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This Book "Priestley's Navigable Rivers and Canals" by Joseph Priestley was previously published in April 1831. NOTE: Oringinally called "Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways, of Great Britain".
For more information see About this Book

Index Page Link to Previous Page 59

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TONNAGE RATES.

Stone for the repair of Roads 2d per Ton, per Mile.
Coal, Coke, Culm, Stone, Cinders, Chalk, Marl, Sand, Lime, Clay, Ashes, Peat, Lime-stone, Pitching and Paving-stone, Iron-stone or other Ore, Minerals and Bricks, and for all sorts of Manure, Grain, Flour,Meal, Potatoes, Hay and Straw 3d ditto, ditto.
For every Carriage carrying Passengers or Light Goods or Parcels, not exceeding Five Cwt 2d per Mile
For all other Goods, Commodities, wares and Merchandize whatsoever 4d per Ton, per Mile.

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Ton and as for a Quarter of a Mile.

The proprietors are further empowered to collect a pontage, at the proposed bridge over the Tweed, for carriages, foot passengers, &c. but as these are without the limits of our publication, we omit them.

This railway was calculated to be of great advantage to the country through which it passed, but it has been abandoned by its original promoters, and though the act does not limit the company to any given time for the execution of the works, yet it is thought that it will never be completed under its provisions.

BEVERLEY BECK.

13 George I. Cap. 4, Royal Assent 24th March, 1726.

18 George II. Cap. 13, Royal Assent 19th March, 1744.

THIS canal, or creek, (called Beverley Beck), commences from the navigable River Hull, nearly opposite the village of Weel, in Holderness, and extends to the town of Beverley. Though the first act of parliament, relating to this creek, bears a very early date, yet it had long before been used as a navigation, and kept in repair by the corporation of Beverley, out of the funds of the town; but as these were insufficient for the proper maintenance of it as a navigation, an act was obtained by the mayor, aldermen, and capital burgesses of Beverley, in the 13th George I. entitled, 'An Act for cleansing,, deepening, and widening a Creek, called Beverley Beck, running into the River Hull, and for repairing the Staiths, near the said Beck; and for amending the Roads leading from the said River, to the town of Beverley, in the East Riding of the county of York, and for cleansing the

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'Streets of the said Town,' in which certain rates and duties are granted, which will be found in the first column in the schedule of rates appended hereto.

For the purpose of raising an immediate fund for carrying into execution the improvements contemplated, the corporation of Beverley obtained power to borrow the sum of money they required for this purpose, on assignment of the rates and duties granted. In consequence, however, of the very indifferent state of this navigation, and the insufficiency of the tonnage rates to keep it in proper repair, and repay the interest of the sum of money borrowed on the credit of the tolls, the corporation of Beverley applied for and obtained another act, in 1744, entitled, 'An Act for more effectually cleansing, deepening, widening, and preserving, a Creek, called Beverley Beck, running into the River Hull, and for more effectually repairing the Staiths, near the said Beck, and the Roads leading from the said River, to the town of Beverley; and for cleansing the Streets of the said Town, and for regulating the Carriages to and from the said Beck, and the River Hull;' by which they are empowered to collect rates, in addition to those granted under the 13th George I. and which are enumerated in the second column of the schedule.

SCHEDULE OF TOLLS OR DUTIES ON BEVERLEY BECK.

DESCRIPTION Of GOODS. Rates under First Act.Addi- tional Rates by 2nd Act..
Coals 0s. 4d 0s. 2dper Chaidron.
Oats, Barley or Malt 0s. ½d.0s. ¼d.per Quarter.
Wheat, Rye, Mesledine and other Grain 0s. ¾d.0s. ¼d.ditto.
Flour -0s. ¾d.per Cwt.
Salt -0s. 4d.per Hogshead.
Salt in Bulk 0s. 4d.0s. 2d.per Ton.
Sugar, Tobacco, Molasses or Hogsheads packed with other Goods 0s. 4d.0s. 8d.per every Three Hogsheads.
Wine or Rum -1s. 8d.per Four Hogsheads.
Liquor 0s. 4d.0s. 4d.per Three Puncheons.
Brandy or other Spirits -0s. 4d.per Hogshead.
Wine, Spirits or other Liquor 0s. 4d.-per every Four Hogsheads.
Soap, Rasins, Oil, Pitch, or packed with other Dry Goods 0s. 4d.0s. 4d.per Eight Barrels.
Currants 0s. 4d.0s. 8d.per Butt or Two Half Butts.
Smyrna Raisins 0s. 4d.0s. 8d.per Two Pipes.
Nails 0s. 4d.0s. 4d.per Sixteen Bags.

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SCHEDULE OF TOLLS OR DUTIES CONTINUED.

