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This Book "Priestley's Navigable Rivers and Canals" by Joseph Priestley was previously published in April 1831. NOTE: Oringinally called "Historical Account of the Navigable Rivers, Canals, and Railways, of Great Britain".
For more information see About this Book

Index Page Link to Previous Page 19

page 20

SCHEDULE OF WHARFAGE DUES,

For Goods laid on the Piers, Jetties, Wharf, Quays, or landing places - and of Dues on Goods deposited in Warehouses.
.Wharfage Dues for every Twenty four Hours. Warehouse Dues for the flrst Twenty-four Hours.
Coals, Cinders, Coke, Lime, Sand, Gravel,Potatoes, Wheat, Beans, Peas, Barley, Malt, Oats, Clover, Line and Rapeseed, or any other Grain or Seeds. 3d per Chaldron, 3 per Chaidron, and 1d. per Ton for every following Twenty-four Hours.
Timber, Deals, Battens or Lath Wood 3d per Load, 3 per Load, and ½d. do.
Hay, Clover, Straw, Hops, Wool, Feathers, Hair, Tanned Hides, Rags, Oak Bark, and Household Goods 6d per Ton, 6d per Ton, and 1d. do.
For all other Goods, Wares or Merchandize 4d ditto. 4d ditto, and ½d. do.

This act does not extend to any of his Majesty's ships of war, or any other ship, transport, or packet of his Majesty; or any vessels employed in his Majesty's revenues of customs or excise; or in the employment of the ordnance; or to any ship, transport, or packet employed in carrying the mails of letters and expresses, under the authority of his Majesty's Post-Master General; or any vessel in, or upon, his Majesty's service; or in the conveyance of any officers or soldiers; or any horses, arms, ammunition, or baggage belonging to them; and any person who shall take the benefit of this exemption, not being entitled to it, will incur a penalty of £5.

In 1805, it was in contemplation to effect a navigable communication between Wainfleet Harbour and Alford, a distance of twelve or thirteen miles; but the scheme is now superseded by this canal.

Although this canal has not yet been executed, we may state that its projectors had for their object a more ready transmission of corn, wool, and other agricultural produce, from Alford, and its vicinity, to London and other ports on the eastern shore, and to facilitate the introduction of coals, wares, and merchandize, to Alford and its neighbourhood.

ANCHOLME RIVER NAVIGATION.

33 7 George III. Cap. 98, Royal Assent 20th May, 1767.

42 George Ill. Cap. 116, Royal Assent 26th June, 1802

6 George IV. Cap. 165, Royal Assent 22nd June, 1825.

THE Ancholme Navigation commences from the River Humber, at Ferraby Sluice, one mile west of the village of South

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Ferraby, and four miles from the market town of Barton-upon-Humber. Hence it proceeds in nearly a straight line south to Glamford Briggs (or Brigg); thence continuing this direction to Bishop Briggs, on the high road from Gainsbro' to Market Raisin. The distance from Ferraby Sluice to where the Caistor Canal falls into the Ancholme Navigation is fourteen miles and a quarter, and from thence to its termination at Bishop Briggs, five miles and a quarter, making the total length nineteen miles and a half, upon which, (with the exception of the sea-lock at Ferraby Sluice), there is only one lock, of 6 feet rise, near to the end of the Caistor Canal.

The first act for completing this navigation, was passed, as stated above, on the 20th of May, 1767; it is entitled, 'An Act for the more effectual draining the Lands lying in the Level of Ancholme, in the county of Lincoln; and making the River Ancholme navigable from the River Humber, at or near a place called Ferraby Sluice, in the county of Lincoln, to the town of Glamford Briggs, and for continuing the said Navigation up or near to the said Rivers,from thence to Bishop Brigys, in the said county of Lincoln.'

A second act, for altering and enlarging the powers of this act, was passed in the 42nd George III. cap. 116, (June 26, 1802), and is entitled, 'An Act for altering and enlarging the Powers of an Act passed in the Seventh Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, entitled, An Act for the more effectual draining the Lands lying in the Level of Ancholme, in the county of Lincoln, and making the River Ancholme navigable from the River Humber, at or near a place called Ferraby Sluice, in the county of Lincoln, to the town of Glamford Briggs, andfor continuing the said Navigation up or near to the said River, from thence to Bishop Briggs, in the said county of Lincoln.'

This act was succeeded by another, 6th George IV. cap. 165, (22nd June, 1825), entitled, 'An Act for altering and enlarging the Powers of Two Acts of his late Majesty King George the Third, for draining Lands within the Level of Ancholme, in the county of Lincoln, and making certain parts of the River Ancholme navigable.'

From the reports of the late Mr. Rennie, made in 1801 and

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1802, he estimates that to improve this navigation and drainage, it would cost £63,921, but of which sum only £6,063 related to the navigation.

In the year 1825, Mr. Rennie was again employed to examine this navigation and drainage, with a view to make further improvements. He directed that the sluice at Ferraby should be lowered 3 feet, making it 4 feet above low-water-mark at spring tides; that the river for three hundred yards from the sluice should be widened to 48 feet at bottom, and from thence to Cadney, 30 feet; that a lock of 6 feet rise should be made at Thornton Beck, and the bottom of the navigation, from this lock to Bishop Briggs, to diminish from 20½ feet broad to 15 feet. He estimated those improvements at £69,200.

