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This Book "Priestley's Navigable Rivers and Canals" by Joseph Priestley was previously published in April 1831. NOTE: Oringinally called "Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways, of Great Britain".
For more information see About this Book

Index Page Link to Previous Page 139

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For the purpose of carrying into effect these extra works, the proprietors are empowered to raise among themselves, or by the admission of new subscribers, the further sum of £19,000, or they may borrow the same of the Exchequer Bill Commissioners, on the credit of the undertaking. Seven years are allowed for making the railway.

In the year following the passing of the last-recited act, the company had again recourse to parliament, and on the 9th May, 1828, the royal assent was given to an act, entitled, 'An Act to authorize the Company of Proprietors of the Canterbury and Whitstable Railway, to raise a further Sum of Money for completing the Undertaking; and for enlarging and amending the Powers of the Acts passed for making and maintaining the said Railway and Works connected therewith,' in the preamble of which it is stated, that no part of the £19,000 they were authorized to raise under the last-recited act, has been obtained; the clause authorizing this is therefore repealed, and power is given to raise £40,000 among themselves, or by the admission of new subscribers, or they may borrow it on mortgage of the rates and duties.

The object of this railroad is to facilitate the conveyance of merchandize in general between London, and other places on the Thames, and Canterbury, which will, doubtless, improve the trade of the last-mentioned place, and beneficially affect the commercial and agricultural interests of its vicinity; and as the proprietors have power to construct piers at Whitstable, (though restricted to 900 feet in length,) it will have the effect of rendering that hitherto exposed bay, a safe and commodious haven; than which, nothing will more directly tend to the advancement of trade in its vicinity.

CARLISLE CANAL.

59 George III. Cap. 13, Royal Assent 6th April, 1819.

THIS canal commences on the eastern side of the city of Carlisle; from thence, taking a north-westwardly course, it twice crosses the site of the ancient Picts Wall; whence, continuing by Kirkandrews, to Wormanby, it takes a westerly direction, running

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parallel with, and on the south side of, the Picts Wall, by Burgh; thence across the marshes bordering the Solway Firth, by Drumburgh Castle and Glasson, to the Firth, into which it falls at Fisher's Cross, near Bowness. The length is eleven miles and a quarter, with a rise of 10 feet by nine locks. From Carlisle, where there is a commodious basin, the canal continues on one level four miles; in the next mile and a quarter there is a fall of 46 feet by six locks; thence to Fisher's Cross is level, and into the sea there is a fall of 24 feet by three equal locks of 8 feet each, with basins between them, called the Upper and Lower Solway Basins. The first basin from the sea is on a level with high water at lowest neaps; and the long pool, or level, of the third lock is 6 inches above an extraordinary tide (15 feet 6 inches above high water at lowest neaps) which occurred in January, 1796.

The estimate for this canal and basins was made by Mr. W. Chapman, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and amounted to the sum of £73,392. The act for making it is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from, or from near, the city of Carlisle, to the Solway Firth, at or near Fisher's Cross, in the parish of Bowness, in the county of Cumberland,' by which the proprietors, consisting of three hundred and four persons, amongst whom were the Earl of Lonsdale, Lord Viscount Lowther, Sir James Graham, Sir William Musgrave, Sir Hew Dairymple Ross, and Sir Joseph Dacre Appleby Gilpin, were incorporated by the name of" The Carlisle Canal Company." rphe canal is supplied with water from the Rivers Eden and Caldew, and from a reservoir on the south side of the canal, in the parishes of Grinsdale and Kirkandrews-upon-Eden; and the company were authorized to raise £80,000 among themselves, in sixteen hundred shares of £50 each, with an additional sum of £40,000 among themselves, or by the admission of new subscribers, or on mortgage of the undertaking, or upon promissory notes under the common seal of the company. The work is under the management of a committee of nine proprietors, possessed of at least ten shares each, who are chosen annually.

The object of this canal was to form a communication between the sea and the city of Carlisle, shorter and safer than the navigation of the Solway Firth and the River Eden afforded, and to

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facilitate the conveyance of lime, coal and general merchandize to and from the said city. Having been now some time finished, its advantages are duly felt; and when the railway, proposed between Newcastle and Carlisle, (for the making of which an act received the royal assent during the last session of parliament,) is effected, it will materially increase the revenues derived from this undertaking.

TONNAGE RATES.

Dung, or Ashes for Manure 1d per Ton, per Mile.
Coal, Cinders, Culm, Lime, Slate, Stone, Alabaster, Potatoes, Pig-iron, Bricks, Peats, Gravel, Sand, Clay, and Marl 2d ditto. ditto.
Timber, Malleable and Wrought or Maoufactured Iron, Lead, and other Unwrought Metals 2½d ditto. ditto.
Corn, Grain, Malt, Peas, and Beans ½d per Mile, per Qr. of Eight Bushels W.M..
Wool, Cotton Wool, Cotton Yarn, Cotton, Linen and Woollen Manufactured Goods, Hemp, Flax, Groceries, and all other Goods, Wares, and Merchandize 3½ per Ton, per Mile.

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Mile, and as for a Quarter of a Ton.

Vessels passing through Locks to pay for Forty Tons, whether they have as much or not, provided there is sufficient Water for such a Weight.