-
DESCRIPTION Of GOODS. Rates under First Act.Addi- tional Rates by 2nd Act..
Iron or Lead 0s. 4d.0s 8d.per Ton.
Butter 0s. 4d.0s. 4d.per Thirty-two Firkins.
Cheese 0s. ?d.0s 7d.per Twenty Cwt.
Timber or Stone 0s. 4d.0s. 2d.per Ton.
Hops 0s. 4d.0s. 8d.per Two Bags.
Bricks 0s. 4d.-per Thousand.
Tiles 0s. 6d.-ditto.
Oatmeal 0s. 1d.0s. ½d.per Quarter.
Deal Boards (Single) 0s. 1d.-per every Twenty.
Ditto (Double) 0s. 2d.-ditto.
Millstones 2s. 0d.-per Pair.
Laths 0s. 6d.-per every Sixty Bunches.
Faggots 0s. 1d.-per Hundred.
Pails, Barrel or Hogshead Staves 0s. 1d.-ditto.
Handspikes 0s. 1d.-ditto.
Poles 0s. 1d.-per Score.
Pipe Staves -0s. 1d.per Hundred.
Cinders and Charcoal 0s. 1d.0s. ½d.per Dozen.
Horse, Cow, Bull or other Hide 0s. ¼d.each.
Sheep Skins 0s. ½d.0s. ¼d.per every Twenty.
Bark 0s. ½d.0s. ¼d.per Quarter.
Wool or other Goods 0s. 1d.0s. 1d.per Pack.
Bottles 0s. 2d.0s. 1d.per Twelve Dozen.
Glass 0s. 2d.-per Case or Chest.
Firkin Staves 0s. 4d.-per Thousand.
Roots or Fruit 0s. ½d.0s. ½d.per Four Bushels.
Earthenware 0s. ¼d.-per Dozen.
Shovels 0s. ½d.- ditto.
Hemp, Line and Flax -0s. 7d.per Ton.
Calf Skins 0s. 1d.-per Dozen.
Thatch 0s. 4d.-per Hundred.
Lime 0s. 2d.-per Chaldron.
Sand 0s. 2d.-per Ton.
Hoops 0s. ½d.-per Bundle.
Chairs 0s. 1d.-per Dozen.
Fern Ashes -0s. 2d.per Quarter.
Turfs 0s. ½d.-per Thousand.
Liquors (not exceeding Ten Gallons) 0s. ¼d.0s. ¼d.per Rundlet.
Cask, Truss, Box or Parcel 0s. ¼d.0s. ¼d.not exceeding ll2lbs.
And so in proportion for any greater or less Quantity or Weights of any of the above-mentioned Goods or Ladings.
For every other sort of Goods, Wares, Merchandizee or Ladings whatsoever, not above-mentioned, according to the custom of Water Tonnage 0s. 5d.1s. 0d.and so in proportion for any greater or less Quantity.

The whole of the tolls or duties, collected under these acts of parliament, are directed to be laid out in defraying the debts incurred by the corporation, and for keeping in sufficient repair the navigation of this creek or beck, and the staiths, and the roads leading thereto, and to no other purpose whatsoever.

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BIRMINGHAM CANAL NAVIGATIONS.

8 Geo. III. C. 38, R. A. 24th Feb. 1768.

9 Geo. III. C. 53, R. A. 21st April 1769

23 Geo. III. C. 92, R. A. 24th June 1783.

24 Geo. III. C. 4, R. A. - - - - - 1784.

25 Geo. III. C. 99, R. A. 13th June 1785.

34 Geo. III. C. 87, R. A. 17th April, 1794.

46 Geo. III. C. 92, R. A. 3rd July, 1806.

51 Geo. III. C. 10.5, R. A. 21st May, 1811.

55 Geo. III. C. 40, R. A. 12th May, 1815.

58 Geo. III. C. 19, It. A. 17th Mar. 1818.

As some parts of these important navigations have been executed by companies, incorporated under other titles than what is now given to the whole of the canals and branches, constituting the Birmingham Canal Navigations, we shall, in the first place, recite the substance of the principal clauses in the respective acts of parliament, and in the order in which they were severally obtained.

The first act, entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Cut, or Canal, from Birmingham to Bilstone, and from thence to Autherley, there to communicate with the Canal now making between the Rivers Severn and Trent, and for making collateral Cuts up to several Coal Mines,' authorizes the original subscribers to make a canal from the town of Birmingham to Bilstone, and from thence by Wolverhampton, to join the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal (then in progress) at Autherley, with two collateral cuts to the coal pits, iron furnaces, and limestone quarries, in its vicinity.

The company, at the time the act was obtained, consisted of one hundred and two persons, amongst whom were the Earl of Hertford, Earl of Dartmouth, and Sir Lister Holt, Bart. who were incorporated by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Birmingham Canal Navigation."

This company, were empowered, under the before-mentioned act, to raise the sum of £55,000, in five hundred and fifty shares of £100 each, and a further sum of £15,000, if the proper execution of the works should require it. The duties granted under this act are as follows :-

TOLLS AND DUTIES.

Coal, Iron, Iron-stone, Stones, Timber, and other Goods, Wares and Merchandize 1½d. per Ton, per Mile.
Lime and Limestone ½d. ditto, ditto.

And so in proportion for any less Quantity than a Ton.

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EXEMPTION FROM TOLL.

Paving-stones, Gravel, Sand, and all Materials for the making of Roads (Limestone excepted) and all Dung, Soil, Marl and all sorts of Manure, provided they do not pass a Lock but at such times as when the Water runs over the Gauge, Paddle or Niche of the Lock.

Boats of less Length than Seventy Feet, not to pass a Lock without leave.