The navigation and drainage is under the management of commissioners, who have power to raise £5,000, on security of tolls, to be applied for the improvement of the navigation and completing it to Bishop Briggs.

By the act of 6th George IV. it is stated that the sum of £12,000 raised by virtue of the act of 42nd George III. had been expended, and that the commissioners, in addition to this sum, had also incurred a debt of £7,500.. To liquidate which debt, and for the further purpose of improving the drainage and navigation, the commissioners have power of raising, by assessment, not more than £3,000 in any one year.

TONNAGE RATES BY THE FIRST ACT.

For all Goods, Wares and merchandize 2s 0d per Ton for the whole Length.
Coal 2s 0d per Chaldron, of Forty-eight Bushels (Winchester) being estimated and taken as a Ton.
Groceries 4s 0d per Ton.
Bricks or Tiles 1s 8d per Thousand.
Stone 0s 10d per Ton for the whole Navigation, and so in proportion for any less Weight,or less Distance.
Wheat, Rye, Beans, Peas or Lentils 0s 2d per Quarter for the whole Length.
Barley, Malt, Oats and other Grain 0s 1d ditto, ditto.

By the act of 42nd George III. the new rates and dues, substituted in lieu of the above, are as follows:-

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NEW RATES AND DUES.

On passing the Lock at Ferraby Sluice, for Wheat, Rye, Beans, Peas and Lentils 0s 1d per Quarter, and ¼d. per Mile additional - and if they pass through the other Lock, a further charge of ½d. per Quarter.
Barley, Malt, Oats and other Grain, for passing Ferraby Lock 0s 1d per Quarter, and ¼d. for every two Miles - and if they pass through the Second Lock, ½d per Quarter in addition.
coals, ditto. ditto 0s 3d per Chaldron, and 1d. per Mile - and 2d. more if they pass the Second Lock.
Lime, ditto. ditto 0s 3d per Chaidron, and 1d per Mile - and ½d. for the Second Lock.
Bricks and Tiles, ditto 0s 4d per Thousand, and 1d per Mile - and 2d. through the Second Lock.
Timber, Iron, Lead, Slate and Plaister 0s 4d per Ton, and 1d. per Mile - and 2d. through the Second Lock.
Stone 0s 3d per Ton, and ¼d. per Mile - and ½d. for the Second Lock.
Sand 0s ҥd per Ton per Mile through the said Navigation.
Groceries, and all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize, not before enumerated, for passing Ferraby Lock 0s 8d per Ton, and a 1½d. per Mile - and 4d per Ton for the Second Lock.
Manure (when exported) passing Ferraby Sluice 2s 0d per Ton.

The commissioners appointed for directing the affairs of this navigation and drainage are not to be less than eighty in number, whose qualification is a possession, in the level, of one hundred acres of land, or a mortgage upon the tolls, to the amount of £1,000.

The quantity of land liable to be flooded, and consequently to the assessment for drainage, is 17,197A. 3R. l0p.

It is recited in the act of 42nd George III. that the annual amount of tolls on the navigation, was £700. The spring tide at Ferraby Sluice rises 19 feet above the sill of the lock, which is placed 4 feet above low-water-mark, spring tides.

Mr. John Rennie is the engineer to this navigation appointed by the act of parliament.

ANDOVER CANAL.

29 George III. Cap. 72, Royal Assent 13th July, 1789.

THE Andover Canal commences at Barlowes Mill, near the town of Andover, and passing the village of Upper Clatford, proceeds on the western bank of the little River Anton to the

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village of Fullerton; thence, after crossing the river, it takes its direction for a short distance to the Test, which having crossed, it proceeds on the eastern bank of that river, by the village of Leckford, to the town of Stockbridge, thence by Compton House, the villages of Mitchelmersh and Timsbury, to the town of Romsey; from which latter place, its course is parallel with the Test River, by Nutshalling to Redbridge, where it enters the tideway of the Southampton Water. Its length is twenty-two miles and a half, and its fail from Barlowes Mill to Redbridge is l761/3 feet. The dues upon this canal arise chiefly from the passage of coal and other fuel from the coast, and from the export of its surplus agricultural produce.

The engineer employed was Mr. Robert Wbitworth, and the act for completing the same, which received the royal assent, as stated above, is entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal from or near the borough of Andover, in the county of Southampton, to or near Redbridge, in the parish of Milibrook, in the said county.'

The owners of this navigation are incorporated under the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Andover Canal Navigation," and they are empowered to raise and contribute among themselves, for the execution of the work, a sum not exceeding £35,000, in three hundred and fifty shares of £100 each, with power to raise a further sum of £30,000, if necessary, for the purpose of carrying on and finishing the work, in the following manner :-that is, by permitting the original shareholders to take additional shares to the amount of £10,000, not exceeding ten additional shares by any original subscriber, and the remaining £20,000 by mortgage on the credit of the canal rates, tolls, &c. with interest, not exceeding legal interest. The management of this concern is placed in the hands of a committee of fifteen persons annually chosen from among the proprietors.

TONNAGE RATES.

For Coal, Stone, Timber, Corn, Grain, Malt, Meal, Flour and other Goods, Wares, Merchandize and Commodities 2d per Ton, per Mile.

