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This Book "Priestley's Navigable Rivers and Canals" by Joseph Priestley was previously published in April 1831. NOTE: Oringinally called "Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways, of Great Britain".
For more information see About this Book

Index Page Link to Previous Page 119

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31 George II. Cap. 72, Royal Assent 9th June, 1758.

9 George III Cap. 71, Royal Assent 21st April, 1769.

6 George IV. Cap. 17, Royal Assent 31st March, 1825.

THE River Calder rises in the mountainous district north of the town of Todmorden, running along a most romantic and deep valley, called The Vale of Todmorden, where in many places the river, the turnpike road, and the Rochdale Canal, are within a few yards of each other; having passed Todmorden, it runs by Mytholme and Hebden Bridge, to Sowerby Wharf, about two miles from Halifax, where the Calder and Hebble Navigation commences. The Hebble is a small but rapid stream, which, rising above Ovenden, passes round the north and east sides of the town of Halifax, and falls into the Calder below Salterhebble. The course of the Calder, from the commencement of this navigation, is in an easterly direction, by Elland, Kirklees Park, near which place it is joined by the Colne, and Sir John Ramsden's Canal; from hence it passes by Dewsbury and Horbury Bridge, to Wakefield; at a quarter of a mile below Wakefield Bridge it terminates, on entering the Aire and Calder Navigation at a place called Fall Ing.

This river was rendered navigable by making cuts and locks for the purpose of passing mill weirs, &c. under the authority of an act of the 31st George II. entitled, 'An Act for extending the Navigation of the River Calder, to or near to Sowerby Bridge, in the parish of Halifax; and for making navigable the River Hebble, Halig, or Halifax Brook, from Brooksmouth to Salterhebble Bridge, in the county of York.' Mr. Smeaton surveyed the proposed line in 1757, and it was carried into execution, under his superintendence, by commissioners appointed in the act, whose qualification was a landed estate of the annual value of £100, or a personalty to the amount of £3,000; any nine of whom were empowered to act.

Authority is given to raise money, for the purpose of carrying this act into execution, at five per cent, interest, on security of the tolls granted, which were as follow.

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Stones, Slate, Flags, Lime, Limestone and Coal 1s 1½d per Ton, for the whole Distance.
All other Goods, Merchandize, and Commodities 0s 8d ditto. ditto. ditto.

And so in proportion for any shorter Distance.


Stones, Timber, Gravel, Sand, or other Materials, for the use of the Mills within the Limits of this Line of Navigation.

Soaper's Waste, Dung, and all Sorts of Manure, except Lime or Limestone.

Coal, under this Act, is prohibited from being carried down the Stream towards Wakefield, (except for the Use of the Vessels navigating the same) under the Penalty of £50, one-half to the King, the other Moiety to the Person who sues for the same.

Considerable damage having been done to this navigation by a great flood, which occurred in the night between the 7th and 8th October, 1767, and a total stop being put to the navigation, application was made in the following year to parliament, by the parties who had furnished the funds for constructing the navigation, and they obtained an act, entitled, 'An Act for extending the Navigation of the River Calder to Salterhebble Bridge, and to Sowerby Bridge, in the county of York, and for repealing an Act for that Purpose;' in the preamble of which, after reciting the title of the original act, is the following statement of the reason for this measure;-

"And whereas the commissioners appointed for carrying the said act into execution, have borrowed of several persons considerable sums of money, which they have laid out for the purposes aforesaid, and great advantages arising therefrom have been already experienced: and whereas, before such navigation was completed, and all the necessary works for the defence and security of the cuts, locks and other works were perfected, such of the works as were then made, were, by the violence of repeated floods, destroyed or very greatly damaged, and the navigation is ruined so far as to be no longer passable for any kind of vessels from Wakefield to Brooksmouth, or from Brooksmouth to Salterhebble Bridge: and, whereas, the said commissioners cannot raise money to make the same good again, no person being willing to lend any, under the present circumstances, upon such security as they are empowered to give by virtue of

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"the said act, so that all those who have already advanced money for making the said navigation, are likely to lose their money so advanced, to the great discouragement of all persons willing to engage in such useful undertakings; and the public is in danger of losing the benefit of such navigation, unless some further provision be made by law for restoring, completing, and maintaining the same : may it therefore please your Majesty, &c. &c."

The proprietors, or original mortgagees, were eighty-one in number, amongst whom was Sir George Savile, Bart. and they were, by this act, incorporated by the name of" The Company of Proprietors of the Calder and Hebble Navigation," with power to raise among themselves, and by the admission of new subscribers, such sums of money, for the purposes of this act, as the company, at any general meeting, shall direct to be raised; and that this, together with the money already advanced, with interest due thereon, shall be divided into £100 shares. The company are also authorized to borrow, on security of the tolls, the sum of £20,000. The concern is under the direction of a committee of five, or more, who are under the control of the general meetings. As this act repeals the act of 31st George II. the following tonnage rates were substituted.


Stones, Slate, Flags, Lime, Limestone and Coal 4s 2d per Ton, for the whole Distance.
All other Goods, Wares, Merchandize, and Commodities 9s 0d ditto. ditto. ditto.