In this act, power is given to the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal Company to open a communication with the Birmingham Canal, at the cost of the proprietors of the last-mentioned canal, if they do not do it within six months after it is finished to Birmingham.

The second act, entitled, 'An Act to rectify a Mistake in an Act passed in the Eighth Year of his present Majesty, entitled, An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Cut or Canal, from Birmingham to Bilstone, and from thence to Autherley, there to communicate with the Canal now making between the Rivers Severn and Trent, and for making collateral Cuts up to several Coal Mines, and to explain and amend the said Act,' was obtained chiefly in consequence of having neglected to introduce, in the description of the course of the intended canal, a detached part of the county of Salop, near the village of Oldbury. The company, however, took this opportunity of obtaining power to make reservoirs anywhere within three miles from that part of the canal, lying between the two extreme locks, intended to be constructed between Smethwick and Oldbury. In consequence of being enabled to raise only £50,000, instead of £55,000, they, by this act, reduce the number of shares to five hundred, instead of five hundred and fifty, retaining, however, authority to raise the additional sums of £5,000, and £15,000, granted under the former act.

In 1783, parliamentary sanction was given to a very important act, entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal, from a place near Rider's Green, in the county of Stafford, to Broadwater Fire Engine, and six collateral Cuts, from the same, to several Coal Mines; and also a navigable Canal, front or near the town of Birmingham, to join the Coventry Canal, at or near Fazeley, in the parish of Tamworth, in the said county of Stafford, with a collateral Cut to the lower part of the

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'said town of Birmingham,' in the preamble of which, it is stated, that the canal and branches, authorized to be done under the act of 8th George III. had been some time completed.

This act, obtained by a new company, consisting of one hundred and twenty-nine persons, who were incorporated by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal Navigation," gave them power to extend the Wednesbury Branch of the Birmingham Canal, from Rider's Green, to Broad-water Engine, and to make six collateral cuts. One from Butcher's Forge Pool, to Brooke's Meadow; another from near the south end of Butcher's Forge Pool, to Wood's Engine Forge; a third from the head of Willingsworth Pool, to near the nine mile stone, on the turnpike-road leading from Ocher Hill to Wolverhampton; the fourth collateral cut extends from the Wiffingsworth Pool Tail, to Wednesbury Open Field; one other from the last-mentioned cut, into another part of the same field; and the sixth from out of the last-mentioned cut, to a place opposite Taylor's Engine. This act further empowers the company of proprietors to make a canal from the end of the Birmingham Canal at Farmer's Bridge, near the town of Birmingham, to join the line of the Coventry Canal, at Fazeley, in the parish of Tamworth, and county of Stafford, with a branch, called the Digbeth Branch, from the north side of the town of Birmingham, to the lower part of the said town, and where the Warwick and Birmingham Canal has since effected a junction.

The subscribers are empowered to raise among themselves the sum of £85,000, in five hundred shares of £170 each, for the purpose of executing the whole of the works above described, with further power to raise an additional £30,000, if necessary. The whole of the works to be completed in four years.

TONNAGE RATES ALLOWED UNDER THIS ACT.

Coal, Coke and Iron-stone, from Mines in the parishes of Wolverhampton, Sedgley, Tipton, Wednesbury and West Bromwich, which shall pass through the Locks, from the lower Level into the present Birmingham Canal 4d. per Ton, per Mile.
Coal, Coke and Iron-stone, from the Birmingham Canal, at Farmer's Bridge, to Fazeley ½d. ditto, per Mile.
Ditto, ditto, from Farmer's Bridge to Parsley and thence into the Coventry Canal 10d. ditto.
Ditto, ditto, from Farmer's Bridge, to go into the Digbeth Branch ¾d. ditto.

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TONNAGE RATES CONTINUED.

Timber, Stone and other Goods, Wares and Merchandize, carried on any of the Canals or collateral Cuts (except Coal and Iron-stone) ½d. per Ton, per Mile.
Coal, Coke and Iron-stone, carried on any of the collateral Cuts, not entering or passing any of the Locks above mentioned ½d. ditto, ditto.

Fifty Feet of round or Forty Feet of square Oak, Ash or Elm Timber, and Fifty Feet of Fir or Deal, Balk, Poplar, and other Wood, shall be deemed a Ton; and One Hundred and Twenty Pounds shall be deemed a Hundred Weight, for the purposes of this Act.

Lime and Limestone, one-third of the above Rates.

EXEMPTION FROM TOLL.

Paving-stones, Gravel, Sand and Road Materials, (Limestone excepted) Dung, Soil, Marl, and all sorts of Manure, for the Improvement of Lands belonging to Persons whose Land has been taken for the use of the Canal, provided the same does not pass through any Lock, but at the time when the Water is running over the Lock Weirs.

In addition to these Rates, the Company are empowered to collect the Sum of One Penny per Ton for all Coal and Coke, which shall pass through the First Lock, from Farmer's Bridge, to be erected on this Canal, in consideration of repaying a Sum of Money, not exceeding £3,600, to the Subscribers to a Canal, which had been proposed to be made between the Wednesbury Coal Fields and the town of Birmingham, and from thence to Fazeley, as a reimbursement of Expenses they had been put to in an Application to Parliament, and this Toll is to exist until the Sum and Interest is paid off.