WHARFAGE RATES.

For all Goods loaded from or landed upon any of the Wharfs and Staiths, and which shall remain thereupon not more than Forty-eight Hours 3d per Ton.
For every Day or Part of a Day after this Period 1d ditto.

Forty Cubic Feet of Light Goods to be deemed a Ton.

CARDIFF CANAL.

(SEE GLAMORGANSHIRE CANAL.)

CARMARTHENSHIRE RAILWAY.

42 George III. Cap. SO, Royal Assent 3rd June, 1802.

THIS railway commences from the River Bury, near a place called The Flats, in the parish of Llanelly, and takes a northerly direction by Stradey Furnace, and up the valley of the Lliedi or Morfa Bach River, by Pandyback and Gynhydre Farm; thence, in an easterly course, crossing the Gwendraeth Faur River, 'to Castell-y-Garreg Limestone Quarries, in the parish of Llanfihan-gel-Aberbythich. It is in length sixteen miles; and upon the line, for the purpose of carrying the same on a more gradual inclination, are many deep cuttings and embankments; among

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the latter is one near Munydd Maur, composed of upwards of forty thousand cubic yards of earth, &c. At its termination, in Bury River, there is a dock for the reception of shipping. These works were projected and laid out by Messrs. Barnes and Morris, civil engineers, in 1801.

The act, under authority of which this railroad was executed, received the royal assent on the 3rd June, 1802, and is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway or Tramroad, from, or from near, a certain place called The Flats, in the parish of Llanelly, in the county of Carmart hen, to, or near to, certain Lime Works called Castell-y-Garreg, in the parish of Llanfihan-gel-Aberbythich, in the said county; and for making and maintaining a Dock or Basin at the termination of the said Railway or Tramroad, at or near the said place called The Flats.' The subscribers, at the time the act was obtained, were fifty-seven in number, who were incorporated by the name of" The Carmarthenshire Railway or Tramroad Company," and authorized to raise among themselves, for the purposes of this act, the sum of £25,000, in two hundred and fifty shares of £100 each; and if this is insufficient, a further sum of £10,000 may be raised among themselves, or by the admission of new subscribers, or by mortgage of the rates.

RATES OF TONNAGE ON THIS RAILWAY.

Dung, Limestone, Chalk, Lime, and all other Manure, Clay, Breeze, Ashes, Sand, and Bricks, Tin, Copper, Lead, Iron, Stone, Flints, Coal, Charcoal, Coke, Cuim, Fuller's Earth, Corn, and Seeds, Flour, Malt, and all other Goods, Wares, and Merchandize 1½d per Ton, per Mile.

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Mile, and as for a Quarter of a Ton.

DOCK DUES.

On every Ship Or Other Vessel entering the Dock or Basin 1d per Ton, Register Measure.
For all Goods exported and imported 1d per Ton, in addition.

Goods shipped in this Dock, which have not paid One Penny per Ton, on the Railroad, to make good this Deficiency, in addition to the usual Charge of Dock Dues.

TOLLS FOR HORSES OR CATTLE PASSING ON THE RAILWAY.

For every Horse, Mare, Gelding, Mule, or Ass, (excepting such as are used on the Railway, or which are going to the Farms or Common) 2d.
Cows and other neat Cattle 1d each.
Sheep, Swine, and Calves 8d per Score.

One Hundred and Twenty Pounds to be deemed a Hundred Weight for the Purposes of this Act.

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The work to be managed by a committee, under the control of the general meetings.

The chief object of this railway, is to convey for shipment the produce of the several lime-stone quarries, collieries, and iron-stone mines, which abound in its immediate vicinity.

CARRON RIVER.

THE source of this river is among the Campsie Hills, whence it takes an easterly direction by the villages of Denny, Larbert, and Carron Shore, to the River Forth, into which it falls near the termination of the Forth and Clyde Canal. As this river is in the tideway, and no act has ever been passed relating to it, and therefore free of toll, it is noticed chiefly on account of the celebrated Carron Iron Works, situate in its vicinity, the supply of which with coal and iron-stone, and the export of the manufactured article, constitute the principal trade on this navigation, which is only three miles in length. Vessels drawing 7 to 8 feet may get up at neap tides.

CART RIVER.

26 George II. Cap. 96, Royal Assent 7th June, 1753.

27 George III. Cap. 56, Royal Assent 21st May, 1787.

THIS river, (which is sometimes called the White Cart,) has its source on the north side of the mountains which separate the counties of Renfrew and Ayr, from Lanarkshire; from whence it takes a northerly course by Eaglesham and Cathcart, to which place it forms the division between the last-mentioned county and Renfrewshire. From Cathcart it proceeds directly to Paisley, from thence, northward, by Inchinnan, to the Clyde. From the Clyde to Paisley the length is about five english miles, and as this river was navigable to the latter place only at high water, spring tides, an act was obtained in 1753, for tile purpose of improving it, which act is entitled, 'An Act for laying a Duty of Two Pennies Scots, or One Sixth Part of a Penny Sterling, on every Scots Pint of Ale and Beer, which shall be brewed for Sale, brought

