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This Book "Priestley's Navigable Rivers and Canals" by Joseph Priestley was previously published in April 1831. NOTE: Oringinally called "Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways, of Great Britain".
For more information see About this Book

Index Page Link to Previous Page 99

page 100


Coal, Cuim, Coke, Building Lime, Sand, Clay, Brick, Tile and Slate, Building, Pitching and Paving-stone and Flags 3d per Ton, per Mile.
Lime-stone, Lead-ore, Iron-ore and other Minerals in their raw state, Manure and Lime for Husbandry purposes, Stone and other Material for the repair of Roads 2d ditto. ditto.
Timber, Deals, Corn, Grain, Flour, Hay, Straw, Corn in the Straw, Green Fodder and Vegetables, and all other Commodities not before specified 4d ditto. ditto.
Coal, Culm and Coke to be afterwards conveyed to time River Avon, in the parish of Bitton, by any Railroad branching from the said Railway 5d ditto. ditto.
For every Person passing in any Carriage upon this Railroad 2½d per Mile.
For every Horse, Mule, Ass, Ox, Cow, Bull or other Cattle 1½d ditto.
For every Calf, Sheep, Lamb or Pig ¼d ditto.

Fractions as for a Quarter of a Ton, and as for a Quarter of a Mile.

Carriages of Four Wheels not to carry more than Four Tons, including the Weight of such Carriage; and those of Six Wheels may carry Six Tons.


For Goods loaded, landed, or placed, in, or upon, any of the Wharfs or Warehouses, and which Shall not remain there more than Seventy-two Hours 1d per Ton.
If more than Seventy-two Hours, the further Sum of 1d ditto.
And for the Warehousing for the succeeding Week 6d ditto.

And the like additional Sum of One Penny and Sixpence for every subsequent Week.


Any Weight under Two Tons at one lift of the Crane 0s 6d per Ton.
Of Two Tons and less than Three 1s 0d ditto.
Of Three Tons and less than Four 1s 6d ditto.
And for every additional Ton 0s 6d ditto.

The act allows six years for the execution of the railroad, and if not then done, the powers so granted are to cease, excepting as to such parts as may have been completed.

The chief object of this railway is the making a cheaper and more expeditious conveyance for coal and stone to the city of Bristol, and for the return of merchandize in general, to the populous mining districts on its line.


This canal, the property of the gentleman through whose estate it is made, commences in the River Neath, about half a mile above Britton Ferry, three miles below the town of Neath, and directly opposite the end of the Neath Canal. Its course is in a westerly direction north of Coed-y-yarll, and across the Morass,

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called Crymlin Burrows, in a direction parallel with the north shore of Swansea Bay. It terminates in the pool called Swansea Harbour, in the River Tawe, a short distance below Swansea and close to Salthouse Point, and is four miles and a quarter in length.

As the principal object of the proprietor was the improvement and drainage of his own estate, it was made without having recourse to any parliamentary enactment.


14 George III. Cap. 53, Royal Assent 24th May, 1774.

59 George III. Cap. 55, Royal Assent 14th Jufle, 1819.

THE original design for this navigation was made by Mr. Edmund Leach, (the Author of "A Treatise on Inland Navigation,") and an act was obtained in tile 14th George III. for that purpose, entitled, 'An Act for making a navigable Cut or Canal from the Port or Harbour of Bude, in the hundred of Stratton, in the county of Cornwall, to the River Tamar, in the parish of Calstoke, in the said county.' It was intended to commence in the tideway of Bude Haven, in the Bristol Channel, and thence, by the course of the Tamar, by Launceston, to the tideway of the Tamar River and Navigation, in tile parish of Calstoke. From the sea at Bude Haven there was to be an inclined plane of 54 feet rise; then, a level pool of six miles and a half; another plane of 120 feet rise, and a level pool at the end of it four miles in length; from this, a third plane rising 66 feet, to the summit level, being a total of 240 feet above the level of the sea. This summit level was maintained for the distance of sixty-eight miles, by a very circuitous course, occasioned by the necessity they were under of continuing on the level of the natural face of the country, by a clause in the act, which prohibits them from cutting more than 39 inches in depth on the lower side of tile canal. From the end of the summit, only two miles and a half from the termination of the proposed canal, there was to be a plane of 120 feet fall; then a level pool of two miles and a half in length, with a fifth plane, at Kelly Rock, of 120 feet fall. The total length of the canal was eighty-one miles, though the direct distance, between the two

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extremes, was only twenty-eight miles. The canal was to be 21 feet wide at top and 12 feet at bottom, and of depth sufficient for boats of ten tons. The estimated expense was £81,000, but as there was a provision in the act that the powers should cease in ten years from the passing of it, and as this period was suffered to elapse without any further steps being taken, it was accordingly abandoned; though in 1785 Mr. Leach endeavoured to revive the project, and to shorten the course to forty miles and three quarters, by cutting down the summit level 18 feet, and making a tunnel of one hundred yards in length, with other works, the estimated cost of which was £53,200; but as no act was obtained for this purpose, his project fell to the ground.