No Boats under Twenty Tons to pass a Lock without leave, unless there is not sufficient Water for greater Tonnage.

The proprietors have power to take water, for the supply of the canal, from mines situate within one thousand yards of the canal, provided that the produce of such mines be carried along any part of the canal.

In this act is recited the substance of an agreement entered into at a meeting of delegates from the Coventry, Oxford, Grand Trunk, and Birmingham and Fazeley Canal Companies, held the year preceding the passing of this act, by which the Grand Trunk Canal Company, and the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal Company, agree to execute that part of the line of the Coventry Canal lying between Fazeley and Fradley Heath, at the joint expense of the two parties; the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal Company allowing to the Grand Trunk Canal Company £500, for superintending and directing the execution of the same; and it was further agreed, that the tolls arising upon that half part of the said canal, commencing at Fazeley, should belong to the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal Company, and the other half, terminating at Fradley, to the Grand Trunk or Trent and Mersey Canal Company.

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By an act of the 24th George ILL entitled, 'An Act for incorporating the Proprietors of a Canal Navigation, authorized by an Act, passed in the Eighth Year of his Majesty King George the Third, to be made from Birmingham to Bilstone, and Autherley, with the Company of Proprietors of a Canal Navigation, authorized by an Act passed in the Twenty-third Year of his present Majesty, to be made from Birmingham to Fazeley, and for consolidating their Shares, and amending the last-mentioned Act,' "The Company of Proprietors of the Birmingham Canal Navigation," and "The Company of Proprietors of the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal Navigation," were incorporated by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Birmingham and Birmingham and Fazeley Canal Navigations." By this act, these two undertakings became consolidated; the subscribers to one concern became equal proprietors of the other in the ratio of their respective ventures, though the powers of the several previous acts in other respects remain unaltered.

It further directs, that there shall be no more than five hundred shares, the number fixed on in the original act; and that no person shall have less than one consolidated share, nor more than ten.

Power is also given in this act to borrow the £115,000 authorized to be raised by the act of 23rd George III. by mortgage, under the common seal of the company, instead of the mode therein prescribed: and that this sum shall be appropriated to the making of the canals and cuts enumerated in the 23rd George III. and to the paying off the proportion of the expense of making the required junction from Fazeley with the Trent and Mersey, or Grand Trunk Canal, at Fradley, the act for doing which received the royal assent on the 13th June, 1785, and is entitled, 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Navigation from the Trent to the Mersey, and the Company of Proprietors of the Navigation from Birmingham to Fazeley, to make a navigable Canal from the said Trent and Mersey Navigation, on Fradley Heath, in the county of Stafford, to Fazeley, in the said county; and for confirming certain Articles of Agreement entered into between the said Treat and Mersey, the Oxford, and the Coventry Canal Navigation Companies.'

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In the preamble of an act bearing date the 17th April, 1794, and entitled, 'An Act for extending and improving the Birmingham Canal Navigations,' it is stated that all the works authorized to be done under the preceding acts, had been made and completed. By this act, power is given to make a collateral cut from Broadwater, in the parish of Wednesbury, to the town of Walsall, with three branches from the same, extending to the coal and iron-stone mines in the vicinity; also another branch canal from Bloomfield, in the parish of Tipton, to communicate again with the original line of navigation at Deepfield, in the parish of Sedgley.

By this act the company once more change their style, being incorporated under the name of" The Company of Proprietors of the Birmingham Canal Navigations," and three years were allowed for the due execution of the works therein described. Upon the canal and collateral cuts authorized to be made under this act, the proprietors are empowered to collect the following

TONNAGE RATES.

Coal, Coke, Lime-stone, Iron-stone, and other Minerals, carried along the Branch Canal, from Broadwater to Walsall or any of the collateral Cuts therefrom 3d. per Ton.
Goods, Wares, Merchandize, Lime and other Commodities 1½d. ditto, per Mile.

Coal, Coke, Lime-stone, Iron-stone, Lime, Goods, Wares, Merchandise, and all other things whatsoever, carried on the proposed Canal, from Bloomfield to Deepfield. the same Rates of Tonnage as are paid for other parts of the Birmingham Canal Navigation, made under the 8th George III.

By a Clause inserted in an Act of the 25th George III. entitled, 'An Act for extending the Dudley Canal to the Birmingham Canal, at or near Tipton Green, in the county of Stafford,' it appears that the Birmingham Canal Company received ls. 5½d. per Ton, for all Stone, Timber, Goods, wares, Merchandise, and Commodities whatsoever, (except Coal, Coke, Iron-stone, Lime, and Limestone), which should pass between the Junction of the Dudley Canal. at Tipton Green, and the town of Birmingham; and also, the further Sum of 1½d. per Ton, per Mile; and for the same Articles, (with the same exception), between the Junction of the Dudley Canal and jhe western Termination of the Birmingham Canal, at Autherley, the same Rates of Tonnage as if they had been navigated along the said Canal from Autherley. By this act, however, these Tolls are reduced, in consequence of shortening the Navigation between the Junction of the Dudley Canal and Autherley, nearly Four Miles, by the proposed Canal from Bloomfield to Deepfield. Instead, therefore, of the Sum of is. 5½d. above-mentioned, it is reduced to 11½d. per Ton, retaining, however, the lid. per Ton, per Mile, granted under the Act of 25th George III. above recited.