And so in proportion for any less Quantity than a Ton.

Vessels not to exceed Eight Feet in Breadth, and Sixty Feet in Length, and not to draw more than Three Feet Six Inches Water. No Boat or other Vessel to pass a Lock without paying Rates equal to Fifteen Tons.

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At the termination of the canal at Redbridge, and where the same enters the river called Southampton Water, there is a wharf and quay, with warehouses, storehouses, cranes, &c. which, at the time the act was obtained, belonged to the Rev. Sir Charles Mills, Bart.; and, as it appears he was entitled to riverage, wharfage, and storehouse roomy for the use of the same, certain rates, as under, were secured to him, or his tenants, by a clause in the act, for all articles conveyed or to be conveyed on the Andover Navigation.

WHARFAGE RATES, PAYABLE AT REDBRIDGE.

For Coals not landed, but taken out of, or put into, Vessels to be conveyed on the Canal 0s 3d per Chaldron
For all other Goods or Merchandize 0s 1d per Ton.
For Coals landed on the Wharf 0s 6d per Chaldron.
Wheat, Flour and Beans so loaded 0s 3d per Ten Sacks.
Oats and Malt 0s 3d per Ten Qnarters.
Barley 0s ½d per Quarter.
Timber (including the expense of drawing the same on Shore) 1s 0d per Load of 50 Feet.
Stones, Bricks, and all other Goods landed on the Wharf, and not put into the Slorehouse 0s 3d per Ton.

For all Goods which are landed and warehoused for the space of One Month, the following Rates are allowed, (which includes the Wharfage above, together with the expense of Porterage of such Goods.)
Wheat, Flour and Beans 0s 6d per Quarter.
Oats, Malt and Grass Seeds 0s 3d ditto.
Hogsheads of Sugar, Tallow, Soap, Starch and Tobacco 0s 8d per Hogshead.
Vinegar, Spirits, Beer and other Liquors 0s 6d ditto.
Butter 0s 1d per Firkin.
Larger casks of Butter 0s 1½d each.
Hemp 3s 0d per Ton.
Paper 1s 0d ditto.
Woollen Rags for Manure 0s 3d ditto.
For all other Rags 1s 0d ditto.

And for all other Goods in the same proportion.
N. B. Where Cranes are required for loading and unloading, an additional charge, not exceeding Three-pence per Ton.

For putting the powers of the act into execution, one hundred and thirteen commissioners, together with the bailiff and approved men of Andover, were appointed, whose qualification was a clear annual rental of £100, or personal property to the amount of £3,000, unless he be heir apparent to a peer, or be eligible to be elected as a Knight of the Shire.

ARUN RIVER NAVIGATION.

25 George III. Cap. 100, Royal Assent 13th May, 1785.

THE River Arun has its source on the eastern side of the High Downs, called Hind Head, a range of mountains, having an eleva-

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tion of 923 feet above the sea, at low water, and at a short distance north of the town of Haslemere, in the county of Surrey; when, after taking an easterly course for some miles, it enters Sussex at Aldfold: whence it takes a southerly direction to New Bridge, near Billinghurst, where this navigation commences. In its course from Aldfold, to the last mentioned place, it is crossed several times by the Wey and Arun Canal. From New Bridge, a canal four miles and a half long has been cut, in a parallel course with the Arun, on its western bank, to near Haresfold, where it crosses to the east side, and continues in that course to Pallenham Wharf, when the river becomes navigable. From this place it pursues a southerly direction of two miles and three quarters, to Stopham, where the Rother, also a navigable river, falls into it: hence, taking a circuitous route, by Pulborough and Greatham, it reaches Greatham Bridge, to which place a canal, one mile and three quarters long, has been cut, in nearly a direct line, from the junction with the Bother. By this canal, the circuitous course, above described, is avoided, and five miles saved in the distance between Stophain and Greatham Bridge. From the latter place, the river makes several considerable bends to Houghton Bridge, (a distance of four miles, from the end of the canal), where this navigation, made under the powers of an act, passed in the 25th of George III. entitled,'An Act for amending and improving the Navigation of the River Arun, from Houghton Bridge, in the parish of Houghton, in the county of Sussex, to Pallenham Wharf, in the parish of Wisborough Green, in the said county; and for continuing and extending the Navigation of the said River Arun, from the said Wharf, called Pallenhara Wharf, to a certain Bridge, called New Bridge, situate in the parishes of Pulborough and Wisborough Green, in the said county of Sussex,' ceases. The length of the river and cuts, belonging to this navigation, is thirteen miles; but to the sea, at Arundel Port, it is twenty-six miles and a quarter. The lower portion of this, however, is made navigable under other powers, and with different provisions, which will be described under the head of Arun River.

The subscnbers to this work, thirty-one in number, were incorporated as "The Company of Proprietors of the River Arun "Navigation," within the limits pointed out in the language of the

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title of the act before recited, and were authorized to raise amongst themselves, for carrying into execution the said act, the sum of £10,000, by one hundred shares of £100 each, which shares are personal estate.

This canal is navigable for vessels drawing 3 feet 1 inch water, and the following rates of tonnage are allowed :-

TONNAGE RATES.

