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This Book "Priestley's Navigable Rivers and Canals" by Joseph Priestley was previously published in April 1831. NOTE: Oringinally called "Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways, of Great Britain". For more information see About this Book
|Index Page||Link to Previous Page 79|
|Limestone, Dung, Compost and all sorts of Manure, all Materials for the repair of Roads, which shall be drawn, propelled, and carried, by and at the expense of the Company||3d per Ton, per Mile.|
|Ditto, drawn or propelled only by the Engines of the Company||2d ditto, ditto.|
|Ditto, drawn or propelled by the Engines, or other Power, and carried in the Waggons belonging to other Persons than the said Company||2d ditto, ditto.|
|Coal, Culm, Coke, Charcoal, Cinders. Stone, Marl, Sand, Clay, Building, Pitching and Paving-stones, Flags, Bricks, Tiles, Slate, Lime, Earth, Staves, Deals, Lead and Iron in Pigs, or other Metals which shall be drawn, or propelled, and carried by and at the expense of the Company||3½d ditto, ditto.|
|Ditto, drawn or propelled Only by the Engines of the Company||3d ditto, ditto.|
|Ditto, drawn or propelled by the Engines, or other Power, and carried in the Waggons belonging to other Persons than the said Company||2½d ditto, ditto.|
|Timber, Cotton, wool, Hides, Drugs, Dye-woods, Sugar, Corn, Grain, Flour, Manufactured Goods, Lead in Sheets, or Iron in Bars, and all other Wares and Merchandize, drawn, or propelled, and carried, by and at the expense of the Company||4½d ditto, ditto.|
|Ditto, drawn or propelled only by the Engines of the Company||4d ditto, ditto.|
|Ditto, drawn or propelled by the Engines, or other Power, and carried in Waggons belonging to other Persons than the said Company||3½d ditto, ditto.|
|All Articles ascending on each of the Inclined Planes where permanent Engines are used||8d per Ton in addition.|
|Ditto, descending on each of the Inclined Planes where permanent Engines are kept||3d ditto, per Mile, in addition.|
Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Ton, and as for a Quarter of a Mile.
Two branches to this railway are contemplated, both commencing near a place called The Lecturer's Closes, one of which will terminate in Great Moor Street, and the other in Deansgate, both in the town of Bolton.
The estimate for the whole work was made by Mr. James Stevenson, and amounted to the sum of £43,000, of which, £36,000 was subscribed before the act was obtained; it is said, however, that to finish it according to the present designs of the company, it will cost £75,000.
Soon after the passing of the act, Mr. Daglish, civil engineer, was employed upon this railway, but it has been subsequently under the direction of Mr. Stevenson. Stationary engines will be placed on the inclined planes, and locomotive engines on the other parts. Both are to burn their own smoke.
Seven years are allowed for the execution of the works, and if not then finished, the company's power is to cease, excepting as to such parts as may have been completed.
On the 26th March, 1828, another act, entitled, 'An Act for amending and enlarging the Powers and Provisions of an Act relating to the Bolton and Leigh Railway,' received the royal assent, but does not contain any thing in which the public have an interest.
The principal object of this railway, is the facilitating the conveyance of coal, slate, stone, and other commodities, from the interior of the country to the port of Liverpool, by the Leeds and Liverpool Canal from Leigh; and the return of corn, iron, lime, and merchandize from the above port, and from Warrington and other places, to Bolton, Bury, and their populous environs.
An act received the royal assent on the 14th May, 1829, for making a railway from Leigh to the Liverpool and Manchester Railroad, in the township of Kenyon, which, when completed, will greatly improve the value and add to the importance of the line above described.
8 George III. Cap. 63, Royal Assent 8th March, 1768.
24 George III. Cap. 5, Royal Assent 24th December, 1783.
This canal was originally intended as a branch or collateral cut to the Forth and Clyde Canal, and the necessary powers for making it are contained in an act of 8th George III. entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Cut or Canal from the Firth or River of Forth, at or near the mouth of the River of Carron, in the county of Sterling, to the Firth or River of Clyde, at or near a place called Dalmuir Burnfoot, in the county of Dumbarton; and also a collateral Cut from the same to the city of Glasgow; and for making a navigable Cut or Canal of Communication from the Port and Harbour of Borrowstowness, to join the said Canal, at or near the place where it will fall into the Firth of Forth.'
Though it is thus embodied in the first act relating to the Forth and Clyde Canal, yet a separate company, consisting of one hundred and fifteen persons, (amongst whom were the Dukes of Hamilton and Brandon, Buccleugh, Argyle, and Duchess of
Argyle, Earls of Buchan, Home, Roseberry, Hopetoun, and Countess of Hopetoun, and many other distinguished individuals,) were incorporated by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Borrowstowness Canal Navigation." They were authorized to raise £5,000, in one hundred shares of £50 each, and a further sum of £3,000, if the former sum should be found insufficient.