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'into, tapped, or sold, within the town of Paisley and liberties thereof, in the county of Renfrew, for improving the Navigation of the River Cart, and for other Purposes.' The magistrates and town council of the burgh of Paisley, are appointed trustees for carrying this act into execution, with power to borrow any sum of money, for this purpose, on security of the duties hereby authorized to be collected. In the 27th of the reign of his late Majesty, another act was obtained, entitled, 'An Act for enabling the Magistrates and Town Council of Paisley, to improve the Navigation of the River Cart, and to make a navigable Cut or Canal across the Turnpike Road, leading from Glasgow to Greenock,' in the preamble of which it is stated to be impassable, excepting for small boats, in spring tides. By this act, power is given to the parties mentioned in the title, to deepen the river from Snedda Bridge, and make a side cut for the purpose of passing Inchinnan Bridge, so that vessels drawing 7 feet, may, in ordinary spring tides, navigate the whole length. The canal not to be more than nine hundred yards in length; to be 7 feet deep, and 54 feet in width.

TONNAGE RATES.

Goods, Wares, Merchandize, or other Things, (except Coal) 8d per Ton.
Coal 5d ditto.

For any Article carried no higher than Knockford, half Toll only to be paid.

EXEMPTION FROM TOLL.

All Goods not brought into the navigable Cut, or past the Mouth of the Black Cart River, which falls into this Navigation, near Inchinnan.

Dung, Lime, Marl, or other Manure, belonging to any Owner or Occupier of Lands, within Five Miles of the River, is also free of Toll.

Commissioners are appointed to carry the act into execution, and are empowered to lessen the duties, and particularly that on coals, so soon as the money is borrowed for the purposes of this act; the power for which is vested in the magistrates and town council, who may take up the sum of £3,000 on the security of the tolls and duties granted by the act.

As the burgh of Paisley, by its successful manufactures, has become a place of considerable population, the navigation of the Cart, from the tideway of the Clyde, is of the first importance;

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and, from the facility with which coal can be brought up, and merchandize exported, has been one of the principal means in bringing this place to its present flourishing condition.

CHELMER AND BLACKWATER NAVIGATION.

6 George III. Cap. 101, Royal Assent 6th June, 1766.

33 George III. Cap. 93, Royal Assent 17th June, 1793.

THE River Chelmer has its source near Thaxsted, in Essex, from whence it pursues a southerly course, by Dunmow, to Chelmsford, where the navigation commences. Its course from Chelmsford is directly east, to near Maldon, where it joins the Blackwater, by which name the wide estuary, opening into the sea at Sales Point, is designated.

When the design was first promulgated for making the Chelmer navigable, Mr. Smeaton was directed to examine its course, and he accordingly reported upon it in June, 1762. He recommended a canal of thirteen miles in length, instead of rendering the channel of the river the site of the navigation, and his estimate for this amounted to £16,697.

Four years after Smeaton had viewed and reported as above, an act was obtained, entitled, 'An Act for making the River Chelmer navigable from the Port of Maldon, to the town of Chelmsford, in the county of Essex,' by which, commissioners, consisting of the principal inhabitants of the country through which it passed, or any seven of them, were appointed to carry the powers of the act into execution. Twelve years were allowed for finishing the necessary works, but no portion was to be commenced until an advance of twenty-five per cent, had been made upon the sum of £13,000, which the commissioners were authorized to borrow. Under this act, however, it appears that little or nothing was done; but a new company, (twenty-seven years after the date of the former act,) consisting of one hundred and forty-seven persons, (amongst whom were Lord Petre, the Hon. R. E. Petre, the Hon. G. Petre, Sir John Jervis, K.B. and Sir John Henniker, Baronets,) obtained an act in the year 1793, entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Communication between

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'the town of Chelmsford, or some part of the parish of Springfield, in the county of Essex, and a place called Colliers' Reach, in or near the River Blackwater, in the said county.' They were incorporated under the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Chelmer and Blackwater Navigation," and empowered to raise among themselves the sum of £40,000, in four hundred shares of £100 each, and in case that sum be insufficient, they may raise an additional £20,000, either among themselves, or by the admission of new subscribers, or by mortgage of the undertaking, or by granting annuities. Under this company, the Chelmer and Blackwater Navigation, as it now is, was completed. The total length, from the basin at Chelmsford to the tideway at Colliers' Reach, is a little more than thirteen miles and a half, viz. from the head of the navigation to Beleigh Mill, above Maldon, is ten miles and seven furlongs, with a fall of 59 feet 5 inches; from Beleigh Mill, by a cut, to the Blackwater, and by the course of that river, to Heybridge, is one mile and one furlong, with a fall of 7 feet 3½ inches; and from thence, by canal, to the basin at Colliers' Reach, opposite Northey Isle, one mile and five furlongs, with a fall, to low-water-mark, in the basin, of 12 feet 8½ inches. From Colliers' Reach, the length of the estuary of Blackwater River, where it falls into the sea opposite Sales Point, is nearly eleven miles. The spring tides flow 8 feet at Maldon Bridge, so that vessels of considerable burthen can enter that port at those times; but at neaps it only flows 1 foot The basin at Colliers' Reach was executed under the direction of Mr. John Rennie, and was opened in the early part of 1796.

TONNAGE RATES.

