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This Book "Priestley's Navigable Rivers and Canals" by Joseph Priestley was previously published in April 1831. NOTE: Oringinally called "Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways, of Great Britain".
For more information see About this Book

Index Page Link to Previous Page 179

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TOLLS FOR PASSING ON THE TOWING PATHS.

For every Horse, Mare, Gelding, Mule, or Ass, except such as are drawing any Boat or Vessel 0s 2d each.
Drove of Oxen or Neat Cattle 1s 8d per Score.
Swine, Sheep, or Lambs 0s 10d ditto.

And so in proportion for any greater or less Number.

Forty Cubic Feet of Round, and Fifty Cubic Feet of Square Oak, Ash, Elm, or Beech Timber, and Forty Feet of Fir or Deal, Balk, Poplar, Birch, or other Timber or Wood, not cut into Scantlings, shall be deemed a Ton.

Boats under Twenty Tons, not to pass any Lock without leave, unless Tonnage is paid for that Weight.

A clause is introduced in this act, securing to the corporation of London, as conservators of the Thames, the annual sum of £40, as a compensation for any diminution which may arise in the tolls and duties made payable by an act of the 17th of George III. for particulars of which, see article, 'Thames River.'

Mr. John Rennie and Mr. Ralph Dodd were the engineers originally employed upon this canal.

In 1808 the company found it necessary to apply again to parliament for an act to enable them to raise more money, which is entitled, 'An Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the Croydon Canal, to complete the same,' by which it appears, that of the £50,000 and £30,000 authorized to be raised by the former act, they had obtained, by subscription, £47,508, and borrowed the sum of £20,357, and from rents of land and sale of timber and clay, £195, 16s. 6d. making, together, £68,060, 16s. 6d. the whole of which had been expended on the works, with the exception of a balance of £449, 19s. 1d.; and that to complete the works and repay the money borrowed, the sum of £30,000 will be required, which sum the act of 48th George III. enables them to raise, by creating new shares, or by promissory notes under the common seal of the company, or by mortgage.

Three years after the passing of the last act, an application was again made to parliament, when another was obtained, entitled, 'Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the Croydon Canal, to raise Money to complete the said Canal and Works; and for amending the former Acts relative thereto,' in the preamble of which it is stated, that the company have raised the sum of £30,000, authorized by the last-recited act, by creating new shares of the value of £19,900, and by borrowing, on mortgage, the sum of £10,100; and they have, by virtue of the powers

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of the act of 41st George III. (since the last-recited act,) raised, by shares, £9,647, which said sums have all been expended on the canal and works, except the sum of £2,658, 9s. 7d.; but in consequence of the high prices of the land required for the canal and reservoirs, and the expenditure in the necessary erection of wharfs, warehouses, &c. the company have incurred a debt of £25,700. It further states, that for the purpose of constructing the reservoirs, bridges, and other additional works, they will require the sum of £7,343; and for the discharging of their debts and completing the canal and works, the further sum of £50,385. This act, therefore, authorizes them to raise these by granting annuities, with benefit of survivorship, if required, for the works above-mentioned, and to pay off the mortgage debt of £29,615. The work is directed to be put under the management of a committee of from fifteen to twenty-one persons, who are severally possessed of five shares at the least.

The principal object of this canal is the supply of Croydon and its vicinity with coal, deals, and general merchandize, and the export of agricultural produce, chalk, fire-stone, fuller's-earth, &c. to London.

CROYDON, MERSTHAM AND GODSTONE RAILWAY.

43 George III. Cap. 35, Royal Assent 17th May, 1803.

46 George III. Cap. 93, Royal Assent 3rd July, 1806.

THIS railway commences at the south end of the Surrey Iron Railway, on the west side of the town of Croydon, from whence it proceeds, in a southerly direction, running parallel with the Brighton Road, to the village of Merstham, from whence, the act gives authority to continue it by Gatton Park, the residence of Sir Mark Wood, Bart. to the town of Reigate. The Godstone Green Branch commences at Merstham, whence it takes a south-eastwardly course by Pendhill and Chevington, and terminates at Godstone Green, on the high road between Croydon and East Grinstead. From croydon to Merstham the length is nearly eight miles and three quarters, and from thence to Reigate, three miles

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and three quarters; and the Godstone Branch is in length three miles and a quarter. The estimate for the whole was made by Mr. William Jessop, and amounted to the sum of £52,347, of which, £35,800 was subscribed before going to parliament, and the act, authorizing its execution, is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway from, or from near, a place called Pitlake Meadow, in the town of Croydon, to, or near to, the town of Reigate, in the county of Surrey, with a collateral Branch from the said Railway, at or near a place called Merstham, in the parish of Merstham, to, or near to, a place called Godstone Green, in the parish of Godstone, all in the said county of Surrey.' It was obtained by a company consisting of seventy-three persons, amongst whom were Sir R. Barclay and Sir J. Lade, Baronets, who were incorporated by the name of" The Croydon, Merstham and Godstone Iron Railway Company," who are empowered to raise among themselves the sum of £60,000, in six hundred shares of £100 each; and if this is found insufficient, they may raise an additional sum of £30,000, or by mortgage of the rates which are as follows.

TONNAGE RATES.

Dung 2d per Ton, per Mile.
Limestone, Chalk, Lime, and all other Manure, (except Dung) Clay, Breeze, Ashes, Sand, and Bricks 3d ditto. ditto.
Timber, Copper, Tin, Lead, Iron, Stone, Flints, Coal, Charcoal, Coke, Culm, Fuller's Earth, Corn and Seeds, Flour, Malt and Potatoes 4d ditto. ditto.
All other Goods, Wares, and Merchandize 6d ditto. ditto.