In the year 1819, however, a new company, consisting of three hundred and thirty persons, amongst whom were the Right Honourable P. H. Earl Stanhope, Countess Stanhope, Sir Arscott Ourry Molesworth, Sir William P. Call, and Sir Thomas Dyke Ackland, Baronets, obtained an act, entitled, 'An Act for improving the Harbour of Rude, in the county of Cornwall, and for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from time said Harbour of Bude, to or near the village of Thornbury, in the county of Devon, and divers Branches therefrom, all in the said counties of Cornwall and Devon.' The subscribers are incorporated by the name of "The Bude Harbour and Canal Company," and have power to raise among themselves the sum of £95,000, in nineteen hundred shares of £50 each, with power to raise an additional sum of £20,000 if necessary, either among themselves or by the admission of new subscribers, or on mortgage of the undertaking and the rates and duties herein granted.

The main line of this canal commences in Bude Haven, within the port of Padstow, and pursues a southerly course along the western bank of the little River Bude, to Hele Bridge, where it turns suddenly eastward to near Marhamchurch. Here is an inclined plane, and hence it takes a circuitous course by Camorchard, little beyond which is another inclined plane, to Red Post, in the parish of Launcells, where the Launceston Branch commences. From Red Post, the canal takes a northerly direction on the western bank of the Tamar, which it crosses near Burmsdon. Thence, ascending an inclined plane, and proceeding to Veala, where the

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branch to Virworthy commences, it passes, in a very circuitous course, by Pancrasweek and Holsworthy, a mile and a half beyond which place, it enters a tunnel of considerable length, and is continued thence, by Ford and North Week to Thornbury, where it terminates.

The Launceston Branch proceeds from Red Post, by a very serpentine course, on the west bank of the Tamar, through the several parishes of Launcells, Bridgerule, Marhamchurch, Whitstone, Week Saint Mary, North Tamerton, Tetcot, Boyton, Werrington, North Petherwin, and St. Giles' in the Heath, to Druxton Bridge, about three miles north of the town of Launceston. From Burmsdon there is a branch up the west bank of the Tamar to Moreton Mill, where the feeder from Langford Moor Reservoir communicates with it. The feeder from Moreton Mill to the reservoir on Langford Moor is two miles and a half in length.
. M.F.C.M.F.C.
The length of the Main Line from Bude Haven to the Launceston Branch at the Red Post is 565...
From thence to the Moreton Mill Branch is 303...
From thence to the Virworthy Branch is 118...
Thence to the termination at Thornbury 1131...
Total length of the Main Line ______2137
The Branch to Druxton Bridge or Launceston Branch 1907
The Moreton Mill Branch is 138
The Virworthy Branch is _3_7_ 2_
Total Main Line and Branches 4574


Coal, Coke and Freestone 4d per Ton, per Mile.
Lime, Dung and Manure, Sand, Limestone and Slates, Stones 3d ditto. ditto.
Cattle, Calves, Sheep, Swine and other Beasts, Bricks, Tiles, Rough Timber, Bark, Faggots, Tin, Iron-stone, Iron and Lead 4d ditto. ditto.
Wheat and Potatoes 2d ditto. ditto.
Barley, Beans, Peas, Vetches, Seeds and Oats 3d ditto. ditto.
All other Goods, Wares and Merchandize whatsoever 4d ditto. ditto.

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And so in proportion for any greater or less Quantity than a Ton, or greater or less Distance than a Mile.

Boats of less than Twenty Tons Burthen not to pass Locks without leave, unless Two Boats, containing together that Weight, are ready to pass at the same Time.


Ships belonging to Great Britain or Ireland, or the British Plantations, (unless carrying Coal or Limestone) importing into, or exporting from, the Harbour of Bude, (according to their Measure) 4d per Ton, per Mile.
Foreign Ships 6d ditto. ditto.
Vessels putting in from stress of Weather, or otherwise, when they neither land or take in Cargo 2d ditto. ditto.

All Vessels belonging to his Majesty, or employed in his Majesty's Service, and such as are under Seven Tons, laden with Fish, are exempt.


For every Vessel entering or using any Dock, Basin, Wharf &c . . . . . . . . . . 2d per Ton.

Goods, Wares and Merchandize Wharf and Basin Dues, per Ton in Column (*)
Timber and Pig and Bar Iron ditto,ditto,ditto, (+)
Coal, Culm, Stone, Iron-stone, Slate, Flint, Clay and Sand ditto,ditto,ditto, (±)
Lime or Limestone, Bricks, Tiles or Plaister ditto,ditto,ditto, (§)
Corn, Grain, Pulse, Seeds, Apples and Potatoes ditto,ditto,ditto, (II)

. (*)
s. d.
s. d.
s. d.
s. d.
s. d.
Remaining on such Wharf or Quay more than Twenty-four Hours, and less than Six Days. 0 60 30 0½0 10 0½
If remaining Six Days. and less than One Month 0 90 60 10 20 1
If remaining One Month, and less than Six Weeks 1 00 90 1½0 30 1½
If remaining Six Weeks, and less than Two Months 1 31 00 2½0 50 2½
And if remaining Two Months, and less than Ten Weeks 1 61 30 2½0 50 2½

And so in proportion for any longer Time the said Articles shall remain in or upon such Wharf or Quay.


For every Cask, Case, Bundle, Bale, or other Package, containing Articles of Merchandise, being of the Weight of 224lbs. or upwards 5s 0d
Ditto, being under the Weight of 224lbs 2s 6d
For any Article of Merchandize brought loose, and subject to any Duty of Customs, chargeable according to the Weight of every 1 l2lbs 1s 0d
For any Article of Merchandize brought loose, and subject to any Duty of Customs, per every 112lbs 1s 0d

Which Rates shall be paid for every calendar Month such Goods are warehoused.