Coal 2d per Chaldron, per Mile.
Stone 1d per Ton, ditto.
Lime for Manure, Chalk, Dung, and other Manures 1 ditto, ditto.
Wheat, Barley, Rye, Peas, Beans, and Tares ½d per Quarter, dttto.
Oats, Malt, and other Grain or Seeds ¼d ditto, ditto.
Meal or Flour ¼d per Sack, of Five Bushels, per Mile.
All other Goods, Wares, and Merchandize 2½d per Ton, per Mile.

EXEMPTION FROM TOLL.

Stone, Gravel, and Sand, for the repair of Roads, (not being Turnpike), in any Township through which this Navigation passes, and which shall not be carried more than Five Miles, provided they do not pass a Lock, except at such Times as when the Water ltuwa over the Gauge, Paddle, or Waste Weir of the Lock.

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For the Purposes of this Act, Sixteen Cubic Feet of Stone, Ten Yards Square of Flag-stone (from One Inch and a Half to Three Inches Thick,) Ten Yards of Lineal Curb Stone (from Eleven to Thirteen Inches wide and from Five to Seven Inches Thick,) Fifty Cubic Feet of Round, or Forty Cubic Feet of Square Oak, Ash or Elm Timber, or Fifty Cubic Feet of Fir, or Deal, Balk, Poplar, or other Timber Wood, shall be deemed One Ton Weight.

Millers upon this Navigation are restrained from drawing their Mill Ponds more than Twenty-one Inches below the Height of a full Pond.

Vessels under Twenty Tons not to pass Locks without leave, or without paying for Tonnage to that Amount.

WHARFAGE RATES.

Chalk, Lime, or other Manure, when it does not remain more than Six Days 0s 3d per Ton.
All other Goods or Merchandize for the same Term 1s 0d ditto.
And if any of the above-mentioned Articles remain longer than Six Days 0s 6d ditto, per Week, in addition.

Goods or Merchandize remaining on the Quays or Wharfs, not more than Twenty-four Hours, are exempt.

Coal is likewise exempt from Wharfage Rates.

The chief object of this navigation is the supply of Chelmsford, and the interior of Essex, with coal, deals, timber, and groceries, and for the export of corn and other articles which this agricultural district produces.

CHESTER CANAL.

(SEE ELLESMERE AND CHESTER CANAL NAVIGATION.)

CHESTERFIELD CANAL.

11 George III. Cap. 7.5, Royal Assent 28th March, 1771.

THIS canal commences in the tideway of the Trent, at Stockwith, in Nottinghamshire, near to the place where the navigable River Idle falls into it, about four miles below Gainsborough. Its course is nearly west for six miles, passing round to the north of Gringley Beacon, whence it pursues a southerly course, to East Retford; thence, westward, by Worksop, to Shire Oaks, where it enters the county of York; when passing south of the village of Wales, and entering Derbyshire, it proceeds, in a southerly course, along the east bank of the River Rother, through a country abounding in coal, to Chesterfield, where it terminates. Its length is forty-six miles. From the Trent to Worksop it is twenty-four miles, with a rise of 250 feet; from thence, to the summit, at

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the tunnel near Harthill, nine miles, with a rise of 85 feet, being a total rise of 335 feet From the summit to Chesterfield, the distance is thirteen miles, with a fall of 45 feet. The number of locks is sixty-five. Between Wales and Harthill there is a tunnel two thousand eight hundred and fifty yards in length; it is in width 9¼ feet, and 12 feet high. Near Gringley Beacon is another tunnel one hundred and fifty-three yards in length. Between the long tunnel and Chesterfield, many individuals have laid down private railways, for the purpose of transporting the production of the mines and iron-works in that district.

This navigation was projected by Mr. Brindley, in 1769, but before any application was made to parliament for authority to carry it into execution, Mr. Grundy was directed to view the intended line of canal, upon which he reported in August, 1770. His proposal was to carry the line of canal from Stockwith, in nearly a straight course, to Bawtry, and from thence, by Scrooby, Blyth, and Carlton, and to join Brindley's line at the Shire Oaks.

Mr. Brindley's estimate was £94,908, 17s. and the length, according to the original plan made by Mr. Varley, is forty-four miles, six furlongs and eight chains and a half, and Grundy's estimate, by his proposed alteration, is £71,479, 6s. 9½d. being less by £23,429, 10s. 2½d. and shorter by nearly five miles and a half; yet, notwithstanding the apparent advantages of Grundy's line, such confidence had the proposed company in Brindley's designs, that they applied to parliament and obtained an act to enable them to carry his scheme into execution; it is entitled, 'An Act for making a navigable Cut or Canal from Chesterfield, in the county of Derby, through or near Worksop and Retford, to join the River Trent, at or near Stockwith, in the county of Nottingham.' The proprietors, at the time the act was obtained, consisted of one hundred and seventy-four persons, amongst whom were the Most Noble the Dukes of Devonshire and Newcastle, Lord Scarsdale, the Dean of York, and Sir Cecil Wray, Bart. who were incorporated by the name of" The Company of Proprietors of the Canal Navigation from Chesterfield to the River Trent," and empowered to raise among themselves the sum of £100,000, in one thousand shares of £100 each, for the purpose of carrying the same into execution, but the canal was not to be begun until the