Fractions of a Mile to be paid for as for a full Mile, but Fractions of a Ton as for a Quarter.

One Hundred and Twenty Pounds Avoirdupois, to be deemed a Hundred Weight.

Owners of Lands may erect Wharfs, but if they refuse, the Company may do it and charge a reasonable Sum for all Goods remaining longer than Twenty-four Hours.

In the preamble of an act of the 46th George III. entitled, 'An Act for better enabling the Company of Proprietors of the Croydon, Merstham and Godstone Iron Railway, to complete the same,' it is stated, that the company had been enabled only to raise the sum of £45,500, instead of £90,000; the act, therefore, empowers them to raise the remaining sum of £45,500 among themselves, or by creating new shares, or by promissory notes under the common seal of the company, or by mortgage or annuities secured on the rates.

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By the first recited act, two years only were allowed to make that part of the line towards Reigate, which passes through Gatton Park Estate, and as this was not done within the time, the power to make it has consequently ceased. The railway is double throughout, and is, with the carriage driver's path on each side, 24 feet in width.

The principal object is to facilitate the transit to London, of the heavy minerals and other produce, found in the vicinity of its southern end, which is effected by its connection with the Surrey Iron Railway, and the Croydon Canal; and, in return, to bring sea-borne coal and other general merchandize, for the supply of this district of country.

DANE RIVER.

7 George L Cap. 17, Royal Assent 7th June, 1720.

THIS river rises on the west side of Axedge, a mountain in Derbyshire, from whence it pursues a south-eastwardly course, forming, for several miles, the division between the counties of Derby and Chester, and afterwards of Stafford and Chester; from whence it flows past the town of Congleton, and by the beautiful seats of Somerford Park, Swettenham Hall, and Davenport Park; thence, by Holmes Chapel, and within a mile of Middllewich, where it is crossed by the Trent and Mersey or Grand Trunk Canal; from which place it pursues a north-eastwardly and very serpentine course, by Bostock Hall and Whatcroft, to the town of Northwich, where it falls into the Weaver Navigation, a little above the bridge.

As no portion of this river is navigable, we introduce it merely because an act was passed for making it so, in the early part of the reign of George I. which is entitled, 'An Act for making navigable the River Dane, from Northwich, where it joins the River Weaver, to the falling of Wheelock Brook, in the county of Chester.' The stream here mentioned, enters the River Dane at the place where the Grand Trunk Navigation crosses it, in its course to Northwich, so that whatever object the original projectors had in view, it is presumed that it will now be much more effectually answered.

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DARENT RIVER.

THIS river rises in Surrey, two miles from Westerham, from whence it takes an eastwardly course down one of the most beautiful vales in Kent, passing Hill Park, Brasted Place, and Chipsted, to River Head, where it takes a northerly course by Lullingstone Castle, (the seat of Sir Thomas Dike, Bart.) Farningham and Darent, to the town of Dartford. From this place to the Thames, into which it falls in Longreach, it is navigable for barges at high water. The navigable part is in length about four miles, all tideway and free of toll; and it is chiefly used for the trade of Dartford. The celebrated Dartford Gunpowder Mills are situate on its banks, besides other manufactures in the vicinity, which reap the benefit necessarily resulting from this navigation.

DART RIVER.

THIS river rises on the south side of Cut Hill, on Dartmoor Forest, in the county of Devon; from whence it pursues a southerly direction to Two Bridges, and thence, south-eastwardly, by New Bridge and Buckfastleigh, to a mill weir about a mile above the town of Totness, to which place it is navigable. Its course, to the sea, is very crooked, by the above-mentioned town, Stoke Gabriel, and the port of Dartmouth, a mile below which place it falls into the English Channel, in Dartmouth Harbour. The navigable part, by the low water channel, is twelve miles and a half in length; the tide flows throughout, and it is free of toll. The entrance to the river forms an excellent harbour, and as Dartmouth is a port, into which, in the year 1824, seventy-three English and six Foreign ships entered, some estimate may be formed of its importance.

As a navigation, the chief uses to which it is put, are the conveyance of coal and shell-sand manure from Totness and vicinity; and to export the produce of the tin, lead and copper mines, which are worked to a considerable extent on the borders of Dartmoor Forest.

page 185

DEARNE AND DOVE CANAL.

33 George III. Cap. 115, Royal Assent 3rd June, 1793

39 & 40 George III. Cap. 37, Royal Assent 30th May, 1800.

THIS canal commences in a side cut belonging to the River Dunn Navigation, near to the Dunn Pottery, in the township of Swinton; from whence, it takes a north-westwardly course through a short tunnel, about a mile from the Dunn; thence, by Wath, Brampton, Wombwell and Ardsley, to its termination at the aqueduct conducting the Barnsley Canal over the River Dearne, near Barnsley. The length is nine miles and a quarter, with a total rise, at the above-mentioned point of junction with the Barnsley Canal, of 127 feet. In little more than half a mile from its commencement, there are six locks, rising 36 feet 9 inches; from thence, to within a quarter of a mile of the Cob Car Ing, or Elsiker Branch, it is three miles and a half, and level; to the above-mentioned branch it rises 30 feet 3 inches, by four locks, and from thence, to within less than half a nlile of the Worsbrough Bridge Branch, it is level; in the next half mile, to the last-mentioned branch, there are eight locks, rising 60 feet; from thence, to the Barnsley Canal, it is level. The branch to Worsbrough is two miles in length, and level; and the branch to Elsiker Iron Works, (belonging to Earl Fitzwilliam,) is two miles and a half; rising 48 feet, by six locks. This canal is chiefly supplied with water from reservoirs situate at Elsiker, and in the vale of Stainbro', called the Worsbrough Reservoir. From some extensive collieries situate to the south of Stainbro' Hall, there is a railway extending to the basin at Worsbrough Bridge, which, together with the produce of the iron furnace working there, furnishes considerable tonnage upon this branch.