And so in proportion for any less Distance or Weight.


Materials for the repairs of any of the Mills on this Line of Navigation, Soaper's waste, Dung, or any Kind of Manure, except Lime and Limestone, provided such Articles pass through the Locks at the time when Water is flowing over the Dam of such Locks.

Boats under Fifteen Tons, not to pass without leave.

Owners of Wharfs may charge Three-pence per Ton for any Article which may remain less than Six Days, if more, a Half-penny per Day in Addition.

The act contains this condition as regards dividends, viz, that whenever more than ten per cent. shall be paid in any one year, on the original sums expended on the navigation, then a reduction

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shall take place in the rates, in the year following the payment of more than ten per cent, in the proportion of two shillings and sixpence in the pound upon all such surplus.

Millers are required to stop their mills, when the water is reduced 18 inches below the crown of the dam.

Mr. Smeaton was again directed to view the Calder, by the new proprietors, with reference to the repairing and perfecting the navigation; and he accordingly reported on it in December, 1770, the year after the obtaining of the act. In February, 1779, he again examined the river and suggested several improvements, which were carried into immediate execution.

The Calder and Hebble Navigation, from its junction with the Aire and Calder Navigation at Fall Ing Lock, to the basin at Sowerby Wharf; where it communicates with the Rochdale Canal, is twenty-two miles in length, with a fall of 192 feet 6 inches, by twenty-eight locks.

A considerable portion of the line of this navigation occupies the original course of the river, and the remainder consists of cuts, to avoid the circuitous course of the river, and for the purpose of passing the mill weirs. It was first projected with the sole object of giving greater facilities to the populous manufacturing district situate westward of the town of Wakefield; but it has subsequently, by its connection with the Rochdale and Huddersfield Canals, become a very important part of the line of inland navigation between the ports of Liverpool, Goole and Hull, thus connecting the German Ocean and the Irish Sea.

For many years a considerable portion of the manufactures of Manchester and Rochdale were brought, by land carriage, across the grand ridge, to this navigation at Sowerby Bridge Wharf; but when the Rochdale and the Huddersfield Canals were opened, the increase to the revenues of this navigation was such, as to enable the proprietors to divide fourteen per cent, notwithstanding the prohibitory clause in the act of 9th George III. besides accumulating a considerable fund for any exigency. The country through which it passes has also partaken of the great advantages arising from a well regulated navigation. Agricultural lime has, by its means, been carried to fertilize a sterile and mountainous district; stone and flag quarries have been opened in its vicinity,

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which have furnished inexhaustible supplies for the London Market, and other parts of the kingdom; we allude, in particular, to the celebrated flag quarries of Cromwell Bottom and Elland Edge, at the former of which there is an extensive wharf, Iron-stone and coal works have been, and continue to be, extensively worked on its banks; and from the collieries at Flockton, a railway extends to the river at Horbury Bridge; from the Storr's Hill Colliery there is also a railway, terminating at the Calder, a little above the same bridge; within a few years there was a railway from the White Lee Colliery, above Heckmondwike, which terminated at this navigation, a short distance above Dewsbury, but the colliery is now worked out, and the railway taken up. At Kirklees a railway is laid to this navigation, from Sir George Armytage's Collieries; and the Earl of Cardigan has also a railway from his valuable collieries at New Park, to the Calder, at Wakefield, where are convenient staiths for shipment. Many other collieries, stone quarries, &c. have been opened on its banks, in consequence of the facility it gives for exporting their heavy produce, but they are too numerous to be all introduced within our pages.

In 1825 the company of proprietors applied for an act to enable them to extend a branch of their navigation to the town of Halifax, which will be attended with considerable advantage to that populous and important manufacturing town; it is entitled, 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Calder and Hebble Navigation, to make a navigable Cut or Canal from Salterhebble Bridge, to Bailey Hall, near to the town of Halifax, in the West Riding of the county of York; and to amend the Act relating to the said Navigation.' By this act the company are empowered to raise among themselves, or by the admission of new proprietors, the sum of £40,000 for carrying into execution (only one mile and three-eighths of canal,) the works proposed; with further power to raise, by way of loan, or by creating new shares, an additional sum of £10,000; but which sums of £40,000 and £10,000 may be raised upon promissory notes, or on mortgage of the tolls and duties authorized to be collected.

The clause in the former act relating to the limitation of the dividends, is in this act repealed, so that the proprietors may here-

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after divide the whole of their profits: the tonnage rates are also altered, and the following are what the proprietors are now empowered to collect.


Stones, Slate, Flags, Lime or Limestone and Coal 2s 0½d per Ton, for the whole Distance.
All other Goods, Wares, Merchandize, and Commodities 4s 1½d ditto. ditto. ditto.

And so in proportion for any less Weight or Distance.

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Mile, and as for a Quarter of a Ton.

The new tonnage rates above-recited came into operation for the whole line of navigation on the 1st day of June, 1825. The gross receipts of this work amount to about £40,000 per annum.