The line of canal stretches along the south shore of the Firth of Forth, from the port and harbour of Borrowstowness; it crosses the water of Avon, and thence proceeds to the Forth and Clyde Canal, at Grangemouth, near the mouth of the Carron River. Its length is about seven miles, and level throughout; the depth is 7 feet.
Considerable progress had been made in this canal previous to 1783, and the £8,000 which the company were empowered to raise under the act already recited, was expended, when they were under the necessity of again applying to parliament for a second, entitled, 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Borrowstowness navigable Cut or Canal more effectually to complete and maintain the same.' By this act, the proprietors are empowered to raise among themselves the additional sum of £12,000, to be divided into shares of £50 each, and a further sum of £4,000 should it be deemed necessary; or they may obain the same by mortgage of the tolls, or by granting annuities on lives.
Granted by the Act of 8th George III which have not been altered by the subsequent Act.
|Iron, Coal, Stones, Timber and all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize, and Commodities whatsoever||3d per Ton, per Mile.|
|Lime, Lime-stone and Iron-stone||1d ditto, ditto.|
Paving-stones, Gravel, and all Materials for the repairing of Roads, (Limestone excepted,) Dung, Marl and all sorts of Manure.
As Borrowstowness is (with the exception of Leith) the principal trading town on the Forth, and where there is depth of water for vessels of three hundred tons, at neap-tides, it was the original intention of the promoters of the Forth and Clyde Canal to termi-
-nate it at this port; but they were subsequently induced by the force of private interests, to abandon this intention, and adopt this canal as a collateral branch.
The principal object of the Borrowstowness Canal was to avoid the difficult navigation of the Forth, and for improving the estates through which it passed; and though considerable sums of money have been expended on this work, it appears now to be entirely abandoned.
21 George III. Cap. 22, Royal Assent 29th March, 1781.
This river proceeds from the navigable River Glen, in Deeping Fen, in a north-western direction to the town of Bourn. It is three miles and a half in length, and nearly straight.
It appears by the preamble of the only act relating to this navigation, entitled, 'An Act for improving the Navigation of the River called Bourn Eau, from the town of Bourn to its Junction with the River Glen, at a place called Tongue End, in the county of Lincoln,' that it had been previously used as a navigation, but that it had become of little use, in consequence of being nearly choked up by mud, and other obstructions; the above recited act, therefore, gives authority to trustees therein named, to make good the navigation by scouring, cleansing, and making the same 5 feet deep and 30 feet wide, where its present banks will admit of it.
|For all Goods, Wares, Merchandize or Commodities whatsoever||2s 6d per Ton.|
And so in proportion for any greater or less Weight than a Ton.
The trustees, in whom this navigation is vested, are the lord of the manor of Bourn, with the members for the time being; the owner of Bourn South Fen Pastures; the lord of the manor of Bourn Abbots, with its members, and nine other persons, three to be chosen annually by each of the parties above-mentioned; also all other persons who shall be holders of £100 stock, to be raised for the purposes of this act. The sum of £60 per annum is paid to the trustees by the owners of an estate of eight hundred and
sixty acres, situate on the banks of the river, and which, at the time the act was obtained, belonged to Sir Gilbert Heathcote, Bart. in quittance of the obligation he was under of keeping in repair a considerable portion of the north-west bank of this navigation, and which, in consequence, devolved upon the trustees. The Marquis of Exeter also pays to the trustees the sum of forty shillings annually on a similar account.
The principal use to which this navigation is put, is to facilitate the conveyance of the surplus agricultural produce of the fens, to the port of Boston, (to which it has communication by the River Glen) and to supply Bourn and its environs with groceries and other articles.
11 George III Cap. 89, Royal Assent 29th April, 1771.
42 George III. Cap. 93. Royal Assent 22nd June, 1802.
THIS canal commences in the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, near the manufacturing village of Shipley, and extends along the eastern side of the valley, in which runs the rivulet called Bradford Brook, and terminates at Hoppy Bridge, situate in the lower part of the town of Bradford. It is in length three miles, with a rise from the Leeds and Liverpool Canal of 86¼ feet by ten locks. The locks are 66 feet in length, and in width 15 feet 2 inches, being the same in dimension as those on the Leeds and Liverpool Canal The depth of water is 5 feet.
The act under which this canal was executed, is entitled, 'An Act for making a navigable Cut or Canal from Bradford, to join the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, at Windhill, in the township of Idle, in the county of York.' The subscribers to this canal, at the time the act was obtained, consisted of twenty-eight persons, who were incorporated by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Bradford Navigation." They were empowered to raise among themselves £6,000, in sixty shares of £100 each, but the works were not to commence until the whole sum was raised; and if the above sum was insufficient, they were empowered to raise an additional sum of £3,000, by the admission of new subscribers.
|Clay, Bricks, Stones, Coal, Lime, Dung and Manure||6d per Ton.|
|Timber, Goods, Wares, Merchandise or other Commodities||9d ditto.|
And so in proportion for any greater or less Weight than a Ton.