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whole sum was raised; and in case the above sum was insufficient, they might raise among themselves, or by the admission of new subscribers, or by mortgage of the rates and duties, the additional sum of £50,000. The work to be managed by a committee, under the control of the general assembly. The act, which is very long, contains many clauses for the protection of private property; particularly such as belong to the Dukes of Norfolk and Leeds, and Lord Byron. Immediately on the passing of the act, the works were commenced, under the direction of Mr. Brindley, and so continued until his death, in September, 1772, when they were conducted and finished by Mr. Henshall, his brother-in-law, in 1776. From the Trent to Retford, the canal is constructed for vessels of fifty to sixty tons burthen; the remaining portion is for such as carry about twenty tons only.

RATES OF TONNAGE AND WHARFAGE.

Lime 1d per Ton, per Mile.
Coal, Lead, Timber, Stone, and all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize 1½d ditto ditto.
Soap, Ashes, Salt, Salt-scrow, Foul Salt, and Grey Salt, Soot, Bone-dust, Pigeons' Dung, Rape or Cole Seed Dust, to be used for the manuring of Lands of any Persons, whose Lands shall be Cut through by this Canal, such Lands being in any Township through which it passes, and Rags or Tanners' Bark ½d ditto ditto.

EXEMPTION FROM TOLL.

Hay, and Corn in the Straw, not sold, but to be laid up in the Outhouses of the Owner; Small Rubbish or Waste Stones, Gravel and Sand for the repair of Roads, (not being Turnpike) in any Township through which the Canal passes, and which shall not be carried more than Five Miles.

Dung, Soil, Marl, Ashes of Coal and Turf, for the Improvement of Lands lying in any Township through which the Canal will pass, and belonging to Persons whose Lands may be taken for the Canal, provided these excepted Articles do not pass a Lock, except when the Water is running over the Gauge or Niche of the Lock.

If any Iron, Iron-stone, Coals, Lime for the Improvement of Lands, or other Goods whatsoever, remain on the Wharfs longer than Twenty-four Hours, then such additional Rate to be paid as may be agreed upon.

Fifty Feet of Round, or Forty Feet of Square Oak, Ash, or Elm Timber, or Fifty Feet of Fir, or Deal, Balk, Poplar, and other Timber Wood, shall be deemed One Ton.

A Ton of Coal or Limestone to be Twenty-two Hundred Weight of One Hundred and Twelve Pounds each.

Vessels under Twenty Tons not to pass Locks without leave unless they pay for that Weight.

RATE,

To be received by any Lord of the Manor or Owner of Land who may erect Wharfs.

For every description of Goods or Merchandize for a period less than Six Days 3 per Ton.

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Up to the year 1789, the whole of the works had cost about £152,400, and the following is a statemeat of the income and expenditure of that year:-

INCOME AND EXPENDITURE.

. £.s.d.
The Gross Income in that Year, was 8,320 96
Expenditure, which included Interest to the Amount of £2,670, exclusive of Arrears 5,540 93
Nett Income 2,780 03

Upon which a Dividend of One per Cent. only was paid, amounting to £990.

A tolerable idea of the traffic upon this canal, at that period, (forty years ago) may be formed, from the following return of tonnage made by the proprietors, in 1789.

RETURN OF TONNAGE.

. Tons.
Coal 42,379½
Lead 3,862¼
Lime 3,955¼
Corn 4,366¼
Stone 7,569¾
Iron 1,554½
Timber 3,444¼
Sundries 7,180¼
. 74,312

Upon which the Duties and wharfage amounted to £8,303 9s. 6d.

Sixteen years after this period the proprietors divided six per cent, and the undertaking has been gradually improving.

The chief objects of this canal are the export of coal, lime, and lead from Derbyshire, and, of the produce of the iron furnaces in the neighbourhood of Chesterfield; and corn, deals, timber, groceries, &c. on the other hand, are conveyed into the county of Derby.

CLARENCE RAILWAY.

9 George IV. Cap. 61, Royal Assent 23rd May, 1828.

10 George IV. Cap. 106, Royal Assent 1st June, 1829.

THE line of railway contemplated by the act of 9th George IV. commenced at the River Tees, near Havertoa Hill, about four miles north-east of Stockton, and proceeded in a westerly direction,

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crossing the Sunderland Road three miles north of Stockton; thence, by the village of Carlton, and across the Little River Skern, to Sim Pasture, where it was intended to join the Stockton and Darlington Railway, at the point between the 17¼ mile post and the 17½ post from Stockton. A branch was intended from Sim Pasture to the Deanery Estate, near Bishop Auckland; but this was not to be made without the consent of the Earl of Eldon; another from How Hills, by Great Chilton, to Broom Hill; and one other branch from Harrowgate House to Brown's Bridge, near Stockton.
. M.F.C.
The length of the first projected Main Line, from the Tees to the Stockton and Darlington Railway at Sim Pasture, was 1404
The Deanery Estate Branch 346
The Broom Hill Branch 726
Brown's Bridge Branch 177
Total length of Main Line and Branches 2673

The line was laid out by Mr. Edward Steel; and he estimated the cost (including an inclined plane upon the Deanery Branch, and a steam engine for the Broom Hill Branch) at £98,113. The data for the estimate was a single railway, with one-sixth for passing places.