The cut authorized to be made by the last act, is nearly one mile and three-eighths in length, with a rise of 100½ feet. It commences in the Salterhebble Basin, and proceeds up the valley to the east side of the town of Halifax, where there are convenient wharfs and basins for the accommodation of the trade. The water for supplying it is procured by means of a drift eleven hundred and seventy yards in length, from the basin of the canal, at Salterhebble, to a pit beyond the uppermost lock, from which it is raised by a powerful steam engine, into the head level. This novel and expensive mode of procuring the lockage water was resorted to by Mr. Bradley, the company's engineer, for the purpose of avoiding disputes with the numerous mill owners on the line of the Hebble Brook, below Halifax.


43 George III Cap. 102, Royal Assent 27th July, 1803.

44 George III. Cap. 62, Royal Assent 29th June, 1804.

6 George IV. Cap. 15, Royal Assent 31st March, 1825.

THIS canal, or rather series of canals and navigable lochs, forms one of the most magnificent inland navigations in the world; and its execution has been justly accounted one of the brightest examples of what the skill and perseverance of our engineers can accomplish. It commences at the Corpach Basin, in the tideway of Loch Eil, at the north end of Linnhe Loch, near Fort William, and

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at the foot of that celebrated Mountain Ben Nevis, which rises 4,370 feet above the level of the sea. From hence its course is nearly in a straight direction, north-eastwardly, through Lochs Lochy, Ness, Doughfour, to Clacknacarry Basin in Loch Beauly, where it enters the Murray Firth, on the west side of the town of Inverness. Its total length is sixty miles and a half, and the following are the particulars of the lengths of the several cuts and locks, extracted from a document ordered by the Honourable the House of Commons, on the 1st of June, 1821.
Canal, from the sea lock at Clacknacarry to Muir Town110
From Muir Town through Loch Doughfour to Loch Ness655
Length of Loch Ness2356
From the south-west end of Loch Ness to Loch Oich535
Length of Loch Oich356
From the south-west end of Loch Oich to Loch Lochy165
Length of the Loch Lochy1000
From the south-west end of Loch Lochy to Corpach Sea Lock803
Total length of the navigation6040

Of this, twenty_three miles and eight chains are artificially formed,and the remaining thirty-seven miles, three furlongs and two chains, are natural locks or lakes, which have been made navigable.

There are twenty-eight locks upon this navigation, viz : - from Loch Eil to Loch Lochy, twelve locks; and two more to the summit level at Loch Oich; from hence are seven locks to Fort Augustus, at the west end of Loch Ness; and seven from the end of the last-mentioned loch to the sea, at Loch Beauly, above low water of which, the summit level is only 91 feet.

The first act relating to this grand national undertaking occurs in the 43rd George III. and is entitled, 'An Act for granting to his Majesty the Sum of £20,000, towards defraying the Expense of

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making an Inland Navigation from the western to the eastern Sea, by Inverness and Fort William; and for taking the necessary steps towards executing the same,' by which, commissioners were appointed to carry the act into execution; some progress was, in consequence, made, but in the following session, another act was passed, entitled, 'An Act for making further provision for making and maintaining an Inland Navigation, commonly called "The Caledonian Canal ," from the eastern to the western Sea, by Inverness and Fort William, in Scotland.' By this legislative enactment, the commissioners, appointed in the first act, are authorized to receive, at his Majesty's Exchequer, the sum of £50,000, in two half yearly instalments, for the purposes set forth in the preamble.

Though this line of navigation was commenced by government, yet the last-recited act contains a clause securing a proportionate dividend to all who may be disposed to become shareholders in the undertaking for any sum above £50; ten per cent, to be paid at the time of subscribing, the other at such times, and by such instalments as time commissioners may determine. For the purpose of securing a supply of water for the lockage in this navigation, the act empowers the commissioners to embank Loch Garry, Loch Quoich or Quich, and Loch Arkeg, so that they may more effectually act as reservoirs.


Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Commodities 2d per Ton, per Mile.

And so in proportion for any greater or less Quantity than a Ton; and payment shallbe made for a full Mile, if any Portion of such Mile shall have been passed.

Vessels entering a Loch or Lake shall pay for the whole Length of such Loch or Lake.

Thirty-six cubic Feet of Oak, Ash, Elm. Beech, Poplar, or Birch Timber, and Forty-five cubic Feet of Fir, or Deal Balk, shall be deemed a Ton.

All Vessels in his Majesty's Service are exempt from Toll,

The act of 6th George IV. entitled, 'An Act to explain and amend two Acts passed in the Forty-third and Forty-fourth Years of the Reign of His late Majesty King George the Third, for making and maintaining an inland Navigation, commonly called "The Caledonian Canal," by establishing further Checks upon the Expenditure of the Public Money for that Purpose, in certain cases,' was passed chiefly with the view of better regulating the

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payment of compensation claims, in respect of consequential damage, wherein it is requited that all such claims should be made on or before the 1st of February, 1826.

This canal, which was projected and commenced chiefly with the view of giving facilities to the Baltic Timber Trade, was opened in October, 1822. Its depth is 15 feet, although it was proposed, originally, to be 5 feet deeper; but as the estimate for giving this increased depth was £41,000, and, as the Baltic Timber Trade has been in a great measure destroyed, by the new scale of duties having directed the trade to Canada, the commissioners have, at present, decided, not to add this cost to the enormous sum of £977,524, which had been expended on the canal up to the 1st of January, 1828.