The act of the 34th George III. empowers the proprietors of the Birmingham Canal Navigations, to borrow, on the credit of their works, the sum of £45,000, and a committee of nine are appointed to give security under the common seal of the company, upon the tolls, rates and duties arising from the same.

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In the preamble of an act of the 46th George Ill, entitled, 'An Act for improving the Birmingham Canal Navigations,' it is stated, that the company have already opened a communication with the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal, the Coventry Canal, and the Trent and Mersey, or Grand Trunk Canal, and have completed all the collateral cuts and canals authorized under the act of 34th George III.; that they have, moreover, improved the navigation, by cutting down the summit at Smethwick, and thereby materially reducing the lockage; also by cutting off bends in the canals, and erecting steam engines for the purpose of obtaining a more regular supply of water, for the purposes of lockage; in consideration of which improvements, they obtain power to charge the same amount of tonnage and mileage as they have heretofore received upon the original circuitous line of navigation. It is also recited in this act, that the company have mortgages on these navigations to the amount of £100,000 and upwards, and for the discharging of which, they obtain power to raise that sum by granting annuities to the same amount, which annuities are to be paid half-yearly, and in preference to dividends or any other claim.

By another act, entitled, 'An Act for enlarging the Powers of several Acts of his present Majesty,for making and maintaining the Birmingham Canal Navigations, and for further extending and improving the same,' the five hundred consolidated shares, of which the whole of the navigation consists, are divided into one thousand shares, of which no person shall possess more than twenty, on pain of forfeiting all above the restricted number.

By the act of the 55th George III. entitled, 'An Act for establishing a navigable Communication between the Birmingham Canal Navigations and the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, and amending certain Acts relating thereto,' power is given to open a communication between the two above-mentioned canals, near Broadstreet in the town of Birmingham; the space between them was only 7 feet 3 inches, and the estimate for effecting this communication, with the necessary works for preventing the water from flowing either way, amounted to the sum of £2,300, and was made by Mr. John Hodgkinson, civil engineer, in 1814. By this act it is provided, that whenever the surface water, either of

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the Birmingham or the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, is more than 6 inches above the level of the other canal, the proprietors of such lowest canal shall pay to the other the sum of three shillings per every 4,000 cubic feet of water, expended in passing a vessel through the communication.

The Birmingham Canal Navigation Company are authorized by this act, in consideration of the amount of tolls they may be deprived of by consenting to the above communication, and the expense they will be put to in maintaining the locks at this junction, to receive the following tolls in addition to what they were before entitled to.

TONNAGE RATES.

Coals and other Minerals, Coke, Goods, Wares, Merchandize, Commodities, &c. passing out of the Birmingham Canal, and into the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, and vice versa 4d. per Ton.
Coal or Coke, passing out of the Worcester and Birmingham Canal into the Birmingham Canal, and from thence to the termination of the Digbeth Branch of the said Birmingham Canal, or any part thereof, the further and additional Sum of 4d. ditto.

And which Sum shall be in full Satisfaction for all Tolls payable between Farmer's Bridge and the said termination.

WHARFAGE RATES.

Coal or Coke, passing from the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, into the Birmingham Canal, and landed at any of the Wharfs belonging to the said Birmingham Canal Company 2d. per Ton.
Coal or Coke, conveyed Five Miles along this line of Canal, towards Fazeley, and passing any of the Locks between Farmer's Bridge and the termination of the Digbeth Branch 4d. ditto.

And this Sum shall be considered as part Payment of the Rates which the said Company are entitled to collect on this part of the Navigation.

The preamble of the act of 58th George III. entitled, 'An Act for altering, explaining and amending the several 'Acts of Parliament passed relating to the Birmingham Canal Navigations; and for improving the said Canal Navigations,' states that the whole of the works authorized by the preceding acts have been executed and found of great utility.

In this act the company are empowered to contract with the owners and occupiers of coal mines and iron furnaces, to receive a gross annual sum for the conveyance of coal, coke, iron-stone, lime-stone and other raw material along the navigation, in lieu of the tonnage rates which the act authorizes them to demand, pro-

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vided that such material is for the use of the furnaces and forges of the persons claiming this mode of payment, and that they do not pass a lock.

The Old Birmingham Canal, so called from its being executed under the earliest act relating to these navigations, is twenty-two miles five-eighths in length. It commences at Farmer's Bridge, near Birmingham, and passes by Smethwick, at which place there is a side cut, with three locks, rising 1 9¾. feet, which materially facilitates the passage of vessels along this navigation. From the last-mentioned place the canal continues on one level by Oldbury, Tipton Green, Bilstone, and Wolverhampton, to within one mile and a half of Autherley, where it locks down 132 feet by twenty-one locks, into the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal. The summit level of this canal at Smethwick, was originally only one mile in length, and 18 feet higher than at present, and it was supplied with water by means of two steam engines placed at the extremities. Prior, however, to 1787, it was cut down to its present level at a cost to the company of about £30,000. It is here worthy of remark, that though two years and a half were occupied in this work, not more than fourteen days interruption took place to the passage of vessels.