The estimate was made by Mr. James Green, civil engineer, in 1818, and amounted to the sum of £91,617; of which sum, £4,618 was for the improvement of the harbour of Bude. The

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company have occasionally called in Mr. Whitworth, to inspect the works. The whole of the sum of £95,000, authorized to be raised by the act, was subscribed before the application to parliament. The management of this work is vested in a committee of eighteen persons.

Besides the authority which the act gives the company to make the canal, they are empowered to improve the harbour of Bude, by erecting a breakwater, together with a dock, basin, or inner harbour, warehouses, piers, quays, wharfs, and jetties, mooring chains, lighthouses, buoys, and what other works may be necessary for the convenient accommodation of such ships and vessels as resort to the same. They are restricted from taking any water from the Tamar, or the brooks which flow into it, except when the water flows 3 inches over the weir at Aldfordisworthy Mill.

The chief object of this canal, is to facilitate the introduction of Welsh Coal, and the carrying of Shelly Sand from the coast, to be used in the interior as manure.


49 George III. Cap. 158, Royal Assent 10th June, 1809.

7 George IV. Cap. 47, Royal Assent 5th May1 1826.

Prior to the act of 49th George III. a railroad had been nearly completed, without the authority of parliament, from the Severn at Bullo Pill, near the town of Newnham, to Cinderford Bridge, in his Majesty's Forest of Dean, by Roynon Jones, Esq. Margaret Roberts, William Fendall and James Jelf, Esquires, the owners, but who, being desirous of obtaining power to extend their railway, and to make branches therefrom, applied to parliament and obtained an act, entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway or Tramroad, from the summit of the Hill above Churchway Engine, in the Forest of Dean, in the county of Gloucester, to a certain place in the said Forest, called Cinderford Bridge,' by which the above parties are incorporated by the name of "The Bullo Pill Railway Company."

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The line of extension which the above company are empowered to make, proceeds from the above-mentioned private railway, at Cinderford Bridge, in a northwardly direction, up a valley in the forest, to the summit of the hill above Churchway Engine, and the place where the Severn and Wye Railroad Company have subsequently formed a junction; its length is about three miles. There is also a branch from a place called the Dam, to the Upper and Lower Bilson Works; another from the same place to Kelmsley Green, and one from Nofold Engine, to the Old Engine and Nofold Green. These collateral and very short branches extend to several coal and other mines in the forest.

The Forest of Dean, through which this railway passes, belongs to the King; but after the passing of this act, the ground occupied by the railroad and branches is vested in the company, on payment of the yearly rent of £100, and one guinea per week towards the cost and charges of his Majesty's Inspectors. The railway not to exceed seven yards in breadth, except in passing places, embankments, deep cuttings, or where warehouses or wharfs may be erected.


Coal, Coke, CuIm, Stone, Coal Cinders, Chalk, Marl, Sand, Lime, Clay, Ashes, Peat, Lime-stone, Iron-stone, Iron or other Ore, and other Minerals and Bricks, the produce of the said Forest, to be conveyed from any place on the said Forest, to or near Cinderford Bridge 1s 6d per Ton.
Ditto, conveyed from one place to another within the said Forest 0s 6d per Ton, per Mile.
Timber, Goods, Commodities, Wares and Merchandize, whether the produce of the Forest or not 0s 6d ditto. ditto.

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Ton, and as for Half a Mile.

One Hundred and Twenty Pounds to be deemed a Hundred Weight, for the purposes of this Act.


For Bark stripped within the Forest, Coal, Timber and Wood for the use of the Coal Pits, Mines and Quarries within the Forest 4s 6d per Ton.
For Timber felled in the Forest under the direction of his Majesty's Surveyor General, and conveyed along the private Railway 0s 2d per Foot.

None but Free Miners of the Forest, and his Majesty's Surveyor General, have power to use this private Railway, without consent of the Proprietors.

The private railway is nearly four miles and a half long, with a tunnel upwards of five hundred yards in length, situate about a mile and a half from Bullo Pill, at which place are convenient wharfs for goods intended for shipment on the Severn.

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On the 5th of May 1826, the royal assent was given to another act, entitled, 'An Act for maintaining an existing public Railway from the summit of the Hill above Churchway Engine, in the Forest of Dean, to Cinderford Bridge, and for making public a private Railway from thence to the River Severn, at or near Bullo Pill, all in the county of Gloucester; and for amending an Act of his late Majesty relating to the said Railways,' by which a company, consisting of eighteen persons, agree to purchase the interest of the Bullo Pill Railway Company, and make the whole public, and they are by this act incorporated by the name of "The Forest of Dean Railway Company," with power to raise among themselves for these purposes, the sum of £125,000, to be divided into two thousand five hundred shares, of £50 each. Edward Protheroe, Esq. was the principal proprietor of this concern. The rents and payments due to his Majesty and inspectors, are by this act reserved, with the many other privileges which the King enjoys as owner of the Forest of Dean; so much of the former act as related to the tonnage is repealed, and the following are now the