The first act relating to this navigation, received parliamentary sanction in 1793, and is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the River Dunn Navigation Cut, in the township of Swinton, to or near, the town of Barnsley, in the parish of Silkstone, in the West Riding of the county of York; and certain collateral Cuts branching out of the said Canal.'

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It was obtained by a company of two hundred and eleven persons, amongst whom were the Duke of Leeds, Earl Fitzwilliam, Sir L. Copley, Sir G. Wombwell, and Sir F. Wood, Baronets, who were incorporated by the name of "The Dearne and Dove Canal Company," and authorized to raise among themselves, for the purposes of this act, the sum of £60,000, in six hundred shares of £100 each, and, if necessary, a further sum of £30,000, or by mortgage, on assignment of the undertaking as a security.

TONNAGE RATES.

Wheat, Shelling, Beans, Peas, Vetches, and Lentils, Rape, Line, Coal, and Mustard Seed; Apples, Pears, Onions, and Potatoes 4d per Quarter of Eight Winchester Bushels.An so in Proportion for any shorter Distance than One Mile.
Barley 3d ditto, ditto.
Oats and Malt 2½d ditto, ditto.
Wool, Dried Pelts, or Spetches 4d per Pack, or Sheet, of 312lbs Avoirdupois.
Coal, Slack, Cinders, Culm, Charcoal, and Lime 1d per Ton, per Mile.
Limestone ¾d ditto, ditto.
If any Boat, carrying up Lime, or Limestone, return with Coal or any other Article to the Amount of Thirty Tons, the Tonnage on the Lime shall be only ¾d ditto, ditto.
And on the Limestone ½d ditto, ditto.
Stone, Iron-stone, Flag Paving-stone, and Slate 1d ditto. ditto.
If any Boats, carrying up the last-mentioned Articles, shall return laden with any other Article to the Amount of Thirty Tons, then they shall be charged only ¾d ditto, ditto.
Cast Metal Goods and Bar-iron 2d ditto. ditto.
Old or Pig-iron 1d per Ton.
English Oak,Timber, and Plank 1½ per Ton of 40 Cubic Feet per Mile.
Elm, Ash, and other English Timber 1d per Ton of 50 Cubic Feet.
Fir, and other Kinds of Foreign Timber ½d per Ton of 50 Cubic Feet, per Mile.
Deals and Battens, equal to Thirty Deals of Twelve Feet in Length, Three Inches Thick, and from Nine to Twelve Inches Broad 1½d per Ton, per Mile.
Groceries, Linen and Woollen Yarn, Cotton, Flax, Hemp, Manufactured Goods, and any other Wares and Merchandize 2d ditto, ditto.

Vessels passing any one of the Locks of this Navigation shall pay for Six Miles, and the lading shall be charged as not less than Thirty Tons; and in case the lading be of Articles charged of various Rates, any Quantity that it is wanting of Thirty Tons shall be charged at the highest Rates; but if such Boat be going up, and return with Coal or other Matters, and shall pay the Rates for Thirty Tons or upwards in coming down, then such lading shall be charged Rates according to the Quantity and Distance carried.

Fractions of a Mile to be charged as a whole Mile, and Fractions of a Ton, according to the Number of Quarters.

As it was apprehended that the Barnsley Canal would he made to communicate with this Navigation, it was enacted that any light Vessel going up from Swinton, and through a Junction Lock, (directed to be made within One Hundred and Fifty Yards,) into the proposed Barnsley Canal, and not return loaded the same Way, shall pay the full Rates of Three-halfpence per Ton, per Mile, upon Thirty Tons; and if down the Canal light, and return loaded, the same Rates as before specified.

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CRANAGE AND PORTERAGE RATES.

For every Ton of Goods, wares, or other Merchandize, loaded or landed from, or on to any Wharf belonging to the Company 6d per Ton.

WHARFAGE RATES.

DESCRIPTION OF GOODS. (*)
s. d.
(+)
s. d.
(±)
s. d.
(§)
s. d.
(II)
s. d.
And so in proportion for any Time such Goods shall lay upon or within any such intended Wharfs, Staiths, or Warehouses; but for any Time under Twenty-four Hours they are not liable to pay any Whafage.
For every Ton of Goods, Wares, Merchandize, and Commodities, and other Things, (except what are here-in-after enumerated) 0 60 91 01 31 6
For every Ton of English Timber of all Kinds, and Pig and Bar-iron 0 30 60 91 01 3
For every Ton of Coals, Stone, Iron-stone, Flint, Limestone, Clay and Sand 0 ½0 10 1½0 20 2½
For every Ton of Lime, Bricks, Tiles, Plaster, and Soapers' Ashes 0 10 20 30 40 5
For every Quarter of Corn of all Kinds, Cole, Rape, Line, and Mustard Seed, Apples, Pears, Onions, and Potatoes 0 ½0 10 1½0 20 2½

*More than 24 Hours, and not more than Six Days. + Six Days, but less than One Month. ± One Month, but less than Six Weeks. § Six Weeks, but less than Two Months. II Two Months, but less than Ten Weeks.