To carry these railways into execution, a company, consisting of fifty-eight persons, amongst whom was Sir William Foulis, Bart applied to parliament, and obtained an act, in 1828, entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway from the River Tees, near Haverton Hill, in the parish of Billingham, to a place called Sim Pasture Farm, in the parish of Heighington, all in time county of Durham, with certain Branches therefrom,' by which they were incorporated as "The Company of Proprietors of the Clarence Railway." They were empowered to raise among themselves the sum of £100,000, (of which £80,000 was raised before the act was obtained) in one thousand shares of £100 each; the whole of which was to be subscribed before the work was commenced. An additional sum of £60,000 may be raised, on mortgage of the rates, if necessary.

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TONNAGE RATES ALLOWED BY THIS ACT.

Coal, Culm, Coke and Cinders, for Exportation ¾d per Ton, per Mile.
Ditto, ditto, for Home Consumption 1½d ditto. ditto.
Lime ¾d ditto. ditto.
Alluvial Soil, Sea Weed, Dung, Compost and all Sorts of Manure, Material fof the repair of Roads, Stone, Marl, Sand and Clay ½d ditto. ditto.
Lead, Iron, Timber, Staves, and Deals, and all other Goods, Wares, and Merchandize 3d ditto. ditto.
Coal, Culm, Coke, and Cinders, passing an Inclined Plane 3d per Ton.
All other Articles 6d ditto.

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Mile, and as for a Quarter of a Ton.

Six years were allowed for the execution of the works; but upon its being ascertained that the line might be materially improved, an application was made in the following session of parliament for an act to enable the company to make the alterations contemplated, which act is entitled, 'An Act to enable the Clarence Railway Company to vary and alter the Line of their Railway, to abandon some of the Branches thereof, and to make other Branches therefrom; and for altering, amending, and enlarging the Powers of the Act passed for making and maintaining the said Railway.' Under the powers of this act, the company are authorized to commence with the main line from Samphire Beacon, in the parish of Billingham, instead of Haverton Hill, and continue it to Sins Pasture, with some deviations from the original line. The Broom Hill Branch, and that to Brown's Bridge, near Stockton, are abandoned, and in lieu, one is to proceed from near Stillington, to the city of Durham; another from the main line at the Old Durham and Yarm Road, to the River Tees, at Stockton; another out of the City of Durham Branch, at Ferryhill, to the lime and coal works at Sherburn; and another to Byer's Green, from the same point of the City of Durham Branch from whence the Sherburn Branch proceeds. There is another from the City of Durham Branch, which is very short, called the Chilton Branch. The power given in the first act to make the Deanery Branch remains unrepealed.

The total rise of the main line, from high water in the Tees to Sim Pasture, is 306 feet. The City of Durham Branch leaves the main line at a distance of little more than ten miles from its commencement, and at an elevation of 208 feet.

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To its summit, within two miles of Durham, it attains an elevation, from high water, of 278 feet; from thence, to the River Wear, there is a fall of 163 feet; thence, to Durham, it is level. At the distance of five miles and three quarters from the commencement of the last-mentioned branch, the Chilton Branch leaves it, at an elevation of 262 feet, and rises 40 feet; upon the same level, at the distance of about seven miles and a half, the Sherburn and Byer's Green Branches proceed from it; the first of which rises 72 feet, and the latter 115 feet.
. M.F.C.
The length of the Main Line from Samphire Bath Beacon, to the Stockton and Darlington Railroad, at Sim Pasture, is 1542
The Deanery Branch 346
The City of Durham Branch 1300
The Sherburn Branch 563
The Chilton Branch 034
The Stockton Branch 232
The Byer's Green Branch 500
Total length of Main Line and Branches 4557

On the line of the City of Durham Branch, where it crosses the River Wear, a cast iron bridge is intended, of one arch, of 100 feet span, and 35 feet above the surface of the river.

The estimates, under the last act, for this railway and branches, were made by Mr. Leather, of Leeds, civil engineer, in February, 1829, and are as follow:-

ESTIMATES FOR THE RAILWAY AND BRANCHES.

Main Line £94,411
Stockton Branch 14,402
Deanery Estate Branch 18,686
City of Durham Branch 70,777
Sherburn Branch 24,754
Byer's Green Branch 23,767
Chilton Branch 1,206
. £243,003

The company are empowered to raise the sum of £100,000, in addition to the sums of £100,000 and £60,000, authorized in time preceding act; which two latter sums may be borrowed on

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bonds under the common seal, or by mortgage of the undertaking, on security of the rates and duties. They are further empowered to purchase sixty acres of land, in such place as the company shall deem most eligible, for the erecting and constructing of yards, staiths, wharfs, quays, landing places, and other conveniences for the loading and unloading of vessels.

RATE,

In addition to the Tolls allowed by the former Act.
For every Coach or other Carriage used for the Conveyance of Passengers or Small Packages 6d per Mile.

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Mile, and as for a Quarter of a Ton.