If Goods remain upon the Company's Wharfs more than Twenty-four Hours, they areentitled to Wharfage, the Amount of which to be agreed on between the Parties.
That Fifty Feet of round, or Forty Feet of square Oak, Ash, or Elm Timber, or Fifty Feet of Fir, or Deal, Balk, Poplar, and other Timber Wood, shall be estimated as One Ton; and that Lime, Stone, Coal, and other Goods, shall consist of Twenty-two Hundred Weight of One Hundred and Twelve Pounds each.
No Boat of less than Twenty Tons Burthen to pass a Lock without leave, unlessTonnage is paid to that Amount.
The canal was finished in 1774.
For the purpose of giving a better supply of water to this canal, the proprietors were under the necessity of purchasing mills and lands contiguous to its banks, by which the shares were in creased, by additional calls, to £250 per share; and in order to secure this part of their property from the operations of the statute of mortmain, they applied to parliament, and obtained an act, entitled, 'An Act for vesting divers Estates in the parishes of Bradford and Calverley, in the West Riding of the county of York, purchased for the benefit of the Proprietors of the Bradford Canal Navigation, in Trustees, upon certain Trusts, discharged from all Claims of the Crown, in respect of any Forfeiture incurred under or by virtue of the Laws or Statutes of Mortmain.'
As the neighbourhood of Bradford abounds in flag paving-stone, coal, and valuable beds of iron-stone, this canal has been of infinite advantage in conveying them to various parts of the country. The extensive iron works at Bowling, and Wibsey Low Moor, with others of inferior note in the vicinity, may, in a great measure, be said to have been founded, or at least greatly enlarged, in consequence of the facility which this canal afforded, by its connection with the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, for the conveyance of their castings to all parts of the kingdom.
From these foundries, iron railways approach the town of Bradford, but though they do not extend to the head of the canal, yet they have the effect of materially reducing the price of the carriage of the heavy articles from these works. Flag, stone and slate from the eastern bank of this canal, and also near its head, (where it is very extensively worked) finds its way to the London
Market, and to the towns on the eastern coast; and coal, and the first-mentioned articles, are sent by this and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, into the extensive district of Craven. Since Bradford became the centre of the stuff manufacture and principal market for it, wool is also become a considerable article of traffic upon this navigation.
21 George II. Cap. 22, Royal Assent 9th June, 1758.
THIS railroad proceeds from the extensive collieries, situate at Middleton, (belonging to the Rev. R. H. Brandling,) about three miles south of the town of Leeds, and terminates at convenient staiths, near Meadow-lane in the above town. It is three miles in length, and was constructed under the powers of an act, entitled, 'An Act for establishing Agreements made between Charles Brandling, Esq. and other Persons, Proprietors of Lands, for laying down a Waggon Way, in order for the better supplying the town and neighbourhood of Leeds, in the county of York, with Coals.'
There are upon this railway two inclined planes, one at the southern corner of Hunslet Carr, and the other at Belleisle, near Middleton, upon which the full descending waggons, regulated by a brake, draw up the empty ones. It is here worthy of remark, that it was upon this railway that the powers of the locomotive engine were first applied in this part of the country, by the ingenious inventor, Mr. John Blenkinsop, the manager of the Middleton Collieries.
33 George III. Cap. 96, Royal Assent 28th March, 1793.
44 George III. Cap. 29, Royal Assent 3rd May, 1804.
THIS canal commences in the Monmouthshire Canal, about one mile south of the town of Pontypool, and crossing the River Avon by an aqueduct, enters a tunnel of two hundred and twenty yards in length; thence, in a northerly direction, by Mamhilad, Great House, Blaenavon Iron Works, and the town of Aberga-
venny, to Govilon; where, taking a north-easterly course, and keeping parallel with the Usk River, it proceeds by Daney Park, Llanelly Iron Works, Crickhowel, Peterstone Court, and Tyn Maur, to Brecon, near which town it communicates with the Hay Railway. At Buckland House, it communicates with the Brynoer Tramroad, from the Blaen Rumney Iron Works; and near Crickhowel, several railways extend from it to the extensively worked limestone quarries, collieries and iron works, which abound in that immediate neighbourhood. At the village of Govilon, the Llanfihangel Railroad, passing by the town of Abergavenny, connects with this navigation; and three miles north of Pontypool, it is also joined by the Mamhilad Railway. There is also a railway of one mile and a quarter in length, proceeding from it, across the River Usk, to Llangroiney.
From the junction with the Monmouthshire Navigation, this canal is continued on a level with its summit to Abergavenny, a distance of eleven miles, and maintains the same level three miles and a half further; from thence to its termination at Brecon, is eighteen miles and a half, with a rise of 68 feet; the total length being thirty-three miles.