Coal, Coke, Culm, Stone, Coal Cinders, Chalk, Marl, Sand, Lime, Clay, Ashes, Peat, Lime-stone, Iron-stone, Iron or other Ore, and other Minerals and Bricks, the produce of the said Forest, to be conveyed from any place on the said Forest, to or near Cinderford Bridge 1s 6d per Ton.
Ditto, conveyed from one place to another within the said Forest 0s 6d per Ton, per Mile.
Timber, Goods, Commodities, Wares and Merchandize, whether the produce of the Forest or not 0s 6d ditto. ditto.
Coal, Coke, Culm, Stone, Coal Cinders, Marl, Sand, Lime, Clay, Ashes, Peat, Lime-stone, lron-stone, Iron or other Ore, and other Minerals and Bricks, carried downwards from Cinderford Bridge to Bullo Pill, or any part thereof, which Sum shall include all Tonnage chargeable upon the Railway, from Churchway Engine to Cinderford Bridge 3s 0d per Ton, per Mile.
Timber and Wood, felled in the Forest under the direction of his Majesty's Surveyor General, conveyed from Cinderford Bridge 0s 2d per Foot.
All other Timber, Goods, Commodities, Wares and Merchandize, from Cinderford Bridge to Bullo Pill 0s 6d per Ton, per Mile.


Goods, Wares, Merchandize and other Things remaining on the Wharf at Bullo Pill, any Time less than Two Months 3d per Ton.
For Two Months and not exceeding Three 6d ditto.
For a longer Time than Three Months 6d ditto, per Month, in addition.

His Majesty's Timber is exempt from Payment of Wharfage Rates.

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Ton, and as for a Quarter of a Mile.

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The object of this railway and branches, is to convey, with facility, for shipment on the Severn, the timber, coal, iron-ore, and other minerals, with which the Forest of Dean abounds, thus enabling the owners to transport their superabundant produce to distant markets.


13 George III. Cap. 37, Royal Assent 7th April, 1773

THE River Bure rises a few miles north of the town of Foulsham; it thence pursues an easterly course by Thurningbeck Hall, Blickling Park, to the town of Aylsham, to which place, from the head of the Bure Navigation at Coltishall, it was made navigable under the authority of an act of 13th George III. entitled, 'An Act for making and extending the Navigation of the River Bure, commonly called the North River, by and from Coltishall, to Aylsham Bridge, in the county of Norfolk.' The length of this portion of the navigation is nine miles, with six locks, and it is in the natural course of the stream, with the exception of a few short cuts, made for the purpose of cutting off some bends of the river, or for passing the mills upon it.

This navigation is under the management of commissioners, whose qualification is the possession of freehold or copyhold estates in the hundreds of North and South Erpingham, Taverham, Eynsford, and Tunstead, in the county of Norfolk, of the annual value of £100, or a personal estate of £3,000; any seven of whom, whose usual place of residence is in any of the hundreds above-named, are empowered to act. They are authorized to borrow £5,000, for the purpose of carrying the powers of this act into execution, on security of the tolls therein granted.


Coals, Cinders, Bricks, Pavements, Tiles, Lime and Terras 1s 0d per Ton.
Corn, Grain, Meal, Flour, Timber, Goods, Wares, Merchandize or Commodities whatsoever 1s 6d ditto.

And so in proportion for any greater or less Weight than a Ton.

From Skeyton Brook, and for passing through the Two Locks at Buxton and Horstead only, Two-thirds of the above Rate.

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Straw, Muck, Marl, Clay, or other Manure, and Materials for the repair of the Mills upon the River

As the navigable part of the North River and River Bure, from the head of this navigation, at Aylsham, to the sea at Yarmouth, is, by its course, forty-two miles, and as it passes through one of the finest agricultural districts of which this kingdom can boast, the advantages arising from the facilities it affords for the export of the natural productions of its vicinity are incalculable. The towns of Aylsham, Cawsham, Reepham, and the immediate neighbourhood, participate, perhaps, more directly in the advantages thus derived.


22 Charles II. C. 16, R. A. 11th Apr. 1670.

9 Geo. IC. 10, R. A. 22nd Mar. 1722.

20 Geo. II, C. 40, R. A. 17th June, 1747.

23 Geo. II. C. 6, R. A. 14th Mar. 1749.

12 Geo. III. C. 14, R. A. 1st April, 1772.

As these rivers and the harbour of Yarmouth are under one description of management, and the principal legislative enactments relating to them are, with only one exception, combined, the description of them will be given under the above title. The first act of parliament relating to a part of these navigations, occurs in the 22nd Charles II. and is entitled, 'An Act for making navigable the Rivers Brandon and Waveney,' in which commissioners were appointed to carry the act into execution, and to ascertain the damage done to the banks of the said rivers, by the haling of vessels thereon; so that it clearly appears that the River Waveney was navigable previous to this early date; but as this river became subsequently under the control of commissioners appointed by the corporations of Yarmouth, Norwich, and the magistrates of the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, it is not necessary to enter into the earlier provisions of the above recited act. The first act, therefore, in which is embodied the necessary power for rendering the whole of the above-mentioned rivers navigable, is the 9th George I. which is entitled, 'An Act for clearing, depthening, repairing, extending, maintaining and improving the Haven and