Though this is a capital navigation for ships drawing 15 feet water, in addition to the advantages gained by avoiding the circuitous and dangerous navigation through Pentland Frith, and the Western Hebrides, it has not hitherto attracted the attention of seafaring adventurers so much as might have been expected; for it appears from the twenty-fourth report of the commissioners in July, 1828, that the total number of ships which availed themselves of this passage, in 1826, was nine hundred and forty-four; in 1827, seven hundred and sixty-six; and in 1828, eight hundred and eighty-two; and the total produce of the rates for the year ending May, 1828, was only £2,870, whilst the expense incurred in keeping up the canal amounted to £4,173, leaving a deficiency of £1,303, which has been borrowed.

Since January 1st, 1828, the tonnage rates have been reduced to the original rate of one farthing per ton per mile, which may have the effect of attracting the shipping interest to the more frequent use of this canal.

Nearly thirty years previous to the passing of the first act relating to this canal, Mr. Watt surveyed the line, and estimated that a canal of 12 feet water would cost £164,031, exclusive of land. Two years, however, previous to the date of the first act, Mr. Telford, along with Mr. Murdoch Downie, being directed by government to examine the line, recommended a canal of the width of 110 feet at the surface, and 50 feet at the bottom, with 20 feet water, and the locks 162 feet by 38; and the estimate formed by Mr. W.

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Jessop, according to these dimensions, amounted to £497,531, including the land required, and the necessary mooring chains. It was afterwards directed that the locks should be 172 feet by 38 to 40 feet; and, with the view of giving greater facility to the passage of small vessels, it was in contemplation to construct side locks for vessels of two hundred tons, but as this appendage was estimated to cost £75,200, and the advantage appearing very uncertain, the idea was abandoned.

The whole of the works on this line of canal are of the first order, and exhibit the combined skill of the excellent engineers, who were entrusted with its execution, in the most favourable point of view; and whoever views the celebrated chain of eight locks, called "Neptune's Staircase," situate at the eastern end of this navigation, which alone cost upwards of £50,000, and the sea lock at Clacknacarry, extending upwards of four hundred yards lnto the sea, will not hesitate to confirm the opinion we have thus expressed.


1 Anne, Cap. II, Royal Assent 27th February, 1702.

53 George III. Cap. 214, Royal Assent 21st July, 1813.

THIS river rises on the confines of Hertfordshire, between Biggleswade and Royston, from whence it pursues a north-easterly course, on the south side of Orwell Hill, to the Queen's Mill, at Cambridge, to which place it is navigable. From hence its course is by Fen Ditton to Clayhithe Ferry, the place where the London and Cambridge Junction Canal was intended to communicate with this river, and where the navigation, as comprehended under the foregoing acts, terminate. The remaining portion of the Cam River being in Bedford Level, and consequently under the jurisdiction of the Bedford Level Corporation, will be described under the head of Ouze River, as all the legislative enactments relating to the lower end of the Cam are introduced into acts of parliament, obtained by the above body, the titles of some of which terminate in the following manner, viz :- ' and for improving the Navigation of the River Ouze, in the county of Norfolk, and of the several Rivers communicating therewith.' The first act, therefore,

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relating to the upper portion of the Cam, was passed in the first year of the reign of Anne, and is entitled, 'An Act for making the River Cham, alias Grant, in the county of Cambridge, more navigable from Clayhithe Ferry to the Queen's Mill, in the University and Town of Cambridge,' from which it would appear that it was navigable previous to this early date, but from what period we cannot learn.

The navigation, which is only about seven miles in length, is managed by conservators appointed under the authority of the above-mentioned act.

Another act of parliament was obtained in 1813, entitled, 'An Act for extending and amending an Act of Queen Anne, for making the River Cham more navigable from Clayhithe Ferry to the Queen's Mill, in the county of Cambridge,' but it does not contain any clauses wherein the public are generally interested.

The principal uses to which this navigation is put, is to export the surplus agricultural produce of the country through which it passes, and to facilitate the import of coal and general merchandize.


This river rises three miles north of Camelford, in Cornwall, on the east side of which town it passes; thence by Tredethy and Penhargate, to Dunmeer Bridge, where it changes to a north-eastwardly course, by Guinea Port, to Wade Bridge, where it enters an estuary which falls into the sea at Stepper Point, three miles east from Padstow.

It is navigable, as a tideway river, from Guinea Port, near Wade Bridge, to the sea, a distance (by the low water channel) of eight miles and a half. An act was obtained in 1797 to extend this navigation, by means of the Polbrook Canal, but it has not yet been carried into execution. It was entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal, from Guinea Port, in the parish of St. Breock, in the county of Cornwall, to Dunmeer Bridge, in the parish of Bodmin, in the said county; and also a certain collateral Cut, from Cood, to, or near to, Ruthern Bridge, in the said parish of Bodmin.'

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There is no act relating to the river, and being in the tideway, it is consequently free of toll.

The chief uses to which this navigable estuary is put, is to export the produce of the tin and copper mines in its immediate vicinity, and the import of coal and general merchandize. Slate, also, forms an article of exportation from the port of Padstow, a considerable town on its banks.