For Timber, Planks, Coal, Lime, Corn, Grain and all other Goods, Wares or Merchandize whatsoever (except } Firewood, Chalk, Soil and Dung) from Houghton Bridge to Pallenham Wharf 0s 9d Ton
Firewood, Chalk, Soil. and Dung 0s 6d ditto.
For the same Articles (with the exception as above) passing between Pallenham Wharf and the End of the Navigation at New Bridge 2s 3d ditto.
The excepted Articles as above 0s 6d ditto.
For every Light Barge passing through all or any of the Locks 1s 0d ditto.

In clause 14, a novel mode is resorted to for preventing impositions, in regard to the quantity conveyed along this navigation; for it is there enacted, that all boatmen, &c. navigating this river, between Arundel Port and Pallenham Wharf, shall receive, for freight, including dues or rates, as follows :-
For Coals 3s 6d per Chaldron.
Timber, Planks, Lime, Corn, Grain, Firewood and all other Goods, Wares and Merchandize 3s 6d per Ton.
Chalk, Soil and Dung, from Houghton Chalk Pits 13s 0d per Barge Load of Eight Tons.

And so in proportion for every Ton of Chalk, Soil and Dung.

A Penalty of £5 Is recoverable from any Bargeman before a Justice of the Peace, should be claim any higher Sum than above specified.

No Tolls to be taken for Vessels navigating the Old River Arun between Greatham and Stopham Bridges.

Sea Gravel, brought to repair any of the Roads leading in the direction of New Bridge Wharf to be exempted from Toll, excepting the Sum of One Shilling per Barge for any of the Locks upon the Navigation.

The affairs of this navigation are managed by a committee of three proprietors, subject to the control of a general assembly of proprietors, held twice a year.

The proprietors have a power, by public auction, to let or demise the rates and dues for any term not exceeding two years.

The original, and chief, object of this navigation was the supply of coal and fuel to the interior, and for the export of agricultural produce; but by the execution of the Wey and Arun Canal, which falls into the Wey, (and thence to the Thames), a

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direct communication is made with London, and when the Portsmouth and Arundel Canal is completed, a large additional revenue will doubtless be added to this concern, by the receipt of tolls upon marine stores, which, in time of war, may be safely transmitted from the Metropolis, by this conveyance, to the depot at Portsmouth.

ARUN RIVER.

6 George II. Cap. 12, Royal Assent - - - - - - - 1732.

33 George Ill. Cap. 100, Royal Assent 30th April, 1793.

navigation, to which the above acts apply, extends from Arundel Port, at the mouth of the Arun, to the town of Arundel, a distance only of five miles and three quarters: but the object of the first act, entitled, 'An Act for erecting Piers in, and for repairing and keeping in repair, the Harbour of Littlehampton, called Arundel Port, in the county of Sussex,' was not so much the improvement of the navigation as for the harbour, and for the protection of shipping therein.

By this act, commissioners were appointed to cut a new channel, through the sea-beach, at Littlehampton, and other works therein specified, which are here passed over as not coming within the object of the present publication. Tolls were granted for the purpose of repaying the monies which were borrowed for carrying into execution the works designed.

When this was effected, and all arrears of interest paid off, one-half of the said duties were to be taken off, and the other half to be retained, for the purpose of preserving the harbour, and navigation of the river, to the town of Arundel.

In the preamble of the second act, entitled, 'An Act to explain and amend an Act made in the Sixth Year of the Reign of his late Majesty King George the Second, entitled, An Act for erecting Piers in, and for repairing and keeping in repair, the Harbour of Littlehampton, called Arundel Port, in the county of Sussex; and for empowering the Commissioners, acting under the said Act, to improve the Navigation of the River Arun,from the said Harbour, to the town of Arundel, in the said county,' it is stated that the commissioners have repaid the sums of money, and interest,

page 29

expended in constructing the harbour of Littlehampton, under the act of 6th George II. and that half the duties, therein granted, have consequently ceased. Under the last act, the same commissioners, as under the original act, are re-appointed to carry into effect the provisions of the same, and have power to borrow any sum, not exceeding £2,000, with interest, on an assignment of the rates, tolls, or duties, authorized to be taken on the said navigation.

In lieu of the rates granted by the first act, the following are allowed under the act of the 33rd George III.

TONNAGE RATES.

For Tan or Bark, which shall be imported or exported, laid on board, landed or discharged out of any Ship or Vessel in the Port of Arundel 6d per Ton.
Spars or Ufers 4d per Dozen.
Pipe Staves 6d per Hundred.
Hogshead Staves 4d ditto.
Barrel Staves 2d ditto.
Flour and Meal 1½d per Quarter.

The other Duties, not being enumerated, are according to the Act of the 6th George II.

The tolls and duties, after payment of principal and interest of money borrowed, are to be applied entirely to the keeping of the harbour and navigation in good preservation. Vessels belonging to the port of Arundel are exempt from toll or duties, in consideration of the inhabitants of that town and port having expended, on the harbour, &c. the sum of £28,300. It is also worthy of remark that they are, on this account, by the above-mentioned act, made free of the harbours, ports, and havens of Dover, Rye, Ramsgate, and Sandwich. There is also a clause which reserves to the Duke of Norfblk, as water-bailiff of the River Arun, all the privileges he before enjoyed.