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'Piers of Great Yarmouth; and for depthening and making more navigable the several Rivers emptying themselves at the said town; and also for preserving Ships, wintering in the said Haven, from accidents by Fire;' whereby several duties were granted for the above recited purposes, and for depthening the channel of that part of the River Yare called Braydon, and for making more navigable the Rivers Yare, Waveney and Bure, &c.; but as the time to which this act limited the receipt of these duties had expired previous to 1747, another act was obtained in the 20th George II. to revive the duties granted under the 9th George I. and make them payable for two years from the above date, and from thence to the end of the session of parliament immediately following. This act is therefore entitled, 'An Act to revive, continue and amend an Act made in the Ninth Year of the Reign of his late Majesty King George the First, entitled, An Act for clearing, depthening, repairing, extending, maintaining and improving the Haven and Piers of Great Yarmouth; and for depthening and making more navigable the several Rivers emptying themselves at the said town; and also for preserving Ships, wintering in the said Haven,from accidents by Fire.' Twelve commissioners were appointed to carry into effect the purposes of this act; three of whom were appointed by the corporation of Yarmouth, other three by the mayor, sheriff, citizens and commonalty of Norwich, and the remainder by the magistrates of Norfolk and Suffolk, assembled at quarter sessions; which said commissioners, or any seven of them, (five being of the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk,) are empowered to act.

In the preamble of the act of 23rd George II. entitled, 'An Act for repairing, improving, and maintaining, the Haven and Piers of Great Yarmouth; and for depthening and making more navigable the several Rivers emptying temselves into the said Haven; and also for preserving Ships, wintering therein, from accidents by Fire,' we learn, that the duties heretofore granted were insufficient for the maintenance of the several navigations connected with the haven of Yarmouth; the corporation of Great Yarmouth are, therefore, by this act, empowered to collect new duties for the term of twenty-one years, from the 25th March, 1750; but as these are repealed, and give place to others granted

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by the 12th George III. it is unnecessary here to recite them. The act of 12th George III. is entitled, 'An Act for clearing, depthening, repairing, maintaining and improving the Haven and Piers of Great Yarmouth; and for depthening and making more navigable the several Rivers emptying themselves into the said Haven; and for preserving Ships, wintering therein, from accidents by Fire;' in the preamble of which it is recited, that the duties granted under the former act of 23rd George II. ceased on the 25th March, 1772, and the following are granted in lieu of them.


For every Chaldron of Coals, (Winchester Measure) Last of Wheat, Rye, Barley, Malt, or other Grain, and for every Weigh of Salt, and every Ton of other Goods or Merchandize, (except Fish) which shall be unladen or imported into the Haven of Yarmouth, or on that part of the Sea called Yarmouth Road, extending from Scratby to Corton 10d per Ton.

Or such other greater Sum, not exceeding Twe1vepence, which the Commissioners appointed by this Act, or any Seven of them, may order and direct; which Commissioners s.re to be chosen as directed in the Act of 22nd Charles II.

The Duties on all Goods imported, to be repaid on Exportation.

The Master of each Vessel to pay to the Pier Master One Shilling on entering the Haven.

The duties are to be disposed of, for the several purposes recited in the act, in the following proportions;-three-twentieths to the chamberlain of the city of Norwich, to be applied for the purposes of depthening and otherwise improving that part of the River Yare, or Wensom, which lies between the New Mills at Norwich and Hardly Cross; one-twentieth to the magistrates of Norfolk, for the purpose of clearing and depthening the River Bure, the River Ant from St. Bennett's Abbey, to Dilham, and the Thurne River from Bastwick Bridge to Hickling; one-twentieth to the magistrates of Suffolk, for the improvement of the navigation of the Waveney; one-twentieth to be applied to the purpose of repairing the bridge and public quays of Yarmouth; one twentieth to be applied, by the Norfolk Magistrates, for the further clearing of the River Bure, and other branches above-mentioned; five-twentieths to the corporation of Yarmouth, for the improvement of the River Yare from Yarmouth to Hardly Cross, in such manner as the commissioners may appoint; and the remaining eight-twentieths is to be appropriated to the purpose of improving the haven of Yarmouth, and maintaining the piers and

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jetties, &c. &c.; and if the last-mentioned sum is insufficient, the commissioners have power to collect the twelve-penny duty for this purpose. The act to be in force for twenty-one years only, but its cessation is not to extinguish, or in any way to affect, the port duties which have been, by immemorial custom, paid to the corporation of Great Yarmouth.

That portion of the Bure River to which the above-recited acts relate, commences at Coltishall, where the Bure or North River Navigation terminates. Its course is very circuitous, in an eastwardly direction, by Wroxham Bridge, to the Ant River at Horning Marsh; from thence, by Weybridge and Runham Hall, to the town of Yarmouth, where it falls into the Yare. The distance from Coltishall to the mouth of the River Ant, is fifteen miles; from thence to the Thurne is two miles and a quarter; and from thence to time Yare is thirteen miles and a quarter. The Ant River Branch commences at the North Walsham and Dilham Canal, at Wayford Bridge, and takes a southwardly course, passing the Barton Broad, and the villages of Irstead, Ludham Bridge, to Horning Marsh, where it enters the Bure. Its length is nearly eight miles, and without locks. The Thurne River Branch commences at Hickling Broad, whence, passing through Heigham Sound, it takes a south-westwardly course by Heigham Bridge, to the River Bure, into which it falls near the village of Thurne. Its length is about seven miles, and level. In the township of Tunstall, about eight miles from Yarmouth, there is a navigable drain, of one mile in length, from the Bure to Tunstall Staith; and a little above Weybridge there is another, of half a mile in length, across Upton Marsh.