6 Henry VIII. Cap 17, Royal Assent - - - - - - 1514.

6 George IV. Cap. 166, Royal Assent 22nd June, 1825.

THE River Stour rises on the south side of the Chalk Hills, near Lenham, whence, taking a south-eastwardly course by Surrenden Dering, Hothfield Place the seat of the Earl of Thanet, to the town of Ashford, where it is joined by another considerable stream, which also bears the name of Stour, and which rises on the Downs, eastward of Mount Morris; hence it pursues a north-westwardly course through a portion of the Weald of Kent, and south of Mersham Hatch, the seat of Sir E. Knatchbull, to the junction at Ashford. From hence the united streams pursue a northerly course through one of the most fertile vallies of this delightful county, by Godmersham Park, Chilham Castle, and Chartham, to the city of Canterbury, where the river becomes navigable. From this place its course is north-eastwardly, by Fordwich, to near Sarr, below which place the Little Stour or Seaton Navigation falls into it; hence pursuing a course nearly east, until within three quarters of a mile of the sea at Sandwich Haven, from which point, however, by the line of the river, it is upwards of seven miles, in consequence of the circuitous course it takes by Sandwich to the above haven, in Pegwell Bay. To obviate this, however, a cut, called Stonar Cut, has bean made between the channels, which takes off a considerable portion of this circuitous route by Sandwich.

The Stour is a very ancient navigation, as we find an act in the 6th year of the reign of Henry VIII. entitled, 'An Act concerning

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'the River at Canterbury,' but whether it was the one under which the river was originally made navigable, is a question we have not the means of deciding upon. The act above-recited is, however, the act under which the navigation has been managed, until the early part of the present reign, though the royal assent was given to an act, on the 10th of June, 1811, (51 George III.) for the purpose of superseding the upper portion of this navigation, which is entitled, 'An Act for making a Harbour and Wet Dock, at or near St. Nicholas' Bay, in the parish of St. Nicholas, and all-Saints, in the Isle of Thanet, in the county of Kent, and for making a navigable Canal,from the said Harbour, to the City of Canterbury,' but, of these proposed works, no portion has ever been carried into execution.

As this river, in its present state, and the haven of Sandwich, had become very inadequate to the trade of Canterbury and Sandwich, a company, consisting of four hundred and forty-nine persons, amongst whom were the Earl of Darnley, Lord Viscount Teynham, and Sir E. W. Campbell Rich Owen, Sir Gerard Noel, Sir William Kay, Admiral Sir John Knight, and Sir Robert Farquhar, obtained an act, entitled, 'An Act for improving the Navigation of the River Stour, and Sandwich Haven,from the City of Canterbury to the Town and Port of Sandwich, in the countyof Kent; and for making and maintaining a New Haven from the said Town and Port of Sandwich to the Sea, and a Harbour on the Sea Shore;' by which the above persons were incorporated under the name of "The Canterbury Navigation and Sandwich Harbour Company."

The improvements contemplated under this act consist chiefly of a canal or harbour, 8 feet deep, from the Small Downs, commencing between the Batteries, Nos. 1 and 2, to the River Stour, at Sandwich, which is in length, from the end of the proposed jetty, two miles, four furlongs and five chains; from thence the navigation is continued in the old course of the river, sixteen miles and five chains, to Fordwich, where there is a lock rising 6 feet; from hence to the tail of Abbott's Mill, Canterbury, the length is two miles and a quarter, including three short cuts, together amounting in length, to one mile, one furlong and seven chains; half a mile from Canterbury there is another lock of 6 feet rise.

At the end of the canal, in the Downs, where the spring

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tide rises 18 feet, there is to he ajetty 1000 feet in length. Basins are to be constructed at Sandwich, and Abbott's Mill, Canterbury. At the latter place the surface of the navigation will be 27 feet above low water spring tides, and 9 feet above high water.

The total length of the navigation, when improved, will be twenty miles, six furlongs and eight chains; the estimate for which was made by Mr. James Morgan, civil engineer, and amounted to the sum of £70,657, 13s. 7d.

The company have power to raise among themselves, for the above purposes, the sum of £100,000, in four thousand shares of £25 each, and in case the above sum is insufficient, power is given to raise an additional sum of £40,000, by mortgage of the undertaking; half of which sum may be raised by way of annuity, or they may borrow, at their option, the above sum of £40,000 of the Exchequer Bill Commissioners.

The improved navigation is to be under the management of directors, who have power to appoint a governor and deputy. The present navigation, however, is not to be interfered with until the harbour and the cuts from Fordwich to Canterbury are finished.

The new harbour and haven of Sandwich to be considered as within the liberties of the town and port of Sandwich and the Cinque Ports; and that the lord warden of the Cinque Ports, the constable of Dover Castle, and the mayor, jurats, and commonalty of Sandwich, &c. are to have jurisdiction in the same manner as before exercised by them over the old haven and harbour of Sandwich.

By an act of 32nd George III. entitled, 'An Act for the Maintenance and Improvement of the Harbour of Ramsgate, in the county of Kent, and for cleansing, amending, and preserving the Haven of Sandwich, in the said county,' the corporation of Sandwich are entitled to the annual sum of £200, for the purpose of preserving Sandwich Haven, and which is by the act of the 6th of his present Majesty directed to be applied, with the same object, on the works of the new haven.