Sixteen Cubic Feet of Stone, Ten Superficial Yards of Flag Paving-stone, (from One to Two Inches and Three Quarters Thick,) Ten Yards of Lineal Curb Stone, (from Eleven to Thirteen Inches Wide and from Five to Seven Inches Thick,) Forty Cubic Feet of English Oak Timber, Fifty Cubic Feet of Elm, Ash, and other English Timber, Fifty Cubic Feet of Fir, and all other Foreign Timber, Thirty Deals of Battens, (Twelve Feet Long, Three Inches Thick, and from Nine to Twelve Inches Broad,) shall be respectively deemed One Ton for the Purposes of this Act.

EXEMPTION FROM TONNAGE RATES.

Dung, Soil, Marl, Ashes of Coal and Turf and all other Manure, except Lime, for the Improvement of Lands through which the Canal is intended to pass; all Materials for the repairs of Roads, (except Flag, Curb, and Paving-stones,) provided they do not pass a Lock, except at such Times as when the Water flows over the Waste Weir.

Vessels of less Burthen than Thirty Tons not to pass through Locks without leave, unless they pay Tonnage for the same as for a Boat of Thirty Tons, laden with Coal.

The company are restricted from taking, for the supply of the canals and branches, any water from Blacker Brook or Hollin Well Spring, in the township of Worsbrough; or from the River Dove or Dodworth Brook, except for the purpose of filling the reservoir in Stainbro' Valley, at a time of flood water.

This act authorizes proprietors of lands to make railways to any mines within one thousand yards of the canal; but in the parish of Wath, they may extend them two thousand yards. The

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canal is 4 feet 6 inches deep, and the locks are 53 feet in length, and 14 feet 4 inches wide; admitting such vessels as usually navigate the Dun, and Aire and Calder Navigation.

Seven years subsequent to the date of the first act, the company were, after having completed a considerable portion of the canal, under the necessity of applying to parliament for another act, to enable them to borrow more money and to increase the rates; which act received the royal assent on the 30th May, 1800, and is entitled, 'An Act to enable the Dearne and Dove Canal Company to finish and complete the said Canal, and the several collateral Cuts branching therefrom; and for explaining, amending and enlarging the Powers of an Act, passed in the Thirty-third Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, for making and maintaining the said Canal and collateral Cuts; and for increasing the Tolls thereby granted.' This act empowers the company to raise among themselves, or by the admission of new subscribers, or by calls upon the original shareholders, the sum of £30,000, instead of by mortgage, as prescribed by the former act; if by a new subscription, the act directs it to be raised by dividing the same into six hundred half shares of £50 each; and if this sum be insufficient, they may borrow an additional £10,000, on mortgage of the undertaking.

Power is also given to demand one-half, or fifty per cent. additional tonnage, and the same advance upon cranage, porterage, warehouse and wharfage rates, upon every article, except flag paving-stone, limestone or lime, which shall have been previously navigated up the Barnsley Canal from Wakefield.

Mr. Whitworth, who projected and laid out this canal, continued to be the engineer till the time of his death. The works were finished and the opening took place in 1804.

The chief object of the undertaking was to open a cheaper communication with the mining districts towards its western termination, in order that their rich and various productions should find a more advantageous market; and to give greater facilities for the transit of the manufactures of Barnsley to the port of Hull.

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DEBEN RIVER.

THIS river has its source near the town of Debenham, in Suffolk, from whence it takes a south-eastwardly course by Nonewden Hall, Easton, and by Campsey Meer and Abbey, to near Beverets, whence it pursues a south-westwardly course by Ufford and Bromswell, to Wilford Bridge, about a mile above the town of Woodbridge, to which place it is navigable. The course from Woodbridge is nearly south, passing Waldringfield and Hemley, to within a mile and a half of Felixstow, where it falls into the sea about four miles north-west of the port of Harwich. From Woodbridge, the river, at high water, has the appearance of a considerable estuary, being in some parts, and in particular opposite the village of Waldringfield, above half a mile in width.

The length of the navigation is about nine miles and a half, and at Woodbridge there are docks for the building of ships and other vessels, besides commodious wharfs and quays; there is also a dock for ship building near Ramsholt, situate about six miles down the river. The tide flows its whole length, and it is free of toll, the principal trade upon it being the import of coal and deals, and the export of the surplus agricultural produce of this part of Suffolk.

DEE RIVER.

11 & 12 Wil. III. C. 24, R. A. 11th Apr. 1700.

6 Geo. II. C. 30, R. A. 13th Jane, 1734.

14 Geo. II. C. 8, R. A. 2lst Mar. 1740.

17 Geo. II. C. 28, R. A. 12th May, 1744.

26 Geo. II. C. 35, R. A. 15th May, 1753.

31 Geo.III, C. 88, R. A. 10th June, 1791.

THIS river has its source on the north side of a mountain in Merioneth, North Wales, called Arennig; from whence it flows by the town of Bala, and from thence, north-eastwardly, by Corwen, to Llantysilio, to which place, from Bala Lake, it is used as feeder to the Ellesmere CanaL From Llantysilio it runs by Llangollen, and thence to the place where the famous Pont-y-Cysylty Aqueduct has been thrown across it; it then proceeds within a short distance of Wynnstay, (the seat of Sir Watkin Williams

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Wynn, Bait) from whence it pursues a northerly and serpentine course, passing Eaton Hall, the splendid mansion of Earl Grosvenor, to the city of Chester, from which place, to the sea, it is navigable. The length of the present navigation, from Hand Bridge to the end of the new channel, where it opens into the estuary of the Dee, is little more than eight miles; and from thence, by the low water channel, passing Park Gate, to the opening into the Irish Sea, off Great Helbre Island and Light House, the distance is fifteen miles and a half.