Mr. T. Dadford, Jun. was the engineer employed on this work, which was executed under the powers of an act, entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from the town of Brecknock to the Monmouthshire Canal, near the town of Pontypool, in the county of Monmouth; and for making and maintaining Railways and Stone Roads to several Iron Works and Mines in the counties of Brecknock and Monmouth.' By this act the subscribers were incorporated by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal Navigation," with power to raise among themselves the sum of £100,000, in one thousand shares of £l00 each, and the additional sum of £50,000, if necessary.
|Iron-stone, Iron-ore, Lead-ore, Coals, Culm, Coaks, Cinders and Charcoal||2d per Ton, per Mile.|
|Lime, Lime-stone, Tiles, Slate, Bricks, Flag-stones, and other Stones, Clay, Sand, Hay, Straw, and Corn in the Straw, and all Material for the repairing of Roads, and all kinds of Manure||1d ditto. ditto.|
|Cattle, Sheep, Swine and other Beasts||4d ditto. ditto.|
|Iron and Lead||3d per Ton, per Mile.|
|Timber, Goods, Wares and Merchandize||4d ditto. ditto.|
Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Ton, and as for Half a Mile.
Boats under Twenty Tons lading not to pass any Lock without leave, or without paying for that Tonnage.
|Every Horse, Mule or Ass||1d each.|
|Cows and other Cattle||½d each.|
|Sheep, Swine and Calves||5d per Score.|
As the making of this canal would materially increase the value of the shares in the Monmouthshire Canal Navigation, that company agreed to give the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal Proprietors the sum of £3,000; also to take the same tonnage upon their navigation, on all articles conveyed along any part of the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal, as that company were empowered to collect.
In 1804, this company, having expended the money authorized to be raised under the preceding act, applied to parliament and obtained an act to enable them to raise an additional fund to complete their works, entitled, 'An Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal to raise a further Sum of Money for completing the said Canal, and the Works thereto belonging; and for altering and enlarging the Powers of an Act made in the Thirty-third Year of his present Majesty, for making the said Canal.'
As this canal skirts the rich mineral districts of Monmouth and Glamorgan, and has a direct communication with the Bristol Channel, by means of the Monmouthshire Canal, every facility is afforded for the export of its valuable productions, which was the ostensible object of its promoters.
10 Geo.II C. 22, R. A. 22nd Apr. 1737.
32 Geo. II C. 2, R. A. 23rd Mar. 1759.
33 Geo. II. C. 2, R. A. 24th Mar.1760.
2 Geo. III. C. 11, R. A. 24th Mar. 1762.
6 Geo. III. C. 17, R. A. 18th Mar. 1766.
35 Geo. III. C.44, R. A. 28th Apr. 1795.
THE 32nd George II. is the first act of parliament, under power of which the execution of this navigation was commenced,
and it is entitled, 'An Act to enable the Most Noble Francis Duke of Bridgewater, to make a navigable Cut or Canal from a certain place in the township of Salford, to or near Worsleij Mill, and Middlewood, in the manor of Worsley, and to or near a place called Hollin Ferry, in the county palatine of Lancaster.' In this act it is recited, that certain persons had obtained an act in the 10th George II. entitled, 'An Act for making navigable the River or Brook called Worsley Brook, from Worsley Mill, in the township of Worsley, in the county palatine of Lancaster, to the River Irwell, in the said county,' but that they had hitherto neglected to carry any of the powers of this act into execution. This, then, was the first step taken towards making this very early and useful navigation; but the degree of supineness exhibited by the original undertakers, in having so long neglected the execution of a work which has been and is yet the source of immense wealth to its noble owner, is most strikingly contrasted by the enterprising spirit and astonishing perseverance of the Duke of Bridgewater, who, unassisted, except by the natural genius of Brindley, carried into execution a series of difficult and expensive works, which are, even at this time, unexampled.
The primary object of "The Father of British Inland Navigation," as the Duke of Bridgewater has been justly styled, was to open his valuable collieries at Worsley, and to supply the town of Manchester with coal, at a much cheaper rate than could be done by the imperfect navigation of the Mersey and Irwell. The works were commenced immediately on the royal assent being given to the act, under the powers of which, a considerable portion of that part of the canal, between Worsley Mill and Manchester, was executed; but the proposed line from Worsley to Hollin Ferry, on the Mersey and Irwell Navigation, was abandoned. In the year subsequent to the obtaining of the first act, the Duke again applied to parliament and obtained a second, entitled, 'An Act to enable the Most Noble Francis Duke of Bridgewater, to make a navigable Cut or Canal from or near Worsley Mill, over the River Irwell, to the town of Manchester, in the county palatine of Lancaster, and to or near Longford Bridge, in the township of Stretford, in the said county.'