The company of proprietors are directed to invest £5,000 in the three per cents, as a security for the due execution of the works hereby authorized, and this sum, and the dividends arising from it, is to remain until it accumulate to £20,000.

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. £.s.d.
Foreign Vessels to load or unload 016per Ton.
British Vessels from Foreign Countries 013ditto.
Ditto, Coastwise 009ditto.
Ditto, Colliers laden ditto 009ditto.
Ditto, Vessels laden with Lime-stone, Lime-chalk, Sand, Manure, Ballast, or any Description of Compost for the Land 003ditto.
Passage Vessels, Keels, and Boats 006ditto.
Pleasure Yachts under Thirty Tons, and Boats in the Harbour or on the River, belonging to the Port and River 100per Annum.
The same Description of Vessels or Yachts, exceeding Thirty Tons Burthen, either belonging to the Port or entering the Harbour or River from any other Port 009per Ton.
Every Foreign Fishing Boat 004ditto.
Every English ditto 003ditto.
Every Vessel entering and using the Harbour, Basin, or Wet Dock, from Stress of Weather, or Outward Bound, waiting for a Wind, or for repairs 006ditto.
Every. Vessel remaining in the Harbour or Basin more than Twelve Days after the Weather abates, or the Wind permits, unless for Repairs 002per Ton, per Diem.

There is an exemption in favour of vessels belonging to the port of Arundel, in Sussex, which are made free of the harbours, ports, and havens of Dover, Rye, Ramsgate and Sandwich, by authority of an act of 33rd George III. (see page 29, under the head of Arun River.) The ships and vessels in his Majesty's service are also exempt from payment of these duties.

There is, also, a special clause relating to the rates to be paid by the owner or occupier of the corn mill, wharfs, and warehouses, situate on the Little Stour or Seaton Navigation, at Seaton, in the parish of Ickham, directing the harbour duties to be paid in full; but for the period of twenty-one years from the commencement of such rates, one-half only of the river rates are to be demanded for and in respect of all cargoes belonging to them, conveyed in barges drawing 3 feet 6 inches only, and loaded or discharged in the Little Stour or Seaton Navigation. The navigation here referred to has been made without application to parliament, and extends from Seaton to the Canterbury Navigation, into which it enters a little below Stourmouth. Its length is little more than six miles, and no part of it is more than 15 feet above low water spring tides.

Ships receiving or unlading goods upon any part of the sea coast, between Cliffs End, in the parish of St. Lawrence, in the Isle of Thanet, and Sandown Castle, are liable to the aforesaid tonnage duties.

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When the works, contemplated under the last act, are carried into execution, they will tend greatly to improve the city of Canterbury and port of Sandwich, as hitherto, the haven of Sandwich, by reason of the shifting of the channel of the Stour, through the sands in Pegwell Bay, has been very unsafe for vessels of considerable burthen.

The importance of a harbour in the Downs was felt so early as the time of Edward VI. in which reign an attempt was made to form one near Sandwich; again in Elizabeth's reign; and, in 1744, an estimate for this purpose was laid before the Honourable the House of Commons, which amounted to the sum of £389,168, 13s. 2d. exclusive of land.

This scheme, however, was abandoned, and ultimately the excellent harbour at Ramsgate was proposed.

This is situate three miles to the northward of Sandwich Haven, and is the only secure harbour, in case of storm, on this part of the coast.

The celebrated piers which form it were begun in 1749, and are built entirely of Portland and Purbeck Stone.

The east pier extends, southerly, 800 feet into the sea; it then turns to the west, exhibiting a front, to the Downs, of a polygonal form of five sides, each 450 feet in length.

From the end of this an advanced pier, of 400 feet in length, was added to it by Mr. Smeaton, and at right angles with this, is the termination of the west pier, of nearly similar form and dimensions, leaving an entrance into the harbour of 200 feet in width.

The area enclosed from the sea is forty-six acres, and a basin has been subsequently formed, under the direction of the last mentioned engineer, at the upper end, by which the tide water can be so penned up, that when at low water the sluices are drawn, it has the effect of scouring out the silt which collects in the outer harbour.