The first act of parliament relating to this river occurs in the 11th and 12th years of the reign of William III. entitled, 'An Act to enable the Mayor and Citizens of Chester to recover and preserve the Navigation of the River Dee,' in which it is stated, that the Dee was anciently navigable to Chester for ships and vessels of considerable burthen, but by neglect of the said river, and for want of sufficient protection against the flux and reflux of the sea, the channel had become so uncertain, that the navigation was nearly destroyed. It was upon this River Dee, as history relates, that Edgar the Peaceable was rowed by eight tributary princes.

By the act of William, however, the mayor and citizens of Chester were authorized to make the Dee navigable, between Chester and the sea, for ships of one hundred tons burthen or upwards; and for which certain rates on coal, lime, and limestone, were allowed to be collected for the term of twenty-one years; in which time, however, the river was not made navigable, although considerable sums of money were spent in endeavouring to attain this desirable end.

Another act was therefore obtained in 1734, entitled, 'An Act to recover and preserve the Navigation of the River Dee, in the county palatine of Chester,' by which Nathaniel Kinderley, his heirs and assigns, were appointed undertakers of the navigation, and authorized to make the river navigable to Wilcox Point, with 16 feet water in moderate spring tides.

Seven years were allowed for the execution of the necessary works, and certain rates were allowed to be collected; but it appears that Kinderley was in trust for Thomas Watts and Richard Manley, Esquires, who afterwards nominated forty persons as the undertakers.

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By an instrument dated 9th of April, 1734, these last-mentioned gentlemen, together with Joseph Davis and William Parsons, of London, and ninety others, agree to raise a joint stock of £40,000, in four hundred shares of £100 each, for the purpose of carrying the act into execution; but, as more money was wanted, it was agreed by deed-poll, on the 17th of August, 1736, to advance ten per cent, on the original subscription, and in a little time afterwards twenty per cent.; and it further appears, that the sum of £47,830 was expended in making a new channel for the Dee, and vesting £10,000 in South Sea Annuities, to answer any claim for damages in making the navigation.

The new channel was opened in April, 1737, and the whole of the works completed before the 25th of March, 1740; and on the 11th of December in the same year, it was agreed that the joint stock should be increased to £52,000, and that the company should be incorporated. Accordingly an act was obtained in the 14th George II. entitled, 'An Act for incorporating the Undertakers of the Navigation of the River Dee,' by which they were incorporated by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Undertaking for recovering and preserving the Navigation of the River Dee," and empowered to do what Nathaniel Kinderley was authorized to do in the preceding act; but as the high rates granted under the 6th of George II. were injurious to the trade of Chester, it was again agreed to reduce them. An act was in consequence obtained in the 17th of George II. entitled, 'An Act for explaining and amending an Act passed in the Sixth Year of his present Majesty's Reign, entitled, An Act to recover and preserve the Navigation of the River Dee in the county palatine of Chester; and another Act passed in the Fourteenth Year of his present Majesty's Reign, entitled, An Act for incorporating the Undertakers of the Navigation of the River Dee; and for repealing the Tonnage Rates payable to the said Undertakers; and for granting to them other Tonnage or Keelage Rates in lieu thereof; and for other Purposes therein mentioned;' by which the rates allowed in the former acts are repealed, and the following substituted.

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TONNAGE RATES.

For every Vessel conveying any description of Goods, Wares, or Merchandize, (except Lead, Oysters, Slates and Paving-stones, which are exempted from payment of Toll,) to or from Chester, or to or from any Place between the said City and Park Gate, on the North Side of the Dee, or to or from any Place between Chester and the Town of Flint, on the South Side of the Dee, and to or from any of the said Places, to or from any Place between St. David's Head, or Carlisle 0s 2d per Ton.
For any Vessel coming or going from any Place between St. David's Head and the Land's End, or beyond Carlisle, to or from any Part South of the Shetlands, or to or from the Isle of Man 0s 3d ditto. ditto.
Ditto, from or to any Part of Ireland 0s 4d ditto. ditto.
Ditto, from or to any Place up the King's Channel, beyond the Land's End or the Shetlands 0s 4d ditto. ditto.
Ditto, from or to any Part of Norway, Denmark, Holstein, Holland, Hamburgh, Flanders, or any Part of France, without the Straits of Gibraltar, or the Islands of Jersey or Guernsey 0s 8d ditto. ditto.
Ditto, to or from Newfoundland, Greenland, Russia, and within the Baltic, Portugal and Spain, without the Straits, Canaries, Madeiras, Western Isles, or the Azores 1s 0d ditto. ditto.
Ditto, to or from the West Indies, or any other Part of America, Africa, Europe or Asia, within the Straits, or not named before, or any Part of Africa without the Straits, or Cape de Verd Isles 1s 6d ditto. ditto.
And for every Vessel carrying Goods from, or bringing Goods to Chester, to be put on board or discharged from any Ship or Vessel lying at Park Gate, Flint, or any other Place within the Port of Chester 0s 2d ditto. ditto.

And so in proportion for any greater or less Quantity than a Ton, and to pay but once a Voyage, notwithstanding they may have lading both inward and outward.
Cheese conveyed in Barges to any Ship lying at Park Gate or Flint, employed by the Cheesemongers of London 0s 2d per Ton.