Though the powers of the two preceding acts extend only to Arundel Bridge, yet there is a good tideway navigation to Houghton Bridge, a distance of seven miles and a half, whence the Arun River Navigation commences. There is no act of parliament relating to this portion of the river; it is free of toll. At Ford, about half way between Arundel Harbour and the town of Arundel, the Portsmouth and Arundel Canal commences, the particulars of which will be found in the proper place.

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ASHBY-DE-LA-ZOUCH CANAL.

34 George III. Cap. 93, Royal Assent 9th May, 1794.

THIS canal commences from the Coventry Canal, at Marston Bridge, three miles south of the town of Nuneaton, all in the county of Warwick, and after proceeding in a north-easterly direction, for about five miles, it crosses Watling Street, at the Plough Inn, where it enters the county of Leicester. A mile further, there is a cut of two hundred yards in length, to Hinckley Wharf, one mile from the town of Hinckley. Hence the canal proceeds in a northerly direction by Shenton Hall: crossing Bosworth Field, and leaving the town of Market Bosworth a mile to the east, it continues its course to Shackerston, where it crosses the River Sence, passing, on the north of Gopsall Hall, to Snareston Tunnel; a mile beyond which it enters a detached portion of the county of Derby: passing through the village of Measham, it makes a considerable detour, and again enters Leicestershire, near Donisthorpe, and terminates at Oakthorpe Fire Engine, on .Ashby Wolds, one mile north-west of the Moira Baths, in the parish of Ashby-de-la-Zouch.

This canal is twenty-six miles and a half in length, and level throughout. It was, together with several railways branching from it, constructed under the authority of an act of parliament, entitled, 'An Act for making and maintaining a navigable Canal, from the Coventry Canal, at or near Marston Bridge, in the parish of Redworth, in the county of Warwick, to a certain Close in the parish of Ashby-de-la-Zouch, in the county of Leicester; and for continuing the same from thence, in one Line, to the Lime Works, at Ticknall, in the county of Derby; and in another Line, to the Lime Works, at Cloudhill, in the said county of Leicester, with certain Cuts or Branches from the said Canal.'

The proprietors of this canal are incorporated under the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Ashby-de-la-Zouch Canal," with power to raise £1 50,000, in fifteen hundred shares of £100 each, and a further sum of £50,000, if the proper execution of the canal and other works should require it.

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TONNAGE RATES.

For Coal, Lime and Slate 1¼d per Ton, per Mile.
Iron-stone, Building-stone, Grinding-stone, Lime-stone, Bricks and Tiles, and for all Cattle, Sheep, Swine and other Beasts. ¾d ditto ditto.
For Cotton, Wool, Hops, Corn, Timber, Bark, Wrought Iron, Cheese, &c 2d ditto, ditto.

Fractions to be paid as for Half a Mile and as for Half a Ton.

Dung, Ashes, Marl, Clay for Manure, Gravel, Sand, &c. for the purpose of making or repairing any public or private Road, are exempt from Toll.

Boats, only half the Width of the Locks, are to pay for Twenty Tons, unless Twoshall pass together; then, not less than Ten Tons each.

By a Clause in the Act, the Coventry Canal Company are entitled to Five-pence per Ton for all Coals, Goods, and Merchandize, carried out of, or into, this Canal, from the Coventry, Oxford, or Grand Junction Canals.

Corn, or other Grain; Sheep, or other Cattle; Iron-stone or Wrought Iron, got or made upon the Banks of the Canal; Dung, Ashes, Marl for Manure, Gravel, Sand, and Stone for Roads, are exempt from the charge of Five-pence per Ton to the Coventry Canal Company.

It appears, that by arrangement with the Leicester Navigation Proprietors, and as an Indemnification for the great Expense they have been at in constructing Railways, &c. to the Coal Works on Thringstone Common, and to those in the parishes of Swanmngton and Coleorton, that they shall receive Two Shillings and Sixpence per Ton for all Coal, which shall pass a certain place in the lordship of Blackfordby, about Three Miles west of Ashby.de-la.Zouch, to be carried on the Ashby-de-la.Zouch Canal.

The estimate for the whole of the proposed works, made by Messrs. Jessop and Whitworth, February 24th, 1794, amounted to £138,238; but the estimate from Ashby Wolds, to the Coventry Canal, was only £27,316, 11s. 4½d.

The line was set out by Mr. Robert Whitworth, and the whole length was opened in May, 1805.

It is worthy of remark, that the level, from Ashby Wolds, continues uninterrupted along the whole length of this canal, the Coventry, and part of the Oxford Canal, to Hill Morton, a distance of full seventy miles. The company are under a penalty of £50,000 if they abstract any water from the Gopsall Park Estate, or in any way deteriorate the same.

The principal object of this navigation is the export of the produce of the extensive coal and lime works in the neighbourhood of Ashby-de-la-Zouch.

When authority was first obtained, for the making of this canal, it was the intention of the company to have continued the canal to the places mentioned in the title of the act, which would have made the total length of canal about fifty miles, with 252 feet of lockage. They, however, adopted railways for all the branches where lockage was necessary.

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RAILWAYS CONNECTED WITH THIS CANAL.

The railway to Ticknall Lime Works, commences at the Ashby-de-la-Zouch Canal, three quarters of a mile south-west of the village of Willesley, in the county of Derby, and at the distance of two miles and a half, passes through the town of Ashby-de-la-Zouch. One mile and a half further, the railway passes under a tunnel, at the end of which the Cloudhill Branch commences; and one mile and three quarters further it enters Derbyshire: whence it is rather more than two miles and a half to Ticknall Lime Works, making the whole distance from the canal eight miles and a half.