Clauses are introduced in the act to restrain the company from the use of locomotive engines, on that part of the City of Durham Branch which passes through the townships of Mainforth and Chilton, or on the Byer's Green Branch, passing through the township of Whitworth, without the consent of the respective land owners, which clauses, if enforced, may act prejudicially to the interests of the company should locomotive engines come into general use.

This railway (which, with its branches, is the longest for which parliamentary sanction has ever been obtained, with the exception of the Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Carlisle Railway) is directed to be carried into execution, by a committee of eighteen proprietors, who are allowed six years, from the date of the last-recited act, for this purpose. The Deanery Branch is not subject to this limitation, as it may be made any time after the consent of the Earl of Eldon is obtained.

Previous to the second application to parliament, it appears the company had it in contemplation to extend the Deanery Branch to the Stockton and Darlington Railroad at Bishop Auckland, and another branch, of nearly ten miles in length, from the City of Durham Branch to the Hagger Leazes Branch of the last-mentioned railroad, near St. Helen's Auckland, but these were subsequently abandoned,

The object of this undertaking is to open, more effectually, the valuable coal fields and limestone quarries to which the railway

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and branches severally extend; and to afford a cheaper mode of conveyance to a place where the minerals can be conveniently shipped for exportation.

CLYDE RIVER.

32 Geo. II. C. 62, R. A. 2nd June, 1759.

8 Geo. III. C. 16, R. A. 24th Feb. 1768.

10 Geo. III. C. 104, R. A. 12th April, 1770.

14 Geo. III. C. 103, R. A. 5th May, 1774.

49 Geo. III.C. 74, R. A. 20th May, 1809.

6 Geo. IV. C. 117, R. A. l0th June, l825.

THIS noble river has its source on the northern side of Queensberry Hill, situate among that lofty range of mountains which separate the southerly point of the county of Lanark from Dumfrieshire. Its course is northerly, and very circuitous, passing Crawford and between the mountains of Tinto and Culter Fell, to near Pettinain, where, after changing to a south-westerly course for a few miles, it pursues a north-westerly course by Lanark and Hamilton, its stream being considerably augmented by the water of Avon, which here falls into it. Its course, which is now very crooked, continues by Bothwell and Rutherglen, to the city of Glasgow, where it becomes navigable; and hence by Govan and Renfrew, a little below which town it joins the navigable River Cart. From this point it gradually widens, and becomes a noble estuary, which at Port Glasgow is above two miles in width. From Gorbells Bridge, in Glasgow, the course of the Clyde to the Cart River is about seven miles; from thence to Port Dundas, where the Forth and Clyde Canal communicates with it, is nearly four miles and a half; from that place to Dumbarton Harbour, three miles; and thence, to Port Glasgow, five miles. The total length of the navigable part of this river, to where it falls into the Firth of Clyde, opposite the point of land on which is situate Roseneath, (the beautiful seat of the Duke of Argyle) is about twenty-five miles. This river was, originally, navigable at high water, spring tides, as far as Glasgow, but when trade and manufactures increased, the necessity of having a better navigation became so manifest, that the magistrates and city council of Glasgow, in 1759, obtained an act to enable them to improve it, which is entitled, 'An Act for improving the Navigation of the River Clyde to the city of Glasgow; and for building a Bridge cross the said

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'River, from the said city to the village of Gorbells.' The improvements contemplated, were between Dumbuck Ford and the bridge at Glasgow; and consisted, chiefly, of a dam and lock at Merlin Ford, to deepen the water over the shallows toward the city; to carry which into execution, the act empowered them to borrow £20,000, on security of the following

TONNAGE AND KEELAGE DUTIES.

For every British, Irish. or Plantation-built Ship, coming into or going out of the Port of Glasgow, (which comprehends Port Glasgow and Greenock), from any Foreign Country or the British Plantations 1½d per Ton, which such Ship shall Measure
For every Foreign Ship or Vessel Coming in or out 3d ditto. ditto.
And from the Owners of any Vessel trading to or from Glasgow to any Part of Great Britain or Ireland ½d per Ton.

EXEMPTION FROM TONNAGE AND KEELAGE DUTIES.

Any Vessel laden with Fish or other Provisions, Corn, Grain, Meal, Stones, Slate, or Coal, discharged at any of the Quays or Creeks within the Port of Glasgow, and open Boats under Fifteen Tons.

ADDITIONAL TONNAGE AT MERLIN FORD.

Goods, Wares, and Merchandize of every Description, (except Coal) passing through the Lock to be erected at Merlin Ford 1s 0d per Ton.
Coal 0s 8d ditto.

EXEMPTION.

Dung, Lime, Marl, and other Manure, carried in any Boat belonging to the Owner or Occupier of any Lands within Five Miles of the River; Sand, Clay, or Wood for the Use of any Deiph Manufactory; Brick, Kelp, Soapers Waste, or Broken Glass for the Use of any Glass Works in Glasgow; Wood, Iron-stone, or Iron-ore, Clay, Bricks and Lime-stone for the Use of any Company for making Pig or Bar Iron.

Vessels from Foreign Parts discharging or loading at the Quay of Glasgow, are liable only to the Last-mentioned Duties.