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On Cargoes, Wharfage, and Charges on Goods warehoused in the Harbour or on the Line of Navigation, are granted by this Act.
Wheat, Barley, Malt, Beans, Peas, Tares, Canary, Mustard, and other Seeds 0s 3d0s ½d0s ½dper Quarter, (W. M.)
Oats 0s 2d0s ½d0s ½dditto. ditto.
Flour 0s 2d0s ½d0s ½dper Sack of Five Bushels.
Meal, Middlings, Sharps, Pollard and Bran 0s 2d0s ½d0s ½dper Quarter.
Clover, Trefoil: and other heavy seeds 0s 3d0s ½d0s ½dper Sack.
Potatoes and Onions 0s 1d0s ½d0s ½dditto.
Apples, Pears, &c 0s 1d0s ½d0s ½dper Bushel.
Hops 0s 6d0s 1d0s 1dper Bag.
Ditto 0s 3d0s ½d0s ½dper Pocket.
Oil Cakes 2s 0d0s 6d0s 6dper Thousand.
Wool,Cotton,&c 0s 4d0s 1d0s 1dper Pack of 240lbs.
Tanned Hides and Calf Skins 0s 2d0s ½d0s ½dper Cwt.
Raw Hides 0s 1d0s ½d0s ½deach.
Pelts 0s 9d0s 2d0s 2dper Hundred.
Sugar, Fruits, Bacon, Cheese, Butter, Pork, Ham, Tongues, Salt, Salted Fish, Tallow, Soap, Candies, and all heavy Grocery Goods not here specified, and Tan or Bark 1s 8d0s 4d0s 4dper Ton.
Tea, Coffee. and Spices 0s 3d0s ½d0s ½dper Cwt.
Oranges, Lemons, &c 0s 2d0s 1d0s 1dper Chest.
Molasses 1s 0d0s 3d0s 3dper Puncheon,
Ale, Porter, Cyder, Perry, Vinegar, and Oil 1s 0d0s 3d0s 3dper Butt.
Ditto . . ditto. 0s 9d0s 2d0s 2dper Puncheon.
Ditto . . ditto. 0s 6d0s 1½d0s 1½dper Hogshead.
Ditto . . ditto. 0s 4d0s 1d0s 1dper Barrel.
Ditto . . ditto. 0s 2d0s ½d0s ½dper Kilderkin or Runlet.
Ditto . . ditto. 0s 2d0s ½d0s ½dper Dozen, in Hampers.
Madder 0s 2d0s ½d0s ½dper Cask, per Cwt.
Pipe Clay 1s 6d0s 4d0s 4dper Ton.
Spirits and Wine 3s 6d0s 6d0s 6dper Pipe, or Butt.
Ditto . . ditto. 2s 6d0s 4d0s 4dper Hogshead.
Ditto . . ditto. 1s 6d0s 3d0s 3dper Half Hogshead.
Ditto . . ditto. 1s 0d0s 2d0s 2dper Quarter ditto.
Ditto . . ditto. 0s 1d0s ½d0s ½dunder 20 Gals, at per Gal.
Ditto . . ditto. 0s 3d0s ½d0s 2dper Dozen, in Hampers.
Passengers 0s 6d...
Every Four Wheeled Carriage 7s 0d...
Every Two Wheeled ditto 3s 6d...
Horse, Mare, or Gelding 7s 0d...
For every other Beast 3s 0d...
Coal. Coke, Culm, Cinders or Breeze 2s 0d0s 3d.per Chal. (36 Bus. W. M.)
Hay, Cinquefoil, Clover or Straw 2s 0d0s 6d0s 2dper Ton.
Oak, Elm, Pine, Beech, and Fir Timber 2s 0d0s 6d0s 2dper Load.

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Deals, Battens, and Lathwood 2s 0d0s 6d0s 6dper Load.
Mahogany, Teak, or other valuable Woods 0s 1d0s ½d0s 2dper Cubic Foot.
Hemp, Cordage, and Yarn 2s 0d0s 6d0s 2dper Ton.
Pitch, Tar, Grease, Resin, &c 0s 3d0s 1d0s 2dper Barrel.
Stone, Slate, Plaster of Paris, and Alum 2s 0d0s 6d0s 3dper Ton.
Unwrought Iron, Bar Iron, Lead, &c. 2s 0d0s 6d0s 3dditto.
Marble 0s 3d0s 1d0s ½dper Cubic Foot.
Gutter Pan, Mathematical and Plain Tiles 3s 0d0s 9d0s 3dper Thousand.
Bricks and Paving Tiles 4s 0d1s 0d1s 0dditto.
Glass or Earthenware 0s 9d0s 3d0s 3dper Crate.
Vitriol or Oil 0s 3d0s 1d0s 1dper Carboy.
Corpse 21s 0d5s 0d5s 0d.
Organ 20s 0d5s 0d5s 0d.
Piano-forte, Harpsichord, Harp, or Bass Viol 5s 0d1s 0d1s 0d.
Pipe Staves 2s 0d0s 6d.per Hundred.
Copper, Pewter, Brass or Metals (except Lead and Iron) 2s 0d0s 6d0s 6dper Ton.
Ballast 1s 0d..ditto.
Bale Goods, and all other Articles, Wares, or Merchandize not before specified, according to the Amount of the Freight 0s 2d1s 6d1s 6dper Cwt.

The Rates for Wharfage. as per annexed Schedule, are to be paid for any Time not exceeding the First Twenty-four Hours, and an additional Rate or Duty, to the same Amount, for every Forty-eight Hours beyond the First Twenty-four Hours, or for any shorter Period of Time after the first Twenty-four Hours, or after any one complete Term of Forty-eight Hours.

The warehousing Rates are to be paid for any Time not exceeding the First Twenty-four Hours, and at the same Rate per week after that Term.

Vessels of less Burthen than Twenty-five Tons, Or with less Burthen of Goods than Twenty Tons, not to pass Locks without leave.


6 George IV. Cap. 120, Royal Assent 10th June, 1825.

7 & 8 George IV. Cap. II, Royal Assent 2nd April, 1827.