The Cloudhill Branch Railway, commencing from the tunnel on the Ticknall Railway, runs in a westerly direction for one mile and a quarter, where a railway, more than half a mile in length, branches northwards to a colliery. A quarter of a mile further, there is another branch, running southwards, about three hundred yards, to a colliery near Park Wood. From hence it takes a northerly course, passing to the west of the village of Worthington, to the Cloudhill Lime Works, a distance of two miles and three quarters, where it terminates. The total distance of this branch is four miles and a quarter.

There is also a railway, of half a mile in length, from a colliery near Moira, to the canal, opposite the Moira Baths.

ASHTON-UNDER-LYNE CANAL.

32 Geo. III. C. 84, R. A. 11th June, 1792.

33 Geo. III. C. 21, R. A. 28th March, 1793.

38 Geo. III. C. 32, R. A. 26th May, 1798.

40 Geo. Ill. C. 24, R. A. 16th May, 1800.

45 Geo. III. C. 11, R. A. 18th March, 1805.

THE first act for making this canal, authorized the subscribers, who were incorporated under the name of "The Company of Proprietors of the Canal Navigation, from Manchester to or near Ashton-under-Lyne and Oldham," to make a canal from Manchester to Fairfield, with a branch to the town of Ashton-under-Lyne, and another branch from Fairfield, to a place called New Mill, near the town of Oldharn. This act was entitled, 'An Act for making a navigable Canal, from Manchester, to or near

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'Ashton-under-Lyne and Oldham, in the county Palatine of Lancaster,' and under it the company were empowered to raise £60,000, in six hundred shares of £100 each, with further power to raise £30,000 among themselves, should the former sum be insufficient; or they may raise the same by mortgage of the tolls and duties.

In the following year the company applied again to parliament, and obtained an act, entitled, 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Canal Navigation from Manchester, to or near Ashton-under-Lyne, and Oldham, to extend the said Canal from a place called Clayton Demesne, in the township of Droylsden, in the parish of Manchester aforesaid, to a place on the Turnpike-Road in Heat on Norris, leading between Manchester and Stockport, opposite to the House known by the Sign of the Three Boars' Heads, and from, or nearly from, a place called Taylor's Barn, in the township of Reddish, to Denton, at a place called Beat Bank, adjoining the Turnpike-Road leading between Stockport and Ashton-under-Lyne; and also from the intended Aqueduct Bridge, at or near a place called Waterhouses, in the parish of Ashton-under-Lyne aforesaid, to a place called Stoke Leach, at Hollinwood, in the township of Oldham aforesaid;' under this act, they were authorized, in addition to the main line and branches above-mentioned, to make a branch from Clayton to near the town of Stockport; another branch from the last-mentioned branch, to the River Tame, near Beat Bank: and one other branch from the aqueduct over the Medlock near Waterhouses, to Hollinwood. Of those intended works, the branch to Beat Bank alone remains unexecuted. By this act, the company were authorized to raise an additional sum of £30,000, in shares, among themselves. After having executed a considerable portion of the works, which they were authorized to do, under the two preceding acts, and having expended the several sums of money which they were empowered to raise, the proprietors found it necessary again to apply to parliament for further powers, when they obtained a third act, entitled, 'An Act to enable the Company of Proprietors of the Canal Navigation from Manchester, to or near Ashton-under-Lyne and Oldham, to finish and complete the same, and the several Cuts and other Works authorized to be made and done by

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them, by the several Acts passed for that Purpose, and for amending the said Acts, and granting to the said Company further and other Powers.' By this act they were empowered to raise a further sum of £30,000, by mortgage of the canal and tolls, or on promissory notes under the common seal of the company, to be repaid in five years, or in default, the holders of the notes were to have the option of becoming shareholders to the same amount.

This canal commences on the eastern side of the town of Manchester, at the end of Dale Street, and near to Piccadilly: thence passing through the suburbs, it crosses the River Medlock; thence to near Clayton, where the Stockport Branch commences. From Clayton the canal proceeds to the village of Fairfield, where the main line terminates, as described in the act, at a distance from Manchester of three miles and three quarters, and with a rise of 162 feet 6 inches, by eighteen locks. From Fairfield there is a branch to the Huddersfield Canal, at the Duckenfield Aqueduct, near the town of Ashton-under-Lyne. This branch is a little more than two miles and a half, and is level throughout. There is, also, a branch to Waterhouses, from Fairfield, where the canal again crosses the Medlock, by an aqueduct, after it has passed through a tunnel of considerable extent. This branch is in length two miles and a half, and is upon the same level as the Ashton Branch. From the aqueduct the branch is continued to Hollinwood, and from thence by the Werneth Colliery Company, to their extensive works near to Oldham. The length from the aqueduct, at Waterhouses, to Hollinwood, is rather more than one mile and three quarters; and the extension to the collieries is one mile. The branch from the aqueduct rises 83 feet, by means of eight locks. From the Hollinwood Branch, one-eighth of a mile from the aqueduct, is a collateral cut to Fairbottom Colliery, of little more than a mile in length, and level. The branch from Clayton leaves the main line between tise tenth and eleventh lock from its commencernent, and passing by Gaston and Reddish, terminates at Lancashire Hill, on the high-road from Manchester to Stockport, and but half a mile from the latter place.