Under this act the whole of the canal from Worsley to Man-
chester, together with the extensive subterranean works, at his coal mines, in Worsley, were executed. The aqueduct over the Mersey and Irwell Navigation at Barton, was opened on the 17th July, 1761, and shortly afterwards the line of canal to Manchester. The underground canals and tunnels at Worsley are said to be eighteen miles in length, and to have cost £168,960. From Worsley, a branch of one mile and a half in length extends to Chat Moss, across which, the line to Hollin Ferry, near Glazebrook, was intended to pass.
In 1762 this spirited and patriotic nobleman applied to parliament, and obtained the necessary powers to enable him to extend his navigation, so as to open a better navigable communication with LiverpooL This act is entitled, 'An Act to enable the Most Noble Francis Duke of Bridgewater, to make a navigable Cut or Canal from Longford Bridge, in the township of Stretford, in the county palatine of Lancaster, to the River Mersey, at a place called the Hempstones, in the township of Halton, in the county of Chester.' It is here recited that the canal from the Duke's coal mines to Longford Bridge, whence the proposed extension was to proceed, together with a considerable portion of the remainder of the line to Manchester, was finished.
The original line to Hempstones takes a south-westerly course from Longford Bridge, crossing the Mersey by an aqueduct; by the town of Altringham, and Dunham Massey, (the seat of the Earl of Stamford and Warrington) near which place it passes over the River Bollin by an aqueduct, thence by Lymm, Groppenhall, crossing the London Road two miles south of Warrington, to the River Mersey, at Hempstones; but before the latter portion could be executed, an act of the 6th George III. was obtained by a company, to enable them to make a canal to connect the Rivers Trent and Mersey, which is entitled, 'An Act for making a navigable Cut or Canal from the River Trent, at or near Wilden Ferry, in the county of Derby, to the River Mersey, at or near Runcorn Gap.' This act contains a clause, whereby the Duke of Bridgewater engages to form a junction with the above line of the Trent and Mersey Canal at Preston Brook, instead of opening into the Mersey at Hempstones, which is nearly one mile and a half higher up the river than the place where the Trent and
Mersey Canal proposed to enter it; also to execute that part of the line of the Trent and Mersey Canal, from the junction above-mentioned, at Preston Brook, to its termination at Runcorn; for which the Duke should receive the following rates upon that part of the Trent and Mersey Line of Canal, which, commencing from Preston Brook, takes a circuitous route through the beautiful grounds of Norton Priory, the seat of Sir H. Brooke, Bart. and thence by Lower Runcorn to the Mersey. On the 31st of December, 1772, the ten locks at Runcorn were opened, and the whole of the canal and other works were completed to Manchester, on the 21st of March, 1776.
|For all Coal, Stone, Timber, and other Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Commodities||1d per Ton, per Mile.|
And so in proportion for any greater or less Distance than a Mile, or less Weight than a Ton; but if any Boat shall pass the whole of the Locks, to be erected at Runcorn, then the same Tonnage to be paid as if the Vessel had passed along the whole Distance between Runcorn and Preston Brook. Also, the Duke has power to charge, upon this part of the Navigation, such additional Tonnage to the Penny Rate above-mentioned, so that the total Amount does not exceed the Rate which the Duke is empowered to collect upon the other parts of his Navigation.
On the 18th of March, 1766, the royal assent was given to an act, entitled, 'An Act to enable the Most Noble Francis Duke of Bridgewater, to extend a Branch of his Navigation, Cut, or Canal, upon Sale Moor, in the county of Chester, to the Market Town of Stockport, in the said county,' but no portion of this proposed canal was ever executed. It was in length seven miles and a half, with a rise of 68 feet. By another act obtained in the 35th George III. entitled, 'An Act to enable the Most Noble Francis Duke of Bridgewater, to make a navigable Cut from his present Navigation, in the township of Worsley, in the county palatine of Lancaster, to the township of Pennington, near the town of Leigh, in the said county,' the Duke of Bridgewater was enabled to extend his navigation to the town of Leigh, to which place the Leeds and Liverpool Canal Company have subsequently extended a branch of their navigation, so that now another navigable communication is made through the heart of Lancashire, connecting the towns of Wigan, Chorley, Blackburn, Preston, and those two lmportant places, Liverpool and Manchester.
The length of the Duke's Canal from Castle Field, in Manchester, to near Longford Bridge, where the main line leaves the Worsley Branch, is three miles and a quarter; and from the last-mentioned place to Preston Brook, where it joins the Trent and Mersey, is eighteen miles and a half; and from thence to Runcorn, is five miles and a quarter, all on the same level, at which place it has a fall into the tideway of the Mersey, at low water, of 82½ feet, by ten locks. The branch to Worsley is five miles, and from thence to Leigh is six miles, and are both upon the same level with the main line.
|For all Coal, Stone, Timber, and other Goods, Wares, Merchandise, and Commodities whatsoever, passing on any part of, or on all his Navigations, (with the exception of that part between Ruocorn and Preston Brook)||2s 6d per Ton.|
|For passing by the New Locks and Basin at Runcorn||0s 8d ditto, in addition.|
|For every description of Articles (except Paving-stones) passing to or from the Rochdale Canal, into or out of the Duke's Canal, at Manchester||1s 2d per Ton.|
|Paving-stones||0s 4d ditto|
All kinds of Manure, and Stones for repairing the Roads, are exempt from the Payment of Toll.