For the Purposes of this Act the Tonnage of Vessels is directed to be ascertained in the following Manner- the Length of the Keel to be multiplied by the Breadth between Planks on the Midship Beam, and that Product again by Half the Breadth for the Depth, and the Whole divided by 94; the Quotient, under this Operation, to be deemed the Number of Tons Burthen of such Ship. Skins or Wool to be charged by Weight, and not by the Burthen of the Ship. Vessels loaded within any Dock, to pay, according to the Burthen of the Ship, Sixpence per Ton,

Of the Sum of £l0,000, invested in the South Sea Annuity Stock, the Sum remaining, amounting to £7,180, 3s. 6d. was, by the Act, transferred to the Company; and it is also enacted, that unless the River Dee is maintained a Fifteen Feet Navigation at moderate springs, that the Rates and Duties are entirely to cease, until it is restored to that Depth.

By an act of the 26th George II. entitled, 'An Act for confirming an Agreement entered into between the Company of Proprietors of the Undertaking for recovering and preserving the Navigation of the River Dee, and Sir John Glynne, Bart. Lord of the Manor of Hawarden, and several Freeholders and Occupiers of Land within the said Manor; and for explaining and amending Three several Acts of Parliament of the Sixth, Fourteenth, and Seventeenth Year: of his present Majesty's Reign,for recovering and preserving the Navigation of the River Dee,' we learn that the works belonging to the navigation had cost the

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company £60,000 over and above what had been paid out of the rates; and as more money was wanted for repairs of dams, &c. the company are hereby empowered to make a call of twenty per cent. upon the capital stock, besides eight and a half per cent. which remained uncollected of the previous per centages.

The last act relating to this navigation, was obtained principally with a view of confirming certain arrangements relating to the waste and salt marshes adjoining the Dee, and is totally void of any thing of public interest; it is dated 10th June, 1791, and entitled, 'An Act for confirming an Agreement entered into between the Company of Proprietors of the Undertaking for recovering and preserving the Navigation of the River Dee, and certain Lords of Manors and other Persons entitled to Right of Common upon the Wastes and Commons, and the Old Common Salt Marshes, lying on the South Side of the said River, below or to the North-East of Greenfield Gate, in the county of Flint, and an Award made in consequence thereof'

Though Chester is a port into which, in the year 1824, twenty-four English and four Foreign ships entered, yet it falls into perfect insignificance, when placed in comparison with the neighbouring port of Liverpool, into which one thousand five hundred and fifty-four English and five hundred and ten Foreign ships entered its capacious docks in the year above-mentioned. And, as a proof of the small revenue derived from this navigation, we need only to observe, that when the act was passed for making the Ellesmere Canal in 1793, a protecting clause was introduced by the Dee Navigation Company, stipulating that if their annual income should ever fall short of £210, the Ellesmere Canal Company should make up the deficiency.

The objects of this navigation are of a general nature, as may be inferred from the tonnage rates.

DERBY CANAL.

33 George III. Cap. 102, Royal Assent 7th May, 1793.

THIS canal commences on the northern bank of the River Trent, near the village of Swarkstone, and enters the Trent and

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Mersey or Grand Trunk Canal at the distance of three furlongs to the northward. The main line proceeds from the last-mentioned canal, a quarter of a mile to the eastward of the junction above-named, whence it takes a northwardly course by Osmaston Hall to Derby, on the east side of which town it crosses the River Derwent, thence, by Little Chester and Breadsall, to Little Eaton, where it terminates. The branch to join the Erewash Canal commences from the main line, on the north side of the Derwent, near Derby, whence, taking an eastwardly course, by Chaddesden, Spondon, Borrowash, and Breaston, it terminates in the Erewash Canal, about three quarters of a mile south of the village of Sandiacre. The length of the main line, from the Grand Trunk Canal to Derby, is five miles and a quarter, with a rise of 12 feet; and, to its termination at Little Eaton, it is three miles and a quarter, with a further rise of 17 feet. The branch to the Erewash is eight miles and a half, with a fall of 29 feet. From the northern end of the main line at Eaton, a railway proceeds by Horsley and Kilbourn, to Smithy House, which is nearly four miles and three quarters in length. From Smithy House there is a branch one mile and three quarters in length, to the collieries at Henmoor, situated one mile and a half east of the town of Belper; another one mile and a half in length, by the potteries, to the extensive coal works near Denby Hall; with a collateral branch out of the last-mentioned branch, three quarters of a mile in length, to other collieries north of Salterswood.

The canal is 44 feet wide at top, 24 feet at the bottom, and 5 feet deep; but the head level of the canal, which is two miles in length, and terminates at Little Eaton, is made 1 foot deeper, that it may act as a reservoir. The locks are 90 feet in length, and 15 feet wide.

This canal and railways were made under the authority of an act of the 33rd George III. entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the River Trent, at or near Swarkstone Bridge, to and through the borough of Derby, to Little Eaton, with a Cut out of the said Canal in or near the said borough, to join the Erewash Canal near Sandiacre, and for making Railways from such Canal to several Collieries in the parishes or liberties of Denby, Horsley, and Smalley, all in the county of

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'Derby.' The proprietors of this canal and railways were incorporated by the name of "The Derby Canal Company," with power to raise among themselves the sum of £60,000, in six hundred shares of £100 each, and a further sum of £30,000, if necessary. The dividends of this concern are not to exceed eight per cent.; and after the sum of £4,000 is accumulated for the purpose of meeting any emergency, the rates are to be reduced, so that the profits may be no more, in future, than eight per cent.