In the town and suburbs of Manchester, several collateral cuts and basins, have been made from this canal to the various wharfs, quays, and manufactories; thus affording increased facilities to the

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trade of this populous and important town and neighbourhood; amongst which, we may enumerate one, a quarter of a mile in length, which proceeds from the west side of Great Ancoats Street, across Mill Street, to Kirby Street, and from which three collateral cuts proceed. A short distance further, on the line of canal, there is another cut, nearly a quarter of a mile in length, which crosses Pollard Street, to the back of the large factories which front into Great Ancoats Street. These short cuts are all on one level.

The canal and branches are made 31 feet wide at top and 15 at the bottom, and in depth 5 feet. The locks are 70 feet long and 7 feet wide.

TONNAGE RATES ALLOWED BY THE FIRST ACT.

For Lime, Limestone, Dung, Manure, Clay, Sand and Gravel ½d per Ton, per Mile.
Coals, Cannel Coal, Stone, and other Minerals, not passing through Locks 1d ditto. ditto.
On the same, passing through Locks 2½d ditto. ditto.
On Timber, and other Goods, not passing through Locks 1d ditto. ditto.
On the same passing through Locks 1½d ditto, ditto.

By the act of the 38th George III. cap. 32, the proprietors are allowed the following

RATES OF WHARFAGE.

For Coal, Lime, Limestone, Clay, Iron, Iron-stone, Timber, Stone, Brick, Tile, Slate, Flag, Sand and Gravel 1d per Ton.
On all other Goods 3d ditto.
If such Goods remain more than Three Days ½d ditto.
If more than Ten Days 1d ditto.

By the act, entitled, 'An Act for amending the several Acts passed for making, extending,finishing, and completing the Canal Navigation from Manchester, to or near Ashton-under-Lyne and Oldham, and the several Cuts and other Works authorized to be made and done by the Company of Proprietors of the said Canal Navigation, and for granting to the said Company further and other Powers,' the proprietors are allowed the following

ADDITIONAL RATES.

For every Boat, passing a Lock, laden with Lime or Limestone 2d.
For Wharfage of such Goods as shall not have paid the Company Two.pence, per Ton, Tonnage 1d.

In the preamble of the last act, relating to this navigation, entitled, 'An Act for enabling the Company of Proprietors of the

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'Canal Navigation from Manchester, to or near Ashton-under-Lyne and Oldham, more effectually to provide for the discharge of their Debts, and to complete the said Canal, and the Cuts and Works relating thereto,' it is stated that the company have raised the several sums of £60,000, and p30,000, which they were empowered to do under the act of 32nd George III.; also the further sum of £30,000, granted under the act of 33rd George III.; also the sum of £29,977, 17s. in part of the sum of £30,000, which they were empowered to raise, under the act of 38th George III.; also the further sum of £8,677, in part of the further sum of £20,000, granted under the powers of the act of 40th George III. It is further stated, that the company have expended all the monies they have been enabled to raise, amounting to £158,654, 17s. and that they have contracted debts to a large amount. By this act, they are, therefore, empowered to raise a further sum of £40,000, over and above the several sums already granted, amounting to £170,000, to enable them to discharge such debts and complete their works. The last-mentioned sum of £40,000 to be raised by creating new and additional shares, or by calls, on original shareholders, of sums not exceeding £10 per share at each call.

This canal connects the towns of Manchester and Ashton-under-Lyne; and by the Huddersfield Canal, it has communication with that town, Saddleworth, and the populous clothing districts in that part of Yorkshire, and is a portion of one of the lines of inland navigation, which connects the Irish Sea with the German Ocean; on the one hand through the Huddersfield and Sir John Ramsden's Canals, the Calder and Hebble and Aire and Calder Navigations, to the port of Goole, and froln thence by the Rivers Ouse and Humber to the port of Kingston-upon Hull; and on the other hand, by entering the Rochdale Canal, near its junction with the Duke of Bridgewater's Canal, and by that navigation to Runcorn, and from thence, by the River Mersey, to Liverpool.

The town Qf Manchester derives considerable advantage by the facility with which this canal and branches supply it with stone and coal at an easy rate; an immense quantity of the latter article, in addition to what is required for ordinary purposes, being in daily requisition for innumerable steam engines in use in the various manufactories.

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AVON RIVER.

17 Charles II. Cap. 12, Royal Assent 2nd March, 1664.

This river has its source three miles east of the town of Devizes, in Wiltshire, and after passing Park Shipton, and Rushall, it takes a southerly course along the east-end of Salisbury Plain, passing Enford Priory, Syrencot House, and the town of Amesbury; and two lfliles to the west of Stonehenge, it proceeds by Lake House, and the ruins of Old Sarum, to New Sarum, or Salisbury, where its stream is considerably augmented, by being united with the little Rivers Wily, the Nadder, and the Bourne. From Salisbury, its course is nearly south, through a delightful country, to the town of Fording Bridge, thence to Ringwood, and to Christchurch Bay, where it falls into the sea.