For the purpose of continuing this justly celebrated canal on one level from Manchester to Runcorn, and from Longford Bridge, by Worsley, to Leigh, great embankments became necessary, in consequence of the numerous values which intercept its course; amongst them is one over Stretford Meadows, nine hundred yards in length, 17 feet high, and 112 feet at the base; that made at Barton Aqueduct, where it is 39 feet above the Mersey and Irwell Navigation, is two hundred yards in length. There is also a stupendous embankment between Dunham Massey and Oughtrington Hall. The whole of these canals and branches, with the exception of the cut to Leigh, were executed in five years, under the direction of Mr. Brindley, and at an expense to his noble patron of upwards of £220,000; but, as it all issued from his private purse, the public have no means of arriving at the exact amount, nor have they much better means of ascertaining the annual income, though it was estimated, some years ago, at £130,000.
This valuable concern is now the property of the Most Noble the Marquis of Stafford, and it is said to have increased his annual income to the enormous amount of £260,000.
These navigations, although made at the private expense of the Noble Duke, and valuable as they have proved to his successors, are of much greater importance to the town of Manchester and the surrounding country, from the facilities they have afforded for the transit of merchandize, and in reducing the price of minerals, which, before the execution of these works, could only be obtained at nearly double their present value.
51 George III. Cap. 60, Royal Assent 14th May, 1811.
5 George IV. Cap. 120, Royal Assent 17th June, 1824.
THE line of this proposed canal, commencing at Morgan's Pill, on the River Avon, about six miles below the port of Bristol, proceeds in a straight line, and in a south-easterly direction, to near Clevdon Court; from which place, taking a southerly course, it crosses the River Yeo; thence, west of the village of Puxton, crossing the eastern termination of the Mendip Hills, on the south side of which, an aqueduct is to be thrown over the navigable River Axe; hence, its course is continued in a straight line to near Huntspill Court, passing over the River Brue or Glastonbury Canal; thence, to the Tone and Parrett Navigation, near the village of Puriton, where it crosses the River Carey, at its junction with the Tone River, along the eastern bank of which, it continues its way two miles above the town of Bridgewater, where there is another aqueduct over the river. From the last-mentioned place it takes the course of the English and Bristol Channels' Ship Canal for two miles, when, diverging to the west, it passes the village of St. Michael's, running parallel with the last-mentioned canal, until it approaches the Tone, on the north bank of which it continues to its termination at Fire Pool Mills; there forming a junction with the intended Grand Western Canal, near the town of Taunton. The length is forty-two miles and a half.
From the main line, there is a branch of two miles and a
quarter, to the coal and other works at Nailsea; and another, of four miles and three quarters, on the north bank of the Axe, by the town of Axbridge, to Cheddar. At Clevdon Hill there is a proposed tunnel of six hundred yards in length; and another at Banwell, the eastern edge of the Mendip Hills, the length of which is one thousand and fifty yards.
The subscribers to this canal were, at the time the act was obtained, three hundred and twenty-six in number, amongst whom were Sir James Dubberley, Sir Richard Graves, Sir John Kennaway, Sir William Rawlins, and the Right Honourable Sir George Yonge, Baronets. They were incorporated, in the first act, by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Bristol and Taunton Canal Navigation," with power to raise among themselves the sum of £420,000, in four thousand two hundred shares of £100 each, with further power to raise among themselves, in proportion to the first subscription, if necessary, an additional sum of £150,000; or they may raise the same on mortgage of the tolls and duties hereby granted, the interest of which to be paid in preference to dividends or any other claim. In addition to the line of canal, the company obtained power to make railways or stone roads from the Nailsea Branch to the collieries and other works in that neighbourhood.
In the aqueducts over the navigable River Brue, or Glastonbury Canal, and the Axe River Navigation, the company are bound to specified areas; that for the first-mentioned river to be 360 square feet, and for the Axe 240; they are also required to make, on each of those rivers, near their respective aqueducts, two locks sufficient for passing vessels of ten tons burthen; and in order that these, and other things therein mentioned, should be properly executed, the company are directed to invest, in the public funds, the sum of £10,000, to be under the control of the commissioners of sewers acting for the county of Somerset.