There are several collateral cuts to the coal mines and iron furnaces, which are found described under the act which empowers the company to make them; the principal of which is, the branch to Wednesbury, of four miles and a half in length, which was finished in November, 1769, but as a part of it fell in, in consequence of working the coal and iron-stone underneath it, it is now of little use; there are three locks upon it, with a fall from the main line of 18 feet.

The supply of water for the lockage on this canal is chiefly derived from the Old Coal Works, from the bottom of which it is raised by steam power, at a very considerable expense. When Mr. Smeaton reported on some matters connected with this canal in October, 1782, there were eleven engines so employed. There are, also, reservoirs at Smethwick and near Oldbury. This canal communicates with the Worcester and Birmingham Canal at Birmingham; with the Dudley Canal near Tipton Green; and with the Wyrley and Essington Canal near Wolverhampton.

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Under the powers of the act of 34th George III. a cut was made from Bloomfield into the original navigation again at Deepfield, of the length of one mile and three quarters, of which one thousand yards was tunnelling, by which, the circuitous course of tour miles, round Tipton Hill, is avoided. Mr. Brindley was the engineer originally employed in this work, Mr. Whitworth followed him, and several others have been subsequently consulted, amongst whom was Mr. John Smeaton; but the last and greatest improvements made, were under the direction of Mr. Telford.

That part of this navigation called the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal, commences at the eastern end of the Old Birmingham Canal, near Farmer's Bridge in Birmingham, and passes through a part of the town; thence by Newhall Forge, Moxhall Hall, Middleton Hall, and Drayton Manor House, to the Coventry Canal, at Fazeley, near the town of Tamworth. The distance to this place is fifteen miles, with a fall of 248 feet. The remaining five miles and a half, to Whittington Brook, being that portion of the original line of the Coventry Canal, now forming part of the Birmingham Canal Navigations, is level Its course from Fazeley is north-west of Hopwas, from whence, running parallel with the Tame River, it passes the villages of Tamborn and Whittington, to Whittingion Brook, otherwise the Huddlesford Junction, where it communicates with the Wyrley and Essington Canal; and also, with that portion of the original part of the Coventry Canal, now forming part of the Grand Trunk, or Trent and Mersey Canal

The Digbeth Branch is a mile and a quarter in length, with a fall of 40 feet, by six locks, to the Warwick and Birmingham Canal, on the east side of the town of Birmingham. At Salford Bridge there is an aqueduct of seven arches, each 18 feet span. There is also a short tunnel at Curdworth.

This canal, which effected an inland communication between London and Hull, was opened on the 12th of July, 1790.

The Walsall Branch was executed under authority of an act of 34th George III. It is level, and four miles and a half in length, and was opened in June, 1799.

By an act of the 32nd George III. (cap. 81, royal assent 30th April, 1792), entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from or from near Wyrley Bank, in the county

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of Stafford, to communicate with the Birmingham and Birmingham and Fazeley Canal, at or near the town of Wolverhampton, in the said county; and also, certain collateral Cuts therein described, from the said Canal,' the following tonnage rates are secured to the proprietors of the Birmingham Canal

TONNAGE RATES.

For all Goods landed within One Mile of the First Lock at Wolverhampton 2d. per Ton.
And if passing through any one or more of the Wolvethampton Locks 6d. ditto.

The Warwick and Birmingham Canal Act, of 33rd George III. enables the proprietors to connect their navigation with the Digbeth Branch of the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal, upon payment to the latter company of the following tonnage rates, in lieu of dues, between Farmer's Bridge and the said communication.

TONNAGE RATES.

On all Goods passing from the Warwick and Birmingham Canal, into the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal, for a limited time 6d. per Ton.
At the end of the period 5d. ditto.
Also, on all Goods out of the Warwick and Birmingham Canal, into the Birmingham Canal 3d. ditto.

The Birmingham Canal Navigations, connected as they are with the Coventry, the Grand Trunk, the Worcester and Birmingham, the Dudley, the Warwick and Birmingham, the Wyrley and Essington, the Staffordshire and Worcestershire, and the Birmingham and Liverpool Junction Canals, present a very important feature in the map of inland navigation, as by these, a communication is opened with the most important towns in England and Wales.

The populous towns of Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Bilstone, Wednesbury and Walsall, are on its banks, and it affords the greatest facilities to the transit of the produce of the most valuable mineral district in the world. Some estimate of the trade upon this navigation may be formed by the following amount of tonnage received by the company from the years 1818 to 1823, inclusive.
Amount of Tonnage,in 1818, £84,295 | Amount of Tonnage, in 1821, £85,675
..................... 1819, 83,442 | ..................... 1822,79,733
..................... 1820, 83,303 | ..................... 1823, 88,805

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BIRMINGHAM AND LIVERPOOL JUNCTION CANAL.

7 George IV. Cap. 95, Royal Assent 26th May, 1826.

7 & 8 George IV. Cap. 2, Royal Assent 21st March, 1827.