TONNAGE RATES UNDER THIS ACT.

Lime, Lime-stone and other Stone, Coal and Coke, navigated only on that part of the Canal between the River Trent and the Grand Trunk Canal 0s 3d per Ton.
Lime, Lime-stone and other Stone, Coal, Coke, and all other Goods and Merchandize, carried between the River Trent and the Town of Derby 0s 9d ditto. ditto.
Lime and Lime-atone carried between Derby and Little Eaton, and upon the Railways 0s 4d ditto. ditto.
Coal, Coke, and other Goods, ditto 1s 5d ditto. ditto.
Bricks, Grit-stone, or Free-stone, for Building, ditto 0s 3d ditto. ditto.
Coal, Coke, Lime, Lime-stone, and other Goods, Wares, or Mercharidize, carried between Derby and the Erewash Canal 0s 10d ditto. ditto.

TOLL ON THE RAILWAYS.

For every Horse, Mare, Gelding, Mule or Ass, (not carrying or drawing) which shall pass along the Railways 1d.
For all Cows and Horned or Neat Cattle ½d.

Boats laden with Straw, Corn in the Straw, or Hay, or any Kind of Manure, shall not pass a Lock without consent, unless the Water be running over the Waste Weir.
In Consideration of the great Advantage which the Erewash Canal Company would, in all probability derive from this connexion with the Derby Canal, it is enacted, that for Coal or Coke navigated on the Erewash and passing thence into the Derby Canal, the Erewash Canal Company's Toll shall be no more than 5d per Ton.
And Mercantile Goods which shall pass on the Erewash, between the Derby Canal and the River Trent 3d ditto. ditto.

Lime and all other Articles navigated on the Erewash, and afterwards brought on the Derby Canal, One-half only of the Rates and Duties which they are empowered to charge under the Act of the 17th George III. but, should the Derby Canal Company ever permit any other Canal or Railway to be made between the Erewash Canal and the Town of Derby, in such Case, the Erewash Canal Company will be entitled to demand the full Toll granted by the above-mentioned Act. The Tonnage Rates on the Trent Navigation are also reduced in the same Proportion, upon all Goods which shall not have been carried on the Trent for a greater Distance than Three Miles, and which shall be carried on the Derby Canal, on the North Side of the Grand Trunk Canal.

EXEMPTION FROM TOLL.

Gravel and Sand for making and repairing any public Roads (Turnpike Roads excepted,) in any Township through which the Canal or Railways shall pass; also Dung, Soil, Marl, Ashes of Coal or Turf, and all other Manure (except Lime,) to be used only on the Lands in any Township through which the Canal or Railways pass; also Puncheons, Clogs, or other Wood to be used under ground in any of the Collieries on the Line of Canal, &c. provided Three Hours Notice be given, and that they do not pass a Lock, except at such Times as when the Water flows over the Waste Weir.

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WHARFAGE.

For any Goods which shall remain more than One Month on the Wharf, a reasonable Satisfaction to be made.

For Goods which shall be carried Into or out of the Grand Trunk or Trent or Mersey Canal, and navigated along that part of the Derby Canal which connects the River Trent and the Grand Trunk, the last-mentioned Company are entitled to One Shilling per Ton.

EXEMPTION FROM THE ABOVE TOLL.

Coal, Coke, Lime, Lime-stone, and Unwrought Stone, brought along the Derby Canal from its Northern Extremity, or from any of the Villages on the Line; or gotten in any of the Parishes of Melborne, Stanton-by-Bridge, and Castle Donnington; and such Goods, Wares, and Merchandize to be used by Persons residing between the Trent and Mersey Canal and the River Trent, within the Parish of Swarkstone.

The Trent and Mersey Canal Company are also authorized to charge, for all Goods carried along or crossing the Canal, the same Amount of Toll as though they had navigated a full Mile; also for all Goods (except Bricks manufactured in the Parishes of Barrow, Twyford, Stenson, Findern, and Willington, and not passing any Lock of this Canal,) which shall be carried from the Westward of Swarkstone, and along the Derby Canal, and down the Derby Canal to Swarkstone, and from thence Westward on the Trent and Mersey Canal, such Tonnage Rates as the said Trent and Mersey Canal Company would have been entitled to, had such Goods been conveyed along their Canal from Swarkstone to Shardlow.

The Derby Canal Company are bound by this Act to make a Cut at Weston Cliff, to join the River Trent with the Grand Trunk Canal, (which is close on its Northern Bank,) whenever the Proprietors of Breedon Lime-stone Quarries shall require it, but not until a Canal or Railway be made between the Trent, at Weston Cliff and the Works above-mentioned.

The Company have also engaged to make good to the Trustees of the Mansfield Road any Reduction on the Toll on Coal, which the making of their Canal may have occasioned; that is, if such Reduction is below Four per Cent.

As this canal would greatly injure the revenue derived from the navigation of the River Derwent, which runs through Derby, this company were required to purchase it, which they did for the sum of £3,996.

For the use of the poor of Derby, five thousand tons of coal are annually permitted to pass, toll free, on this navigation, the distribution of which is under a committee of three members of the corporation of Derby, and the same number of proprietors of this undertaking.

This canal was finished in 1794, and it was made chiefly with the view of better supplying the populous town of Derby with coal, by means of its connection with the Erewash and Cromford Canals, and by the railways which extend to the collieries north of the town.

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DERWENT RIVER.