The Yare, or Wensom, has its source between the towns of Fakenham and Litcham, in Norfolk; whence, pursuing a south-easterly course by Sennowe Lodge, Westfield Park and Taverham Hall, to the city of Norwich, it there becomes navigable. From this place it continues, in a circuitous course, through low marshy grounds, by Hardly Cross, to near the village of Burgh, where it is joined by the Waveney; from thence its course is through Braydon Water, to Yarmouth, where the Bure falls into it; and from thence it takes a southerly course, running parallel with the coast, by South Town and Gorleston, to Yarmouth Roads. From

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Norwich to Hardly Cross, is eighteen miles and a half; from thence, to the Waveney, is six miles and a half; from thence, to the Bure at Yarmouth, is three miles and three quarters; and, to the sea, a further distance of three miles and a quarter.

The River Waveney has its source near Finningham Hall, a few miles north of the town of Mendlesham, in Suffolk; it takes an easterly course, and afterwards a northerly, by the town of Eye; thence, by Harlaston to Bungay, where it becomes navigable. From this place its course is east, by Barsham Hall and the town of Beccles, to within three miles of Lowestoft, whence it takes a northerly course by St. Olave's Bridge, to Burgh Flatt, where it falls into the Yare. From Bungay to Beccles Bridge, the distance is seven miles and a half; from thence, to St. Olave's Bridge, is twelve miles and a half; and to the place where it joins the Yare, five miles and a quarter. Two miles above Beccles there is a navigable cut, from the river to Geldestone Staith, of three quarters of a mile in length, and level.

To any one who will take a cursory glance at the position of these rivers on the accompanying map of inland navigation, the great advantages which must accrue to above one half of the county of Norfolk, is so strikingly manifest, as to render it quite unnecessary that we should further expatiate on them.

It may not be amiss here to state, that the royal assent was given to an act on the 28th of May, 1827, for making a navigable communication for ships, between the city of Norwich and the sea at Lowestoft, which follows the course of a considerable portion of the Yare, with a part of the Waveney, but which is not to injure the navigation of those rivers.

Further particulars of the Norwich and Lowestoft Navigation, as it is to be called, will be found in the proper place.


53 George III. Cap. 183, Royal Assent 2nd July, 1813.

THE River Bury is a very wide estuary, situate between a promontory of Glamorganshire, terminating at Worms Head, and the

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southern coast of Carmarthenshire. Its length, from the bar at the entrance of the harbour of Bury, near Holmes Island, to where the River Loughor falls into it, is (taking the course of the channel,) about twelve miles. Over the bar, which changes frequently, there is about six feet at low water, with from three to five fathoms within the harbour.

The River Loughor rises in the mountains of Carmarthenshire, south of the town of Llangadoc, thence, proceeding in a southerly direction by Glynheir, Bettus, Penclear Castle, Llandilo Talybont, to Llangennech Ford, to which place it is navigable. From the ford to the estuary of the Bury, opposite the village of Loughor, is about two miles

The Lliedi is a very inconsiderable stream, which falls into the River Bury, a short distance below the dock belonging to the Carmarthenshire Railway Company, which terminates near the town of Llanelly; and it is navigable only to this place.

The only act relating to these rivers is entitled, 'An Act for the Improvement of the Navigation of the Rivers Bury, Loughor, and Lliedi, in the counties of Carmarthen and Glamorgan;' by which certain commissioners are appointed to cleanse, scour, enlarge, and deepen the same; and to make and erect buoys, beacons, and lights; and to establish and regulate the pilotage, anchorage, and mooring of ships and vessels in the said rivers. The qualification of a commissioner, is the possession of a freehold estate of the clear annual value of £80, and which must be situate within seven miles of some one of the rivers above-named; or a capital to the amount of £2,500, engaged in any mine or manufactory, within the prescribed distance above-mentioned; or have the same amount vested in ships, or other vessels, trading to the above rivers; or unless he be principal or managing clerk to any concern within seven miles, where £8,000 capital is employed; or a proprietor of the Carmarthenshire Railroad, the Penclawdd Canal, or Kidwelly and Lianelly Canal and Tramroad, to the amount of £500.

A committee of five are annually appointed to conduct the business of the commissioners, who are empowered to raise the sum of £2,000 on mortgage of the duties hereby authorized to be collected, or by granting annuities.

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For every Ship or other Vessel passing over the Bar into any of these Rivers 1d per Ton.

The Duties received in the Port of Llanelly, to be entirely applied to the Purposes of improving the Lliedi.


All Vessels employed in his Majesty's Service; or in conveying Limestone or Fish; and all Vessels for Pleasure, or such as are under Fifteen Tons.

There is a clause, reserving to the Duke of Beaufort the rights and privileges of water-bailiff for the seigniories of Gower and Cilrey, in the county of Glamorgan; also the rights of the Lords of Kidwelly, the layer and keelage of the Carmarthenshire side of the Loughor; or the rights of the portreeve and burgesses of Llanelly; the Carmarthenshire Railroad Company; the Kidwelly and Llanelly Canal and Tramroad Company; the Borough of Loughor; the Penclawdd Canal and Tramroad Company; and the corporation of Trinity House of Deptford Strond.