This line of canal, which is now in the course of execution, commences in the summit level of the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal, near Tettenhall, about one mile from Autherley, the place where the Birmingham Canal communicates with the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal. Its course is to the north west, upon a level with the last-mentioned canal, by Chillington Part, Stretton Hall, and Little Onn Hall, where there is a lock, with a fall of 7 feet 3 inches, and which is the summit level, at a distance of eleven miles and a quarter from the commencement. From thence it continues, by the village of Cowley, for the distance of four miles and a half, on the same level, to near the village of Norbury, where the Newport Branch commences: from thence it continues for the further distance of nine miles and a half to the second lock, so that this canal is extended through the country a distance of twenty-five miles and a half, with only one lock. From the second lock, the canal is continued, in a northerly course, by Cheswardine Hill, to the town of Drayton, crossing the River Tarn; hence by the Brine Spring, near Adderley Hall, to the town of Audlem, in Cheshire; then, crossing the River Weaver, it proceeds by the Salt Springs, and by the town of Nantwich, to the United Navigation of the Ellesmere and Chester Canals, near Dorfold Hall, about three quarters of a mile north-west of the last-mentioned town.

The length from the second lock, to its termination at the above-mentioned navigation, is thirteen miles and a half, with a fall of 167½ feet, by twenty-six locks, thus disposed-from the second to the fifth lock, is a distance of half a mile; between the fifth and the sixth, it is nearly four miles; in the next half mile are five locks; then a pool of one mile and a quarter; in the following mile are eleven locks; in the next four miles are four locks; then a pool, of nearly three miles; and within one-tenth of a mile further, two locks; the remaining distance to the Chester

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Canal is two miles and three quarters, on a level. The total length of the navigation is thirty-nine miles, with a fall of 174¾ feet, by twenty-seven locks.

The act for making this canal, which received the royal assent the 26th of May, 1826, is entitled, 'An Act for making a navigable Canal from the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal, in the parish of Tettenhall, in the county of Stafford, to the United Navigation of the Ellesmere and Chester Canals, in the parish of Acton, in the county palatine of Chester.' The subscribers to this canal, at the time the act was obtained, were three hundred and twenty-three in number, amongst whom were the Earl and Countess of Surrey, Earl Gower, Lord Levison Gower, Lord Crewe, and many other distinguished individuals, who were incorporated by the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Birmingham and Liverpool Junction Canal Navigation." They are empowered to raise among themselves the sum of £400,000, in four thousand shares of £100 each, and the act directs that the whole shall be subscribed before the work is commenced, of which, £325,000 was raised before going to parliament. They were further empowered to raise an additional sum of £100,000, on mortgage of the rates and duties, the interest of which is made payable in preference to any other claim.

TONNAGE AND WHARFAGE RATES.

For Coal or other Minerals, (except Lime,) Coke, Goods, Wares,Merchandize, Commodities and Things whatsoever 1½d. per Ton, per Mile.
Lime ½d. ditto, ditto.

Fractions to be taken as for a Quarter of a Ton, and as for a Quarter of a Mile.

EXEMPTION FROM TOLL.

Paving-stones, Gravel, Sand, and all other Materials for making or repairing of Roads, (Limestone excepted) all Dung, Soil, Marl, and all sorts of Manure for the Improvement only of any Lands or Grounds lying within any Parish or Place through which this Canal will be carried, and belonging to the Owners or Occupiers of such Lands as may be required for the purposes of the Act.

Boats of less Burthen than Twenty Tons not to pass without leave, unless there is not Water for a greater Burthen.

Five years are allowed for the execution of the works authorized to be done under this act, and the powers are to cease at the expiration of that period, excepting as to such part as shall have been completed.

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In consideration of the lockage water, which is derived from the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal, by locking down from it, the proprietors of that canal are authorized to collect the following

TONNAGE RATES.

For Coal or other Minerals, Coke, Goods, Wares or Merchandize, Commodities and Things whatsoever, which shall pass out of the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal into the Birmingham and Liverpool Junction Canal, or out of the last-mentioned Canal into the former 2s. per Ton

The last-mentioned rates are to be collected by the Birmingham and Liverpool Junction Canal Company, at the expense of the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal Proprietors; and in order that no unnecessary waste of water may be made, the Birmingham and Liverpool Junction Canal Company are required to construct on the sumit level, a regulation lock, consisting of four pairs of gates. The locks upon this navigation are 7 feet 6 inches in width, and 80 feet long.

The company had originally intended to make a branch from near the village of Cowley, to join the Dormington Wood, or Marquis of Stafford's Canal, at Pave Lane, which was subsequently abandoned. Its length was seven miles and three quarters, and level. The estimate for making it was made by Mr. W. A. Provis, under the direction of Mr. T. Telford, and amounted to the sum of £55,466, 17s. 1d. The estimate for the main line was also made by the same parties, and which amounted to the sum of £388,454, 1s. 6d.

In 1827, the company applied to parliament, and obtained another act, entitled, 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Birmingham and Liverpool Junction Canal Navigation, to alter the Line of the said Navigation, and to make certain Branches therefrom, in the counties of Stafford and Salop.'