6 George I. Cap. 27, Royal Assent 7th April, 1720.

THIS river has its source on the western side of that well known mountainous tract, in the northern part of Derbyshire, called the High Peak; whence, it pursues a south-eastwardly course, forming, for some miles, the division between the counties of Derby and York; thence, to Dinbank, where its stream is considerably augmented by its junction with the mountain stream, called the Ashop. From this place its course is southerly, by Mytham Bridge, through a romantic country, by Baslow, and through the princely grounds of Chatsworth, the seat of the Duke of Devonshire; thence, to Rowsley, where the Wye falls into it. Its Course hence is by Matlock, Cromford, and Belper, to Derby. From the last-mentioned place, its course is more eastwardly and very circuitous, until it falls into the Trent, at Wilden Ferry, below Shardlow, and at the place where the Trent and Mersey or Grand Trunk Canal forms a junction with that river.

This river, from the Trent to the town of Derby, was made navigable under powers granted by an act of 6th George I. entitled 'An Act for making the River Derwent, in the county of Derby, navigable;' but, as by the making of the Derby Canal and branches, its use would be nearly superseded, all interest in it, as a navigation, was disposed of to the Derby Canal Company, for the sum of £3,996. The navigable part is thirteen miles in length, and it was used chiefly for the supply of Derby and its vicinity with coal.

DERWENT RIVER.

1 Anne, Cap. 20, Royal Assent 6th May, 1701.

THIS river has its source on the moors, near the Flask Inn, about twelve miles north-west of Scarborough, and three miles south-west of Robin Hood's Bay. It pursues a southerly course through Harwood Dale, and by Hackness, the seat of Sir John Vanden Bempdè Johnstone, Bart thence, by East Ayton, to near

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Ganton, whence it runs due east to Yedingham Bridge, to which place it is navigable for small barges. From Yedingham it pursues a sluggish course through the low marshy grounds north of Scamston Hall, to near Wycomb, where it is greatly augmented by the united waters of the Rye and Costa, which here fall into it. Hence, its course is by the town of New Malton, to which place, from the Ouze at Barmby-on-the-Marsh, it was made navigable under the powers of an act of the 1st of Anne, entitled, 'An Act for making the River Derwent, in the county of York, navigable.'

The course of the Derwent from Malton, lies through a beautifully diversified district, passing by Welham House, Mennithorpe, the ruins of Kirkham Abbey, Howsham Hall, Aldby Park, Stamford Bridge, and Kexby, to East Cottingwith, where the Pocklington Canal locks down into it. Thence, its course lies directly south, by Bubwith and Wressel Castle, to Barmby, where it falls into the tideway of the River Ouze, about seven miles below Selby.

The length of the original navigation to New Malton, is thirty-eight miles, viz. from the Ouze to the first lock, between Sutton-upon-Derwent and Elvington, is fifteen miles and a half; from thence, to Stamford Bridge Lock, six miles and a half; to Buttercrambe Lock, it is two miles and three quarters further; from whence, to the fourth lock, near Howsham Hall, it is three miles and a half; thence, to the last lock at Kirkham Abbey, it is two miles and a half; and to New Malton, it is seven miles. From the last-mentioned town, the river was made navigable, in 1805, to Yedingham Bridge, a distance of nearly eleven miles and a half, making a total navigation of forty-nine miles and a half in length.

This river, as a navigation, is the private property of Earl Fitzwilliam, and was, by his ancestor, the Marquis of Rockingham, let on lease to Mr. William Fenton, for the term of twenty-one years, commencing on the 20th of October, 1755; and subsequently, by the present noble owner, to Thomas and James Fenton, who quitted possession of it on the 25th March, 1805; since that period, we believe, it has been in the occupation of the proprietor, and is used chiefly for the supply of Malton, and the country

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through which it passes, with coal, deals, and general merchandize; and for the export of the surplus agricultural produce, to the populous manufacturing districts of the West Riding.

DEVON RIVER.

THIS river rises on the south side of the Ochil Hills, in the county of Perth, from whence it takes an eastwardly course by Glendovan, whence it pursues a south-eastwardly direction by Muckhart to Fossaway, from whence it changes to a westwardly course by Dollar, Tillicouterie, and Sauchie, and falls into the River Forth about two miles and a half west of Alloa. As a tideway river it is navigable for some distance; and at Cambus Quay, about one furlong from the mouth of the river, there is 12 feet water at neap tides, and a rise at spring tides of 20 feet. In 1765, and again in 1768, Mr. Smeaton examined the river, at the request of Lord Cathcart and the proprietors of the extensive collieries on its banks, with a view to extend the navigation to Mellock Glen Foot, either by deepening the river or making a canal along side of it. The estimate for the latter mode was £9,357, is.; but, as no act was obtained for improving this navigation, it does not appear to have ever been carried into execution.

For the purpose of avoiding the difficult and circuitous course of the Forth between Alloa and the mouth of the Cambus, a cut was proposed between the last-mentioned town and the Devon, near Menstrie Bridge; but it has not been executed. The object of these projected improvements was to facilitate the conveyance of coal to the Forth to be shipped.

DORSET AND SOMERSET CANAL.

36 George III. Cap. 47, Royal Assent 24th March, 1796.

43 George III. Cap. 108, Royal Assent 4th July, 1803.

THE line of this projected canal commences from the navigable River Stour, at Gains Cross, in the parish of Shillingston Okeford, and county of Dorset, whence it proceeds in a north-westwardly direction by the towns of Sturminster Newton, Stalbridge, and

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