The company are prohibited from taking the water from Lox Yeo, and from Banwell Hill Spring, and if injury be done to the latter, which is in the estate of the Bishop of Bath and Wells, the fund of £10,000 above-mentioned is to be answerable for damages. They are also restricted from cutting any portion of the canal between the parish of Clevdon and the Parrett, until it is finished
between the first-mentioned place and the Avon; and if the former portion be not done in four years after the passing of this act, the power to cease. The affairs of the company are under the direction of a committee of fifteen persons, to be called "The Committee of Management."
|Hay, Straw, Dung, Peat and Peat Ashes, and all other Ashes intended to be used for Manure; Chalk, Marl, Clay and Sand. and for all Lime and other Articles intended for Manure, and Material for repairing Roads||1½d per Ton, per Mile.|
|Coal, CuIm, Coke, Cinders, Charcoal, Iron-atone, Pig-iron, Iron-ore, Lead-ore, Copper-ore, Lime, (except what shall be used for Manure,) Lime-stone, and other Stone, Bricks, Tiles, Paving-atones and Pipe Clay||2d ditto. ditto.|
|Corn and other Grain, Flour, Malt, Meal, Cyder, Timber, Ochre, Calamine, Bar Iron, Lead, Kelp, Sand, (except what shall be used for Manure,) Pitch, Tar, Turpentine and Resin||2½d ditto. ditto.|
|Passengers||1½d per Mile each.|
|Cattle, Sheep, Swine and other Beasts||1½d per Head,per Mile.|
|All other Goods, Wares, Mcrchandize and Commodities||3d per Ton, per Mile.|
Tolls to be paid for a full Half Mile, and for a Quarter of a Ton.
|For every Horse, Mare, Gelding, Mule or Ass, passing along the Railways, (except such as are employed in drawing any Goods, for which any of the Rates will be paid)||2d each.|
|Cows, Horned or Neat Cattle||1d each.|
|Sheep, Swine and Calves||3d per Score.|
To pay but once a Day.
Boats under Twenty Tons not to pass Locks without leave, or without paying for that Amount of Tonnage.
There are many clauses in this act for protecting the property of individuals on the line of navigation; but which, having a local interest only, it is unnecessary further to notice than by a reference to the act of parliament. In this act are recited three others, 10th and 11th William III. 6th Anne, and 44th George III. relating to the navigation of the Tone from Bridgewater to Taunton, in which it appears that certain persons are appointed conservators of that river, and certain tolls are thereby directed to be collected, and that the surplus of such rates, after doing that which is necessary for the maintenance of the navigation, shall be employed for the benefit of the poor of Taunton, arid the parishes of Taunton St. Mary Magdalene, and Taunton St. James; and as the making of this canal will materially injure the above interests, the company are directed to purchase them, and afterwards to maintain the
River Tone out of the tolls received from that navigation under the acts above-mentioned. The estimates for this canal and branches were made by Mr. Rennie, and are as follow;-
|For the Main Line||£404,314|
So confident were the subscribers of the ultimate success of this measure, and so eager were they to possess shares in the undertaking, that the sum of £571,800 was actually subscribed before the application to parliament; and yet, thirteen years afterwards, the following act was obtained by the same company, to enable them to abandon a great part of the line and branches.
The act of 5th George IV. is entitled, 'An Act to abridge, vary, extend and improve the Bristol and Taunton Canal Navigation, and to alter the Powers of an Act of the Fifty-first Year of his late Majesty, for making the said Canal.' This act, therefore, repeals so much of the former as relates to the line of the proposed canal, between Morgan's Pill, on the Avon, and the parish of Clevdon, with the branch to Nausea; and the company had already forfeited all right to make that part between Clevdon and the Parrett, with the Cheddar Branch, by having neglected to execute them within the prescribed period of four years from the passing of the former act.
Instead, therefore, of a navigation from the River Avon, the company determined to make it only from the River Parrett, a little above Bridgewater, to the town of Taunton, with some alterations in the original line between those places; they, consequently, have abandoned their original title, and are incorporated in this act by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Bridgewater and Taunton Canal Navigation." The deviation in the original line was from Mansell, through the parish of North Petherton and chapelry of North Newton, to the Parrett, a distance of five miles and a quarter, with a fall of 35 feet, by five locks. There is also a branch, with a dock or basin, and locks to communicate with the Parrett Navigation, in the parishes of Bridgewater and North Petherton, and chapeiry of North Newton.
|The estimate of the work (which was made by Mr James Hillinsworth, civil engineer, in 1824,) from Firepool Weir to the commencement of the variation at Mansell was||£15,291|
|And the variation line to the River Parrett||18,854|
This act enables the company to take any water within four hundred yards of the line of the canal, and three years are allowed for the execution of these works, if not then done, the powers to cease, excepting as to such parts as may have been completed. The tonnage rates remain as in the former act.
The object of this canal was to facilitate the communication between the ports of London, Bristol, Bridgewater and Exeter, and to afford a better mode of conveyance for the produce of the agricultural and mineral districts through which it passes; the utility whereof can only be appreciated by that portion of the public which partakes of such important benefits.