The deviations in the original line here contemplated are of little importance, as they consist merely of three alterations in the line between Connery Pool and Plardiwick, amounting, in length, to one mile and one thousand eight hundred and nineteen yards, while the parts abandoned are three hundred and forty-one yards longer; but this act gives power to make two branches from the

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main line, one of which, called the Newport Branch, commences near the village of Norbury, from whence it passes close to the town of Newport, and from thence to the Shrewsbury Canal, at Wappinshall Bridge, in the parish of Wellington. Its length is ten miles and a quarter, with a fall, from the main line, of 139 feet, by twenty-three locks; the last four miles and a half to the Shrewsbury Canal, being level. From this branch there is a collateral cut to a place called The Buttery, in the parish of Edgmond, which is nearly half a mile in length, the estimate for which is £2,421, 18s. lOd. and for the Newport Branch, £72,629, 13s. 2d. The company had it in contemplation to make a second collateral cut, from the Newport Branch, to Lime Kiln Bridge, but it was abandoned. The length was two miles and three quarters, and the estimate for making it amounted to the sum of £17,652, 14s. 6d.; in lieu, however, of which, the company are required to make a cut or railway from the Newport Branch to the limestone works, at Donnington Wood, and Lilleshall, belonging to the Right Honourable George Granville Lord Gower, whenever he shall require it to be done.

All these estimates were made by Mr. Thomas Telford, in 1826.

On the above branches, the company are empowered to collect the same tonnage rates as are allowed on the main line by the act of 7th George IV.

In this act, the company are restricted from using the water in Aqualate Mere, Wyn's Well Pool, and the Moss Pool, belonging to Sir T. F. Fenton Boughey, Bait or the streams of water supplying and passing through the same.

The chief advantages arising from the execution of this canal is a shorter navigation between the ports of Chester, Liverpool, and the district of North Wales, and the important towns of Shrewsbury, Wolverhampton, Birmingham, the mineral districts of Staffbrdshire and Shropshire, and the Metropolis. The agricultural districts in the south of Cheshire, the western parts of Staffordshire, and the north-eastern parts of Salop, through which this canal is now being constructed, will also be greatly benefited.

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BLYTH RIVER.

30 George II. Cap. 47, Royal Assent 1st April, 1757.

This river rises near Laxfield, in the north-eastern parts of Suffolk, whence it takes an easterly course, by Ubbeston Hall, Hevingham Hall, and Walpole, to near the market town of Halesworth, from which place to the sea, at Southwould, it was made navigable under the authority of an act, entitled, 'An Act for making the River Blyth navigable from Halesworth Bridge, in the county of Suffolk, into the Haven of Southwould.'

It is in length nine miles, and there are four locks upon it, and although it is in a part of the kingdom where there are neither minerals or manufactures, it is of considerable advantage to the district lying between the navigable Rivers Waveney and Gipping, by the facility it gives for the export of its agricultural productions, and the import of lime, coal, and merchandize in general.

BLYTH RIVER.

THIS river rises a few miles west of Belsay Castle, in Northumberland, the seat of Sir Charles Miles Lambert Monck, Bart. whence, taking a westerly course, by Kirkley Hall, and about a mile to the north of Blagdon Park, it pursues a circuitous route by Bedlington, and falls into the harbour of Blyth, near a village bearing that name, which is situate on its southern bank.

It is navigable only for a short distance, as a tideway river, and consequently free of toll. On its northern bank, at about a mile above the village of Coopen, are the Bedlington Iron Works, and a short distance west of the last-mentioned place, a railway of considerable length extends to the collieries near Willow Bridge, five miles east of Morpeth. At Blyth there are also private railways from the collieries situate three quarters of a mile to the west of the village, upon which coal is conveyed to the harbour, to be shipped for London, and the towns on the eastern coast.

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BOLTON AND LEIGH RAILWAY.

6 George IV. Cap. 18, Royal Assent 31st March, 1825.

9 George IV. Cap. 8, Royal Assent 26th March, 1628.

This railway commences at the Manchester, Bolton, and Bury Canal, in the township of Haulgh, near the town of Bolton-le Moors, and proceeds in a south-westerly direction through the extensive collieries in the neighbourhood of Hulton Hall, thence by Atherton Hall, to that branch of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal which communicates with the Duke of Bridgewater's Canal, at the town of Leigh. It is in length seven miles and three quarters, and there is a rise of 119 feet, in the first two thousand three hundred and sixty yards from Bolton; and from this point to the highway adjoining the canal, at Leigh, is a fall of 337 feet. There is an inclined plane of one inch per yard, in the township of Great Bolton, one thousand three hundred and eighty-six yards in length; and by the pariiamentary plan it appears that another is intended to be made in the townships of Over Hulton and Atherton, of the length of four thousand six hundred and twenty yards, with a fall of 303 feet.

The act for making this railway, received the royal assent on the 31st March, 1825, and is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a Railway or Tramroad from or from near the Manchester, Bolton, and Bury Canal, in the parish of Bolton-le-Moors, to or near the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, in the parish of Leigh, all in the county palatine of Lancaster.'

The subscribers to this scheme, at the time the act was obtained, consisted of fifty persons, who were incorporated by the name of "The Bolton and Leigh Railway Company," and they obtained power to raise among themselves, by subscription, the sum of £44,000, in four hundred and forty shares of £100 each; and if any part of the said sum of £44,000 remains unsubscribed, the company have power to borrow such part upon promissory notes under the common seal, or they may raise the same by mortgage, on security of the rates, the interest of which is to be paid in preference to dividends.

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