This river was made navigable, from Christchurch to Salisbury, under the powers of an act of the 17th Charles II. entitled, 'An Act for making the River Avon navigable from Christchurch to the city of New Sarum,' but the whole of the works having been swept away by a flood, soon after its completion, it was suffered to continue in that ruinous condition until the year 1771, when the celebrated Brindley surveyed its course, and recommended a new canal to be cut parallel with the river.

Though this suggestion of Mr. Brindley's was not carried into execution, some repairs of the old works were commenced; these, however, were so inefficient, as to give rise to the scheme of a canal from Southampton to Salisbury.

When the act was obtained for the above scheme, the River Avon, as a navigation, was abandoned; and it is now navigable only as a tide river, free of toll, for very small vessels only, for the distance of two miles from the sea, with 5½ feet water at spring tides. At other times, the bar, at the entrance of Christchurch Harbour, is an insurmountable obstacle, which may be furrther inferred from the circumstance that there are but four small vessels belonging to Christchurch.

The length of the original navigation, to Salisbury, was thirty-six miles, viz. from Christchurch to Ringwood, thirteen miles and a half; from thence to Fording Bridge, seven miles and a half; and from thence to Salisbury, fifteen miles.

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AVON RIVER.

24 George II. Cap. 39, Royal Assent 22nd May, 1751.

33 George III. Cap. 23, Royal Assent 30th April, 1793.

This River Avon commences a mile west of Warwick, where the Rivers Leame and Dove (having previously received the waters of the Sow and Watergall) unite, and take the name of Avon. From the junction of these rivers, the Avon runs close to Warwick, (the county town), washing the walls of the castle, and passing through the princely grounds attached to the same, it takes a circuitous course by The Hill, Charlecote House, Alveston House, and Welcombe, to Stratford-upon-Avon, where it first becomes navigable. A mile from Stratford, it is the boundary between Gloucester and Warwick for about a mile in length; from thence its course continues through the county of Warwick, for the distance of a mile, and again becomes the boundary of Gloucester and Warwick, to Binton Bridges, to which place, from Stratford, the distance is five miles and one-eighth. From Binton Bridges, the Avon is still the county boundary, to Grange: it then passes through a portion of Warwick, to within three quarters of a mile of the junction with the Arrow River, where it again divides the counties of Warwick and Gloucester. The distance from Binton Bridges to the Arrow River is five miles and three quarters. From the Arrow Mouth, the Avon is the division for a mile and a half between Warwickshire and Worcestershire, when it enters the latter county, passing Offenham, to the bridge, at the town of Evesham. The distance from the mouth of the River Arrow, to the latter place, is six miles and a half. From Evesham Bridge, the river almost makes the circuit of the town; then proceeds, in a north-westerly direction, by the Manor-House, and Cracombe House, and by the villages of Fladbury and Wyre Piddle, to the bridge at the town of Pershore. The distance from the latter place to Evesham Bridge is eleven miles and three quarters. From Pershore, to Eckington Bridge, the river makes two or three considerable bends, so that though the distance by the river, between these places, is six miles and a half yet, by a straight line, it is only two miles and a half. From Eckirigton Bridge, the river

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takes a southerly direction, passing Breedon, a little before which, it becomes the boundary between Gloucester and Worcester, and continues to be so to the town of Tewkesbury, where it falls into the River Severn, being in distance, from Eckington Bridge, seven miles and three quarters, and the total distance from Stratford-upon-Avon to the Severn is forty-three miles and three-eighths.

In the preamble of the first act relating to this river, we learn that, for a considerable time previous, it had been navigated, from Stratford, to its junction with the Severn; but that in consequence of frequent disputes between the proprietors of the navigation, and those using the navigation, it became necessary to apply to parliament for an act which should determine the amount of rates and duties to be paid.

The following rates have been paid ever since the river became navigable, and are still received, in addition to the rates which the proprietors of the navigation are empowered to collect, under the powers of the 24th George II.

ANCIENT TOLLS.

For every Barge passing through Tewkesbury Sluice, or Lock, into the Severn 6d.
For every Boat, ditto. ditto, ditto 3d.
For every Boat, (except Pleasure Boats), passing through Evesham Sluice 6d.
For every Boat, Barge, or Vessel, passing up or down the said River-for the setting and drawing ofevery Wear, and at every Wear upon the said River 6d.

The following act, 24th George II. cap. 39, 22nd May, 1751, entitled, 'An Act for the better regulating the Navigation of the River Avon, running through the counties of Warwick, Worcester,and Gloucester, and for ascertaining the Rates of Water Carriage upon the said River,' empowers the proprietors of the navigation to demand the following rates of tonnage:-

TONNAGE RATES AND TOLLS.

Wine, Cider, or Merchants' Goods, of every kind Rateage per Ton,in Column marked (*)
Wheat, Barley, Malt, Beans, Peas, Oats,Maslin, Linseed, Cutlings, Clover, Meal and Flour per Wey, dittomarked (+)
Cast, or Pig Iron, Brick, Stone, Lime, Coopers', Carpenters', Wheelwrights', and other Timber, Boards and Firewood per Ton, ditto. marked (±)
Coal, of every Kind ditto, ditto. marked (§)
Bar Iron, Lead, Polished Stone, and all other Things, not particularly specified ditto, ditto. marked (II)

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Jim Shead Waterways Photographer & Writer
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