9 George IV. Cap. 29, Royal Assent 9th May, 1828.

THIS railway commences in Whitstable Bay, directly opposite the eastern point of the isle of Sheppey; from whence it pursues a southerly course through Clowes Wood, and by the village of Blean; thence parallel with the west side of the park at Hales

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Place, (the seat of Sir Edward Hales, Bart.) by the village of St. Stephen's, to St. Dunstan's, near the city of Canterbury. The length of the original line was six miles, one furlong and three chains, and the estimate for making it was made by Mr. John Dixon, and amounted to the sum of £29,400.

A company, consisting of twenty-four persons, (amongst whom were Sir Henry Montresor, K.C.B. and General Ramsay,) obtained an act in 1825, entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway or Tramroad from the Sea Shore at or near Whitstable, in the county of Kent, to, or near to, the city of Canterbury, in the said county,' by which they were incorporated by the name of "The Canterbury and Whitstable Railway Company," with power to raise among themselves the sum of £31,000, in shares of £50 each, (of which £25,000 was subscribed before going to parliament,) with unlimited power, under the act, for borrowing any additional sum on mortgage of the undertaking.


Limestone, Materials for the repair of Roads, Dung, Compost, and all Sorts of Manure, except Chalk and Lime 0s 3d per Ton, per Mile.
Coal, Coke, Culm, Charcoal, Cinders, Stone, Marl, Sand, Lime, Clay, Iron-stone, and other Minerals, Building-stone, Pitching and Paviog-stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slate, Chalk, Timber, Staves, Deals, Lead, Iron, and other Metals, and all Gross and Unmanufactured Articles, and Building Materials 0s 4d ditto, ditto.
Cotton, Wool, Hides, Drugs, Drywoods, Sugar, Corn, Grain, Flour, Manufactured Goods, Agricultural Produce, and all other Goods, Commodities, Wares, and Merchandize 0s 6d ditto, ditto.
For every Person carried in any Carriage upon this Railway for any Distance not exceeding Two Miles 0s 4d
Two Miles and not exceeding Four Miles 0s 8d
Any Distance exceeding Four Miles 1s 6d
For every Ton of Goods drawn or propelled by the Engines of the Company 0s 2d per Ton, per Mile,
For every Person carried in each Carriage for any Distance not exceeding Three Miles 0s 6d
Exceeding Three Miles and not exceeding Five Miles 0s 10d
Exceeding Five Miles 1s 0d

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Mile, and as for a Quarter of a Ton.


For every Description of Goods which does not lay on the Quay or Wharf, or remain in the Warehouses more than Six Days 1d per Ton.

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For every Package not exceeding 56lbs. Weight 2d per Ton.Which does not lay on the Quay or Wharf, or remain in the Warehouses more than Six Days.
Ditto, above 300lbs. and not exceeding 600lbs 4d ditto.
Ditto exceeding l000lbs 6d ditto.
If longer than the above Time, then for Wharfage 1d ditto.For the next Seven Days.
And for Warehousing 2d ditto.

And the like Sum of One Penny and Two-pence, respectively, per Ton, for every further Seven Days so remaining on Wharf or in Warehouse.

In 1827, the company again applied to parliament and obtained an act, entitled, 'An Act to authorize the Company of Proprietors of the Canterbury and Whitstable Railway, to vary the Line of the Railway, to raise a further Sum of Money for completing their Works, and to alter and enlarge the Powers of the Act passed for making and maintaining the said Railway,' in the preamble of which it is stated, that this measure was necessary in consequence of the unexpected cost of a tunnel, and the insufficiency of the sum appropriated by the original estimate for the purchase of the land required. By this act power is given to alter the line of the railway, so that instead of terminating at St. Dunstan's, nearly three quarters of a mile from Canterbury, it now comes directly to the North Lane, adjoining the River Stour, on the north side of the city. The deviation line is three quarters of a mile in length, on one inclined plane, with 92 feet fall, and the estimate for making it amounts to £5,000. It is fifteen chains longer than the part abandoned, so that the total length of the line will be now six miles, two furlongs and eight chains. The company also obtained power to make two short branch railways or cart roads; one to St. Dunstan's Street, and the other across the Stour, to Pond Lane and St. Peter's Lane, in the city.


To be taken for the Use of the Quays, &c. are granted by this Act, as follows:-
For all Goods, Wares and Merchandize, imported or exported from the Piers, Wharfs, Landing Places, Quays, and other Works 0s 1d per Cwt.
For any Parcel less than One Hundred Weight 0s ½d
For every Person landed upon or embarked from the said Piers 1s 0d

The Commissioners for Paving and Lighting the City of Canterbury have, under the Powers of an Act of the 27th George III, a Claim of One Shilling per Chaldron or Ton on all Coke, Coal, or Cinders brought into or within Three Miles of the said City; a Clause is, therefore, inserted in this Act, securing to them the same Tonnage on all the ahove-mentioned Articles brought by means of this Railroad, to cease, however, when the Sum of £4,000, which was borrowed to carry the Act of the 27th George III. into Execution, is paid off.

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Jim Shead Waterways Photographer & Writer
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