These rivers, together with the canals and railroads connected with them, give great facility for the export of the produce of the valuable collieries, iron-stone mines, and limestone quarries in the immediate vicinity.


1 William IV. Cap. 133, Royal Assent 16th July, 1830.

This canal commences in Cardiff Harbour, at a place called The Eastern Hollows, near the mouth of the River Taft in the county of Glamorgan. Its course is in a straight line northwards to Cardiff Moors, and thence in a parallel course with the Glamorganshire Canal to near Whitnioor Lane, on the south side of the town of Cardiff, where it terminates. The length of that part lying between the Eastern Hollows and Cardiff Moors, (called The Entrance Ship Canal) is one mile, three furlongs and eight chains in length; the surface water of which is to be maintained at an elevation of 41 feet above the level of low-water-mark, spring tides, in Cardiff Harbour, which here averages 39 feet, by means of a sea lock and flood gates to he erected at its southern extremity; the depth of water in the canal is to be 33 feet. The

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upper portion of this navigation, called The Basin, is to be nearly one thousand five hundred yards in length, and 20 feet deep; from which are two communications by short cuts to the Glamorganshire Canal; one of which proceeding at right angles westwards from the inner lock at the northern extremity of the Entrance Canal, is three hundred and twenty yards in length; the other proceeds in the same direction from the upper end of the basin next to the town of Cardiff, and is two hundred and seventy yards in length.

The canal and basin is to be supplied with water by means of a feeder extending from a place in the River Taff, about half a mile north of Cardiff Castle; it is in length one mile and a half, and in its course will pass along some of the streets of Cardiff:

The whole of these works are to be executed at the sole expense of The Most Honorable John Crichton Stuart, Marquis of Bute and Earl of Dumfries, under the authority of an act which received the sanction of his Majesty King William IV. on the 16th July, 1830, entitled, 'An Act for empowering the Marquis of Bute to make and maintain a Ship Canal, commencing near the Mouth of the River Taff, in the county of Glamorgan, and terininating near the town of Cardiff, with other Works to communicate therewith.'

Mr. James Green, civil engineer, designed the above works, and estimated the cost at £76,669.

For the security of the water belonging to the proprietors of the Glamorganshire Canal, the Marquis is bound to maintain, by means of stop locks, his basin and the two collateral cuts extending therefrom at an elevation of 3 inches above the level of the top water-mark of the above-mentioned canal; and the proprietors of that navigation are in return required, upon one month's notice being given in writing, to let off their water to enable the Marquis to execute his works; but upon payment to them, on these occasions, the sum of £50 per diem, during the time their navigation is so obstructed.

The act empowers the Marquis of Bute to demand the following tonnage rates :-

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Vessels entering or departing with Cargoes.
For every Ship, Boat, Barge, Craft, Lighter or other Vessel laden, which shall enter from or depart to any Part of Great Britain, Ireland or the Isle of Man 0s 4d per Ton Measurment.
From or to any other Part of Europe, the Islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Sark, The Faro Isles or Iceland 0s 8d ditto.
From or to any Part of Asia, Africa or America, to the Northward of the River La Plata inclusive, and to the Northward of the Cape of Good Hope, the Islands of St. Helena, Ascension, Cape de Verd Islands, Madeira Azores, Newfoundland, Greenland and Davies Straits 1s 0d ditto.
From or to any Part of South America, to the Southward of the River La Plata, from or to any Part or Place in the Pacific Ocean, from or to any Part of Africa and Asia, to the Eastward of the Cape of Good Hope 1s 2d ditto.


Vessels entering or departing in Ballast.
For every Ship, &c. which shall enter into or depart from the said Ship Canal or Basin in Ballast, from or to any Part of 0 2 ditto. Great Britain, Ireland or the Isle of Man 0s 2d ditto.
For ditto from or to any other Part of the World 0s 4d ditto.


For every Ship, Boat, Barge, Craft, Lighter or other Vessel laden, which shall enter from the Bristol Channel and depart therefrom without breaking Bulk, or which shall charge and depart with the same Cargo 0s 6d ditto.
For ditto which shall enter and depart in Ballast 0s 3d ditto.
For every Boat, Barge or other Craft, which shall enter from the Glamorganshire Canal and pass through the Basin and Ship Canal 0s 6d ditto.
For every Ship, &c. which shall enter the Canal or Basin for the purpose of unloading from or discharging Goods, &c. on board of any Ship, Boat, Barge, Craft, Lighter or other Vessel being within the Ship Canal or Basin, such and the like Rates and Duties upon the Goods so discharged or loaded, as are allowed for Wharfage Rates on Goods, as per the after-mentioned Schedule.
And upon every Ship, &c. which shall continue in the Ship)Canal or Basin for any Space of Time exceeding Twenty-one Days, for every Week and fractional Part of a Week over and above the said Twenty-one Days 0s ½d ditto.
For every Ship or Vessel which shall not enter the said Ship Canal, but shall either land or receive Passengers or Goods upon any of the Piers or Jetties constructed under the provisions of this Act 0s 3d ditto.