The act of 8th George III. is entitled, 'An Act for making and widening a Passage or Street, from the Salt Market Street, in the city of Glasgow, to St. Andrew's Church, in the said city; and for enlarging and completing the Church Yard of the said Church; and for making and building a convenient Exchange, or Square, in the said city; and also for explaining and amending an Act passed in the Thirty-second Year of his late Majesty,for improving the Navigation of the River Clyde, to the city of Glasgow; and for building a Bridge cross the said River, from the said city to the village of Gorbells;' but it does not contain any clause relating to the navigation.

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In the preamble of the act of the 10th George III. it is stated, that instead of a lock and dam at Merlin Ford, a more efficient navigation may be effected, by contracting the channel of the river and dredging; and that, being apprehensive that the high tonnage and keelage duties would be prejudicial to trade, they are therefore repealed. The other tonnage rates are to be paid on all articles, as above, passing between Dumbuck Ford and Glasgow.

The river to be made with 7 feet water, at neap tides; and the quay to be repaired and enlarged, and the following quay duties are allowed to be taken.

THE BROOMIELAW QUAY DUTIES.

All Vessels brought to these Quays to load or unload 1d per Ton.

But these Duties are not to be applied to the Purpose of improving the Navigation.

For the Purpose of a more equitable payment of the Tonnage Duties, this Act divides the Clyde into Three Stages; the First terminates at Renfrew Ferry, the Second at Dalmuir Burn Foot, and the last at Dumbuck Ford. For the First Stage or any Part of it Four-sixths of the above Rate, and for the other Stages One-sixth each.

Fifty Feet of Round, or Forty Feet of Square Oak, Ash, or Elm Timber, or Fifty Feet of Fir, or Deal, Balk, Poplar, or other Wood, to be deemed a Ton.

The act of the 14th George III. entitled, 'An Act for explaining and amending an Act made in the Thirty-second Year of his late Majesty, for improving the Navigation of the River Clyde, to the city of Glasgow; and for building a Bridge cross the said River, from the said city to the village of Gorbells; and part of another Act, made in the Eighth Year of his present Majesty, for amending the said Act; and for repairing, widening, and enlarging the old Bridge cross the River of Clyde, from the city of Glasgow to the village of Gorbells,' relates, chiefly, to the imposition of additional tolls and portages for the passage near the new bridge.

The act of the 49th George III. is entitled, 'An Act for explaining and amending Two Acts for improving the Navigation of the River Clyde to the city of Glasgow,' in the preamble of which it is stated, that in consequence of some doubts which had arisen respecting the proper interpretation of such parts of the preceding acts as relates to the tonnage upon coal, some further explanation was necessary.

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TONNAGE RATES.

The Toll of Eight-pence per Ton on Coal to be paid until the 8th of July, 1810, and from that Period until the 8th of July, 1817, the Tonnage shall be Four-pence, when they shall entirely cease.

The Tonnage Rates upon Bricks, Lime, Limestone, and Pantiles, shall from and after the 8th of July, 1810, be diminished from One Shilling per Ton, to Sixpence, and so to continue until the 8th of July, 1817, when the Duty isto cease.

In addition to the Old Quay Duty of One Penny per Ton, a Rate of One Penny per Ton is to be levied on all Ships and other Vessels loading or unloading Coal, Bricks, Lime, Limestone, and Pantiles, at the Harbour of The Broomielaw.

This act, however, authorizes the lord provost, magistrates and city council of Glasgow, to make the Clyde 9 feet deep at neap tides, in every part of it between the bridge of Glasgow and the castle of Dumbarton. They are further empowered by this act to borrow £30,000, for the purpose of enlarging the harbour of Broomielaw, on security of the new rates and duties, the former sum having been paid off.

The last act relating to this navigation received the royal assent on the 10th of June, 1825, and it is entitled, 'An Act for amending Three Acts for enlarging the Harbour of Glasgow, and improving the Navigation of the River Clyde, to the said city; and for other Purposes therein mentioned,' by which, power is given to make the navigation 13 feet deep, at neap tides, throughout its length; to enlarge the harbour of Broomielaw, and to extend the navigation to the south-east extremity of the public green of Glasgow. For the purpose of raising a fund for carrying these works into execution and discharging a debt of £54,350, 17s. 9d. contracted under the authority of the recited acts, they are empowered to collect the following additional rates and duties, and to borrow the sum of £100,000, on the credit of the undertaking.

RATES AND DUTIES.

The One Shilling Rate upon all Goods, Wares, and other Commodities, (with the Exception of the exempted Articles in the last-recited Act), to be increased One-third, if necessary, according to the Stages of the River.

Coal, Bricks, Pantiles, Freestone, Whinstone, and other Articles, a River Rate of Two-pence per Ton.

Lime and Limestone, Dung, Marl, and other Manure, as also Brick, Kelp, Sand, Soapers' Waste, or Broken Glass, for the Use of any Glass Works, in Glasgow are exempt from the above Rate.

NEW HARBOUR AND QUAY DUTIES.

For every Ship or other Vessel loading or unloading at the Quays, Two-pence per Ton.

Steam Vessels, for the Conveyance of Passengers, to pay only Half of the Duties for each Time beyond the First Arrival on the same Day.

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Jim Shead Waterways Photographer & Writer
Text and photographs copyright of Jim Shead.
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