.
Ditto, Goat 0s 0½dper Dozen.
Ditto, Pelts 1s 0dper Hogshead.
Ditto, Pelts (loose) 0s 0½dper Dozen.
Ditto, Seal 0s 1dDitto.
Ditto, Roan 2s 6dper Ton.
Ditto, Sheep (dressed) 0s 2dper Dozen.
Ditto, Lamb (ditto) 0s 0½dDitto.
Ditto, Lamb Pelts 0s 3dper Ten Dozen.
Ditto, Lamb Split Pelts 0s 2dDitto.
Ditto, Indian Deer 0s 1½dper 100.
Ditto, Beaver 0s 1½dDitto.
Ditto, Kid 0s 3dper 120.
Ditto, Bazil 0s 1dper Dozen.
Slate, Duchesses 3s 6dper 1,200.
Ditto, ditto (small) 3s 0dDitto.
Ditto, ditto, Countesses 2s 6dDitto.
Ditto, ditto (small) 2s 0dDitto.
Ditto, Ladies 1s 6dDitto.
Ditto, ditto (small) 1s 1½dDitto.
Ditto, Doubles 1s 0dDitto.
Ditto, Scantile 1s 0dDitto.
Ditto, common or small 0s 6dDitto.
Ditto, Unsized Rag 0s 2dper Dozen.
Ditto, ditto, Half ditto 0s 1dDitto.
Ditto, Queen or Sized Rag 2s 0dper Ton.
Ditto, Slab 2s 0dDitto.
Ditto, Block 2s 3dDitto.
Ditto, Westmoraland Rag 2s 3dDitto.
Ditto, Imperial or Milled 2s 4½dDitto.
Ditto, Welsh and Rag Square 1s 8dDitto.
Smalts 0s 1½dper Cwt.

page 260


Description of GoodsAmount of Duty Quantity.
Soap in Chests 2s 6dper Forty Feet.
Ditto, Foreign 2s 6dper Ton.
Spars 12s 0dper 120.
Staves, Pipe 1s 0d.Ditto
Ditto, Puncheon 0s 8dDitto.
Ditto, Hogshead 0s 6dDitto.
Ditto, Barrel 0s 5dDitto.
Ditto, Quebec Logs 1s 6dDitto.
Starch in Chests 2s 6dper Forty Feet.
Steel 2s 6dper Ton.
Stone Ware (loose) 0s 0½dper Three Gallons.
Stone, Portland 1s 6dper Ton of Sixteen Feet.
Ditto, Bath 1s 6dper Twenty Feet.
Ditto, Paving 1s 6dper Sixty Feet.
Ditto, Beer 1s 0dper Eighteen Feet.
Ditto, Granite 1s 6dper Twenty-seven Feet.
Ditto, Free 1s 6dper Eighteen Feet.
Ditto, Grave and Gutter 1s 6dper Thirty Feet.
Ditto, Step 1s 6dDitto.
Ditto, Rolling 1s 6dper Sixteen Feet.
Ditto, Trough 1s 6dper Sixty Feet.
Ditto, Moor 1s 6dper Twenty-seven Feet.
Ditto, Pebble 1s 3dper Ton of Twenty Cwt.
Sugar, Solid 1s 3dper Hhd. of Fifteen Cwt.
Ditto, packed 1s 3dper Hogshead.
Ditto, in Lumps and Loaves 2s 6dper Ton.
Ditto, in Bags 0s 1½dper Cwt.
Ditto, in Mats 0s 1½dDitto.
Tallow 2s 6dper Ton.
Tar 0s 4dper Barrel.
Tea 1s 0dper Chest.
Ditto 0s 6dper Half ditto.
Ditto 0s 3dper Quarter ditto.
Tiles 2s 6dper 1,000.
Timber in general (If shipped from the Quay, 4d. per Ton Quayage.) 2s 6dper Ton of Forty Feet.
Tin 0s 2dper Box.
Tobacco 3s 1½dper Ton.
Trees and Shrubs, in Mats 2s 6dper Forty Feet.
Valonia 2s 6dper Ton.
Veneers 2s 6dper Forty Feet.
Vinegar 1s 6dper Pipe.
Vitriol 0s 3dper Carboy.
Vetches and Tares 0s 4dper Quarter.
Wainscot Logs 2s 6dper Forty Feet.
Wax 2s 6dper Ton.
Withies 2s 6dper Forty Bundles.
Whalebone 2s 6dper Ton.
Wheat 0s 4dper Quarter.
Wheels (Coach) 1s 3dper Set.
Whiting 1s 0dper Ton.
Wire 0s 2dper Bundle of One Cwt.
Wine and Spirlts 1s 6dper Pipe.
Ditto, ditto, cased 1s 8dDitto.
Wine and Spirits 0s 9dper Hogshead.

page 261


Description of GoodsAmount of Duty Quantity.
Wine and Spirits, cased 0s 10dper Hogshead.
Wine in Hampers 2s 6dper Forty Feet.
Woad 1s 6dper Hogshead.
Wool 0s 6dper Pack of Three Cwt.
Yarn 2s 6dper Ton.
Yarn Wick 0s 6dper Bag of Twelve Dozen.

All Goods not herein specified to pay Two Shillings and Sixpence per Ton of Twenty Hundred Weight, or Measurement of Forty solid Feet. All empty Packages to pay One Penny each. No single Package, full or empty, to pay less than Two-pence.

It is to be understood, that the payment of the above tolls does not free the owners of vessels from the petty customs and town dues payable to the corporation, in respect of all goods entering the port of Exeter.

Some idea may be formed of the traffic on this navigation, by stating, that in the year 1824, sixty-nine British and five Foreign vessels entered the port of Exeter.

It may here be remarked, that several attempts have been made to extend the navigation from Exeter; one in 1769,, when Mr. John Brindley designed a canal to commence at that city, thence by the towns of Tiverton, Wellington, Taunton, and Glastonbury, to the Bristol Channel at Uphill Bay. It was to be called the Exeter and Uphill Canal; but the act was never obtained.

Another attempt was made by a company of twenty-two persons (amongst whom was Sir Lawrence Palk, Bart) to form a navigation from the Exeter Canal to the town of Crediton, by widening mmd deepening the Rivers Exe and Creedy, and making cuts for the purpose of passing the mill weirs, &c.; an act was obtained for this purpose on the 20th June, 1801, entitled, 'An Act for improving and extending the Navigation of the River Exe, from the public Quay at Exeter, to the public Road adjoining Four Mills, near Crediton, in the county of Devon, by making a navigable Canal or Cuts, and deepening and widening such Parts of the Rivers Exe and Credy, as shall be necessary for that Purpose.' The subscribers were incorporated by the

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