To be levied on all Minerals, Goods, Wares, Merchandize, &c. brought upon any Pier, Jetty, Wharf, Quays or Landing Places, or deposited in any Warehouse belonging to the Marquis of Bute - over and above the preceding Duties.
For Bar, Bolt or Pig-iron, Cast Iron, Wrought Iron, Guns, Gun Carriages or Shot, Iron Wire, Lead, Lead Shot and Tallow, per Ton 1s 0d
For Broken or Bushel Iron, Ballast Iron, Iron-ore, Lead-ore, Salt and Slates, per Ton 0s 6d
For Copper-ore, per Ton 0s 8d
For Copper or Brass, (or Battery) per Ton 1s 3d

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For Wrought Copper or Brass and Nails, per Ton 1s 8d
For Brass Wire, and Red and White Lead, per Ton 1s 6d
For Tin, per Block or Barrel 0s 2d
For Tin Plates, per Box 0s 1d
For Coal, CuIm or Stone Coal, per Ton 0s 9d
For Oak Bark, per Ton 2s 0d
For Oak, Ash, Elm, Fir, or other Timber, per Load 1s 3d
For Deal Ends, per 120 0s 4d
For Deals, per 120 1s 0d
For large Oak Knees, each 0s 2d
For small ditto, each 0s 1d
For Oak, Ash, Elm and Fir Plank, per 100 Superficial Feet 0s 6d
For Quarter Oak, per 100 Feet in length 0s 6d
For Mast, Yard or Bow-sprit, Six Inches and under Eight in Diameter 0s 3d
For ditto, Eight Inches in Diameter and under Twelve 0s 6d
For ditto, if Twelve and upwards 1s 0d
For Wheat, Barley, Oats, Peas and Beans, per Quarter 0s 2d
For Flour, or Meal, per Twenty Barrels or Bags 2s 0d
For Tar, per Barrel 0s 1d
For Gunpowder, per Barrel 0s 2d
For Bricks or Pantiles, per Thousand 1s 0d
For Paving Bricks and Malt Kiln Tiles, per Hundred 0s 6d
For Fire Bricks, per Thousand 2s 0d
For Limestone, per Ton 0s 3d
For Manure, per Ton 0s 1d

And so in proportion for any greater or less Quantity than a Ton.

For any other Article or Merchandize whatsoever, which shall be shipped from or landed or deposited upon any of the Wharfs, such reasonable Rate, Rent or Sum, not exceeding the Rates then usually paid in the Port of Bristol.

Goods not to remain on the Quays or Landing Places more than Three Days, without consent of the Marquis of Bute, or his Agents.

His Majesty's Vessels are exempt from payment of any of the above Rates or Duties,

The object of this canal is to avoid the dangers and difficulties of the present intricate navigation from the sea to the Glamorganshire Canal; and by affording additional accommodation to the shipping interest it will have the effect of increasing and improving the trade of Cardiff and its vicinity; and by facilitating the exportation of the mineral productions of this rich district, and providing a safe and convenient place for the loading and unloading afloat ships, and other vessels of greater burthen than can be at present accommodated, a general advantage will of necessity accrue to the public, and too much praise cannot be given to the noble Marquis for his spirited undertaking.


33 George III, Cap. 114, Royal Assent 3rd June, 1793.

THIS canal commences on the New River Ancholme Navigation, near Creampoke, in Kesley Carrs, and proceeds in an easterly

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direction by the village of South Kelsey, to its termination at Moortown, three miles and a half west of the town of Caistor. It is four miles in length, with Six locks, and it was made under the authority of an act, entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal, from the River Ancholme, in the parish of South Kelsey, in the county of Lincoln, into the parish of Caistor, in the said county,' by which the subscribers are incorporated by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Caistor Canal Navigation," with power to raise £15,000, in one hundred and fifty shares of £100 each, with further authority for raising an additional sum of £10,000, if necessary.


Wheat, Rye, Shelling, Beans, Peas, Vetches, Lentils, Apples, Pears, Onions and Potatoes 1½d per Quarter per Mile.
Barley, Malt, and Oats 1d ditto. ditto.
Wool, Dried Pelts or Spetches 1½d per Pack, per Mile.
Coal, Slack, Cinders, Culm, and Charcoal 4d per Ton, per Mile.
Lime 3d ditto. ditto.
Bricks and Tiles 2d ditto. ditto.
Stone-flag, Paving-stone and Slate 3d ditto. ditto.
Cast Metal Goods, Bar and other Iron 6d ditto. ditto.
Timber (English or Foreign) and Deals 4d ditto. ditto.
Groceries, Linen and Woollen Yarn, Cotton, Flax, Hemp, Manufactured Goods, and all Wares and Merchandize 8d ditto. ditto.

Fractions to be taken as for a Mile, and as for a Quarter of a Ton.


Timber and Stone for the use of his Majesty; Gravel and Sand for the repair of Roads; Dung, Marl, and Soil for the purpose of Manuring Lands belonging to Owners of adjoining Lands; though these last-mentioned Articles are not permitted to pass a Lock free, unless the Water shall flow over the Waste Weir. Vessels under Twenty Tons, not to pass without leave, or without paying for that Tonnage.

By this canal, and the Ancholme Navigation, the surplus agricultural produce of the north of Lincolnshire is exported; and coal, agricultural lime, and general merchandize, is the return to Caistor and its neighbourhood.

There was some attempt made, in 1801, to make a canal from this, along the foot of the Wolds, to near Market Raisin, but as no act was obtained for the purpose, it seems now to be abandoned.

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