Jim Shead Waterways Photographer & Writer
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Jim Shead's Waterways Information

An encyclopedia of the canals and rivers of England and Wales, including historical data, provided by Jim Shead, Waterways Writer and Photographer.

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Featured Pages

Birmingham Canal Museum Do we need one can we get one? Have a look and complete the survey to give your views. If you are organizing a UK canal or river event that you would like added to this list please let me know.

Today's Featured Waterway Photo

Barmby-on-the-Marsh Village Barrage
For more information see River Derwent.

The Boat Listing is now hosted by CanalPlanAC. Please update your Favourites/Bookmarks to http://canalplan.org.uk/boats/

For more information about the Boat Listing see About the Boat Listing

If you are a newcomer to the subject, or this web site, you may want to start with my Introduction pages. These give an introduction to this website, the UK Waterways System, its history and to inland boating on canals or rivers.

Escape from Microsoft - my experiences with Linux.

Now it's easier to buy on-line when you

Enter the Waterways Shopping Center

Books, videos, DVDs and links to other canal shopping sites.

For non-waterway travel photographs see www.jim-shead.net

I am also webmaster for the following waterways sites Railway & Canal Historical Society
The Association of Nene River Clubs
House of York

All about the Inland Waterways Association (IWA) click here

Quote of the day No 185

Monday 22 September 2014

Before canal tunnels were needed, the art had been learned in mining and mine drainage. With only that geological knowledge which a few trial borings could give them, engineers worked largely on hit or miss, and sometimes they missed. The first task was to stake out over the hill an exactly straight line, to mark the course of the tunnel. Then, because tunnelling would almost certainly reveal springs of water, a stream had to be found below the proposed line, and a channel made from it to a point below the mouth of the tunnel. Then a start would be made on driving a separate small drainage heading beneath the actual line. Should water be found during excavation, a side-heading would be driven towards its source to carry the water into the heading below the tunnel works, and so away to the stream.

Simultaneously with driving the heading, shafts about 8 ft in diameter and 150 yd apart would be dug from the surface of the hill above to intersect the centre of the main tunnel line. These shafts were often dug after the manner of wells, by steining the shaft—that is, building a few feet of brickwork upon a curb, and then excavating from underneath the curb and letting the steining sink, building fresh brickwork on it as it did so. If strong springs were struck, steam pumping engines might have to be used, as at Standedge. Excavated material could be drawn up the shafts by horse gins, and bricks for lining, wooden centres, and other things needed by the tunnellers, sent down. Such a shaft also provided ventilation to the workings, sails being erected at the top to direct the wind downwards, and the shaft being divided to provide both up and down draughts. Updraught could be helped by a fire lit underneath one half of the shaft.

Charles Hadfield - The Canal Age

For more information about these daily quotations see About the Quote of the Day.

Bantam Tug for Sale Has brand new wheelhouse see separate web page for details.

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Jim Shead Waterways Photographer & Writer
Text and photographs copyright of Jim Shead.
Home Introduction Waterways List Waterways Map Links Books DVD Articles Photo Gallery
Features Contact me Glossary Boats Events List History Local Waterways Help Photo List