9 George IV. Cap. 92, Royal Assent 19th June, 1828.
THIS line of railway commences at the Duifryn Llynvi and Pwll Cawl Railway, near the village of Ceffn Gribbwr, in the parish of Laleston, and proceeds in an eastwardly course to the River Ogmore, over which it crosses at a short distance south of the church of St. Bride's Minor, and thence proceeds, in the same direction, on the east bank of the same river, to the town of Bridgend, where it terminates.
The act for making this railway, is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway or Tramroad from the Dufryn Llynvi and Pwll Cawl, otherwise Porth Cawl Railway, to commence at a certain point therein, in the parish of Laleston, in the county of Glamorgan, and to terminate near to the town of Bridgend, in the same county.' The subscribers, at the time the act was obtained, were thirty-three in number, amongst whom were
Sir J. Nicoll and Sir D. Mackworth. They were incorporated by the name of" The Bridgend Railway Company," with power to raise £6,000, in shares of £20 each, (of which £4,380 was subscribed before going to parliament,) and an additional sum of £4,000 on mortgage of the railroad and the rates authorized to be collected, should such sum be necessary to complete the same. Five years are allowed by the act for its completion. The concern is to be managed by a committee of five proprietors, who are subject to the control of general meetings.
The railway is four miles and a half in length, and is on one inclined plane to Bridgend, to which place there is a fall of 190 feet. The estimate for completing it amounts to £6,000, and was made by Mr. John Hodgkinson, civil engineer.
|Limestone. Lime, Materials for the repair of Roads, Dung, Compost and Manure||1d per Ton, per Mile.|
|Coal, Coke, Cuim, Cinders, Stone, Marl, Sand, Clay, Iron-stone, and other Minerals, Building-stone, Pitching and Paving-stone, Bricks, Tiles, Slate and all gross and unmanufactured Articles||2d ditto. ditto.|
|Iron, Lead, Timber, Staves, Deals and all other Goods, Commodities, Wares and Merchandize||5d ditto. ditto.|
Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Ton, and as for a Quarter of a Mile.
For the purposes of this Act, One Hundred and Twelve Pounds is to be considered a Hundred Weight, and Twenty-one Hundred Weight to be a Ton.
Owners of Lands may make Wharfs, with Cranes and Weighing Machines, the Rates for which are regulated by this Act.
The principal object of this railroad is to facilitate the transmission of coal from the extensive collieries on the line of the Duffryn Llynvi and Pwll or Porth Cawl Railroad, to the town of Bridgend and its vicinity. It will also open a communication with the harbour of Pwll or Porth Cawl, which will be attended with considerable advantages to the trade of the above-mentioned town.
9 George IV. Cap. 93, Royal Assent 19th June, 1828.
THE line of this railway commences at Cuckold's Pill, near the harbour or floating-dock on the east side of the city of Bristol, and takes a north-easterly course by Upper Easton, Staple Hill,
and Rodway Hill, about half a mile south of the village of Mangotsfield; from thence it pursues a more northerly course through the collieries which abound in the parishes of Pucklechurch and Mangotsfield, to Coalpit Heath, in the parish of Westerleigh, where it terminates.
The act for making this railway received the royal assent on the 19th of June, 1828, and is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railroad or Tramroad, from or near the city of Bristol, to Coalpit Heath, in the parish of Westerleigh, in the county of Gloucester.' The length is nine miles; in the first two miles and three quarters of which there is an inclined plane rising 185 feet; in the next mile, another plane of 12 feet rise to the summit; at Staple Hill it enters a tunnel, which is eight hundred and eighty yards in length, and continues, on the same level, for a further distance of nearly one mile and three quarters; from which, to its termination, there is another plane declining 24 feet. The estimate for this work was made by Mr. W. H. Townsend, and amounted to the sum of £41,819, 14s. 2d. Near Rodway Hill, this railway is intended to be joined by the Avon and Gloucestershire Railway, for the making of which, an act was obtained at the same time as for this, and the royal assent was given on the same day.
The subscribers to this work, when application was made to parliament, were eighty-five in number, amongst whom were Sir John Smyth, Bart. and Sir Henry Nicoll, Bart. K.C.B. They were incorporated by the name of" The Bristol and Gloucestershire Railway Company," with power to raise among themselves the sum of £45,000, in shares of £50 each; and with further power to raise among themselves, or to borrow on mortgage of the rates, the additional sum of £12,000; or any part of this last-mentioned sum may be borrowed of the Exchequer Bill Commissioners, appointed under the act of the 3rd George IV.; but in this case the commissioners have priority over all other claims whatsoever.
The concern is to be under the management of a committee of fifteen persons, possessed of at least five shares each, who are subject to the control of the general meetings of the proprietors.
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